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Bai Hui Chen, Ji Hyeon Ahn, Joon Ha Park, Minah Song, Hyunjung Kim, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae Chul Lee, Young-Myeong Kim, In Koo Hwang, Dae Won Kim, Choong-Hyun Lee, Bing Chun Yan, Il Jun Kang, Moo-Ho Won
Rufinamide is a novel antiepileptic drug and commonly used in the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. In the present study, we investigated effects of rufinamide on cognitive function using passive avoidance test and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus using Ki-67 (a marker for cell proliferation), doublecortin (DCX, a marker for neuroblast) and BrdU/NeuN (markers for newly generated mature neurons) immunohistochemistry in aged gerbils. Aged gerbils (24-month old) were treated with 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg rufinamide for 4 weeks...
March 13, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Sonia Spitzer, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip W J Burnet
Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic drug but since it causes significant weight gain, it is not well tolerated by psychosis patients. The prebiotic, B-GOS® , attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese subjects, and in rodents, alters central NMDA receptors and may affect serotonin receptors that are relevant in psychosis. We have determined whether B-GOS® influenced olanzapine-associated weight gain and central NMDA and serotonin receptors. Circulating acetate, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα, liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), white adipose tissue (WAT) acetate receptor GPR43, and specific faecal bacteria genera were also measured to provide mechanistic information...
March 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Daniel L Carlson, Ben Lennox Kail
Although the health-relevant resources that marriage is argued to provide vary by socioeconomic status (SES), little research has examined whether the association of marriage with psychological well-being varies by SES. Focusing on depressive symptoms as an outcome and using a two-stage Heckit procedure with multilevel modeling, results from analyses of four waves of data (n = 4340 person-waves) from the American Changing Lives Survey (ACL) shows that differences in depressive symptoms between never-married and married adults varies by adjusted household income...
March 2018: Social Science Research
Ben Lennox Kail, Amy Spring, Matt Gayman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Laura Fedele, Joseph Newcombe, Maya Topf, Alasdair Gibb, Robert J Harvey, Trevor G Smart
Genetic and bioinformatic analyses have identified missense mutations in GRIN2B encoding the NMDA receptor GluN2B subunit in autism, intellectual disability, Lennox Gastaut and West Syndromes. Here, we investigated several such mutations using a near-complete, hybrid 3D model of the human NMDAR and studied their consequences with kinetic modelling and electrophysiology. The mutants revealed reductions in glutamate potency; increased receptor desensitisation; and ablation of voltage-dependent Mg2+ block. In addition, we provide new views on Mg2+ and NMDA channel blocker binding sites...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Jun-Ge Liang, Nam-Young Kim, Ara Ko, Heung Dong Kim, Dongpyo Lee
Corpus callosotomy (CC) is an effective palliative surgical treatment for patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS). However, research on the long-term functional effects of CC is sparse. We aimed to investigate these effects and their associated clinical conditions over the two years after CC. Long-term clinical EEG recordings of 30 patients with LGS who had good and bad seizure outcome after CC were collected and retrospectively studied. It was found that CC caused brain network 'hubs' to shift from paramedian to lateral regions in the good-recovery group, which reorganized the brain network into a more homogeneous state...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tim Kirkpatrick, Charlotte Lennox, Rod Taylor, Rob Anderson, Michael Maguire, Mark Haddad, Susan Michie, Christabel Owens, Graham Durcan, Alex Stirzaker, William Henley, Caroline Stevenson, Lauren Carroll, Cath Quinn, Sarah Louise Brand, Tirril Harris, Amy Stewart, Roxanne Todd, Sarah Rybczynska-Bunt, Rebecca Greer, Mark Pearson, Jenny Shaw, Richard Byng
INTRODUCTION: The 'Engager' programme is a 'through-the-gate' intervention designed to support prisoners with common mental health problems as they transition from prison back into the community. The trial will evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Engager intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The study is a parallel two-group randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation to either: (a) the Engager intervention plus standard care (intervention group) or (b) standard care alone (control group) across two investigation centres (South West and North West of England)...
February 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Kenneth A Myers, Ingrid E Scheffer, John S Archer
BACKGROUND: Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy (HHE) involves infantile-onset acute hemiconvulsive febrile status epilepticus with subsequent unilateral cerebral atrophy and hemiparesis. Chronic epilepsy later develops, typically involving refractory focal seizures; however, the underlying pathophysiology of this epilepsy is not well understood. PATIENT: We present a boy who had a typical acute presentation of HHE at 23 months, but an unusual evolution to chronic epilepsy in which the initially unaffected hemisphere was significantly abnormal...
February 16, 2018: Brain & Development
Francesco Brigo, Simona Lattanzi, Giorgia Giussani, Laura Tassi, Nicola Pietrafusa, Carlo Andrea Galimberti, Raffaele Nardone, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Oriano Mecarelli
Wikipedia is the most commonly accessed source of health information by both healthcare professionals and the lay public worldwide. We aimed to evaluate information-seeking behavior of Internet users searching the Italian Wikipedia for articles related to epilepsy and its treatment. Using Pageviews Analysis, we assessed the total and mean monthly views of articles from the Italian Wikipedia devoted to epilepsy, epileptic syndromes, seizure type, and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from January 1, 2015 to October 31, 2017...
February 14, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Maria Lennox, Marleen F Westerveld, David Trembath
AIMS: To compare students' oral language proficiency on sentence- versus text-level tasks at school entry and following tier 1 intervention in their first year of formal schooling. METHODS: 104 students participated in this study. Participants were part of a broader longitudinal study and were enrolled at 3 low socioeconomic, linguistically diverse Australian primary schools. Tasks were administered to all students at the beginning and end of the school year. Performance on the sentence-level task, the Renfrew Action Picture Test (RAPT), was analysed for information and grammar as per the test manual...
February 13, 2018: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
Johann Sebastián Ortiz de la Rosa, Lady Diana Ladino, Paula Juliana Rodríguez, María Camila Rueda, Juan Pablo Polanía, Angie Catalina Castañeda
PURPOSE: Lacosamide, is one of the newer antiepileptic drug approved for focal drug-resistant epilepsy as an add-on treatment in patients older than 16 years. However, there is growing evidence of its use, safety and efficacy in children. We aim to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide in focal and generalized drug-resistant epilepsy and refractory status epilepticus in the pediatric population. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, Google Scholar and Scielo from January 2008 to January 2017...
February 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Anne E Mattingly, Nachiket Kamatkar, Bradley R Borlee, Joshua D Shrout
Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits flagellar-mediated swimming in liquid and swarming on hydrated surfaces under diverse nutrient conditions. Prior studies have implicated a phosphodiesterase, DipA, in regulating these flagella-mediated motilities, but collectively, the necessity for DipA was unclear. In this study, we find that the media composition conditionally constrains the influence of DipA on flagellar motility. We show that DipA exhibits more influence on minimal media supplemented with glutamate or glucose where flagellar motility was negated for the dipA mutant...
February 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
L Lennox, L Maher, J Reed
BACKGROUND: Improvement initiatives offer a valuable mechanism for delivering and testing innovations in healthcare settings. Many of these initiatives deliver meaningful and necessary changes to patient care and outcomes. However, many improvement initiatives fail to sustain to a point where their full benefits can be realised. This has led many researchers and healthcare practitioners to develop frameworks, models and tools to support and monitor sustainability. This work aimed to identify what approaches are available to assess and influence sustainability in healthcare and to describe the different perspectives, applications and constructs within these approaches to guide their future use...
February 9, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Kehmia Titanji, Aswani Vunnava, Antonina Foster, Anandi N Sheth, Jeffrey L Lennox, Andrea Knezevic, Neeta Shenvi, Kirk A Easley, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, M Neale Weitzmann
OBJECTIVE: Higher incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis underlie increased rates of fragility fracture in HIV infection. B cells are a major source of osteoprotegerin (OPG), an inhibitor of the key osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). We previously showed that higher B-cell RANKL/OPG ratio contributes to HIV-induced bone loss. T-cell OPG production in humans, however, remains undefined and the contribution of T-cell OPG and RANKL to HIV-induced bone loss has not been explored...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Mateusz Makuch, Robert Wilson, Adam Al-Diwani, James Varley, Anne-Katrin Kienzler, Jennifer Taylor, Antonio Berretta, Darren Fowler, Belinda Lennox, M Isabel Leite, Patrick Waters, Sarosh R Irani
Introduction N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-antibody encephalitis is mediated by IgG-autoantibodies directed against the NR1-subunit of the NMDAR. Around 20% of patients have an underlying ovarian teratoma, and the condition responds to early immunotherapies and ovarian teratoma removal. However, despite clear therapeutic relevance, mechanisms of NR1-IgG production and the contribution of germinal center B cells to NR1-IgG levels are unknown. Methods Clinical data and longitudinal paired serum NR1-reactive IgM and IgG levels from ten patients with NMDAR-antibody encephalitis were determined...
February 6, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Sophia Varadkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2018: Lancet
Elizabeth A Thiele, Eric D Marsh, Jacqueline A French, Maria Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska, Selim R Benbadis, Charuta Joshi, Paul D Lyons, Adam Taylor, Claire Roberts, Kenneth Sommerville
BACKGROUND: Patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a rare, severe form of epileptic encephalopathy, are frequently treatment resistant to available medications. No controlled studies have investigated the use of cannabidiol for patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol as an add-on anticonvulsant therapy in this population of patients. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial done at 24 clinical sites in the USA, the Netherlands, and Poland, we investigated the efficacy of cannabidiol as add-on therapy for drop seizures in patients with treatment-resistant Lennox-Gastaut syndrome...
January 25, 2018: Lancet
Alison T Lennox, Stefanie L Coburn, John A Leech, Elisa M Heidrich, Thomas R Kleyman, Sally E Wenzel, Joseph M Pilewski, Timothy E Corcoran, Mike M Myerburg
Allergic airway disease is known to cause significant morbidity due to impaired mucociliary clearance, however the mechanism that leads to the mucus dysfunction is not entirely understood. Interleukin 13 (IL-13), a key mediator of Type 2 (T2) inflammation, profoundly alters the ion transport properties of airway epithelium. However, these electrophysiological changes cannot explain the thick, tenacious airway mucus that characterizes the clinical phenotype. Here we report that IL-13 dramatically increases the airway surface liquid (ASL) viscosity in cultured primary human bronchial epithelial cells and thereby inhibits mucus clearance...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Albert M Anderson, William R Tyor, Mark J Mulligan, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Jeffrey L Lennox, Scott L Letendre
New tools are needed to understand HIV central nervous system involvement. In this brief report, we tested cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 15 study participants for p24 antigen using a high sensitivity assay. There was a strong correlation trend between CSF p24 concentration and worse neuropsychological performance.
January 29, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
S Matricardi, F Darra, A Spalice, C Basti, E Fontana, B Dalla Bernardina, M Elia, L Giordano, P Accorsi, R Cusmai, P De Liso, A Romeo, F Ragona, T Granata, D Concolino, M Carotenuto, P Pavone, D Pruna, P Striano, S Savasta, A Verrotti
OBJECTIVE: To define the electroclinical phenotype and long-term outcomes in a cohort of patients with inv dup (15) syndrome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The electroclinical data of 45 patients (25 males) affected by inv dup (15) and seizures were retrospectively analysed, and long-term follow-up of epilepsy was evaluated. RESULTS: Epilepsy onset was marked by generalized seizures in 53% of patients, epileptic spasms in 51%, focal seizures in 26%, atypical absences in 11% and epileptic falls in 9%...
January 23, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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