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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#1
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768152/effect-of-cannabidiol-on-drop-seizures-in-the-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#2
Orrin Devinsky, Anup D Patel, J Helen Cross, Vicente Villanueva, Elaine C Wirrell, Michael Privitera, Sam M Greenwood, Claire Roberts, Daniel Checketts, Kevan E VanLandingham, Sameer M Zuberi
BACKGROUND: Cannabidiol has been used for treatment-resistant seizures in patients with severe early-onset epilepsy. We investigated the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol added to a regimen of conventional antiepileptic medication to treat drop seizures in patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe developmental epileptic encephalopathy. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 30 clinical centers, we randomly assigned patients with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (age range, 2 to 55 years) who had had two or more drop seizures per week during a 28-day baseline period to receive cannabidiol oral solution at a dose of either 20 mg per kilogram of body weight (20-mg cannabidiol group) or 10 mg per kilogram (10-mg cannabidiol group) or matching placebo, administered in two equally divided doses daily for 14 weeks...
May 17, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761022/ketogenic-diet-effects-on-52-children-with-pharmacoresistant-epileptic-encephalopathy-a-clinical-prospective-study
#3
Qiong Wu, Hua Wang, Yu Ying Fan, Jun Mei Zhang, Xue Yan Liu, Xiu Ying Fang, Feng Hua Yang, Qing Jun Cao, Ying Qi
Objective: To evaluate the clinical impact of ketogenic diet (KD) on children with pharmacoresistant epileptic encephalopathy. Methods: In all, 52 children with pharmacoresistant epileptic encephalopathy that diagnosed in our hospital from July 2012 to June 2015 were selected, including West syndrome 38 cases, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome 7 cases, Doose Syndrome 1 case, and Dravet syndrome 6 cases, and the effect, compliance, adverse reactions, electroencephalogram (EEG), and cognitive function were analyzed...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754102/early-psychological-interventions-for-posttraumatic-stress-depression-and-anxiety-after-traumatic-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Melita J Giummarra, Alyse Lennox, Gezelle Dali, Beth Costa, Belinda J Gabbe
The psychological impacts of injury have significant long-term implications on injury recovery. This review examined the effectiveness of interventions delivered within three months of injury on reducing the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression symptoms. A systematic search of seven databases (PsycINFO, Medline, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane Library) identified 15,224 records. 212 full-text articles were retrieved, 26 studies were included in narrative synthesis, and 12 studies with lower risk of bias were included in meta-analyses...
May 5, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746397/impact-of-drug-interactions-on-clobazam-and-n-desmethylclobazam-concentrations-in-pediatric-patients-with-epilepsy
#5
Gabrielle R Russell, Stephanie J Phelps, Chasity M Shelton, James W Wheless
BACKGROUND: Clobazam (CLB) is approved as adjunctive treatment for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients ≥2 years of age. It is converted to an active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam (NCLB) by CYP3A4, which is then broken down to an inactive metabolite by CYP2C19. This study characterizes the impact of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 drug interactions on CLB and NCLB serum concentrations (Cp) and concentration/dose (Cp/D) ratios in pediatric patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review including patients >1 month of age, who received CLB between April 2012 and March 2017...
May 4, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740868/de-novo-gain-of-function-variants-in-kcnt2-as-a-novel-cause-of-developmental-and-epileptic-encephalopathy
#6
Paolo Ambrosino, Maria Virginia Soldovieri, Thomas Bast, Peter D Turnpenny, Sabine Uhrig, Saskia Biskup, Miriam Döcker, Thilo Fleck, Ilaria Mosca, Laura Manocchio, Nunzio Iraci, Maurizio Taglialatela, Johannes R Lemke
Variants in several potassium channel genes have been found in developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE). We report two females with de novo variants in KCNT2 with West syndrome followed by Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or with DEE with migrating focal seizures. After in vitro analysis suggested quinidine-responsive gain-of-function effects, we treated one of the girls with quinidine add-on therapy and achieved marked clinical improvements. This suggests that the new spectrum of KCNT2-related disorders do not only share similar phenotypic and in vitro functional and pharmacological features with previously known KCNT1-related disorders but also represents a further example for possible precision medicine approaches...
May 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734048/the-role-of-alcohol-in-constructing-gender-class-identities-among-young-women-in-the-age-of-social-media
#7
Jemma Lennox, Carol Emslie, Helen Sweeting, Antonia Lyons
Research suggests young women view drinking as a pleasurable aspect of their social lives but that they face challenges in engaging in a traditionally 'masculine' behaviour whilst maintaining a desirable 'femininity'. Social network sites such as Facebook make socialising visible to a wide audience. This paper explores how young people discuss young women's drinking practices, and how young women construct their identities through alcohol consumption and its display on social media. We conducted 21 friendship-based focus groups (both mixed and single sex) with young adults aged 18-29 years and 13 individual interviews with a subset of focus group respondents centred on their Facebook practices...
May 4, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732109/selective-electrochemical-generation-of-benzylic-radicals-enabled-by-ferrocene-based-electron-transfer-mediators
#8
Alastair J J Lennox, Jordan E Nutting, Shannon S Stahl
The generation and intermolecular functionalisation of carbon-centred radicals has broad potential synthetic utility. Herein, we show that benzylic radicals may be generated electrochemically from benzylboronate derivatives at low electrode potentials ( ca. -0.3 V vs. Cp2 Fe0/+ ) via single electron oxidation. Use of a catalytic quantity of a ferrocene-based electron-transfer mediator is crucial to achieve successful radical functionalisation and avoid undesirable side reactions arising from direct electrochemical oxidation or from the use of stoichiometric ferrocenium-based oxidants...
January 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720501/bilirubin-is-inversely-associated-with-cardiovascular-disease-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-individuals-in-vacs-veterans-aging-cohort-study
#9
Vincent C Marconi, Meredith S Duncan, Kaku So-Armah, Vincent Lo Re, Joseph K Lim, Adeel A Butt, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Charles W Alcorn, Jeffrey Lennox, Joshua A Beckman, Amy Justice, Matthew Freiberg
BACKGROUND: Bilirubin may protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD) by reducing oxidative stress. Whether elevated bilirubin reduces the risk of CVD events among HIV+ individuals and if this differs from uninfected individuals remain unclear. We assessed whether bilirubin independently predicted the risk of CVD events among HIV+ and uninfected participants in VACS (Veterans Aging Cohort Study). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective cohort study using VACS participants free of baseline CVD...
May 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707978/the-use-of-process-mapping-in-healthcare-quality-improvement-projects
#10
Grazia Antonacci, Julie E Reed, Laura Lennox, James Barlow
Introduction Process mapping provides insight into systems and processes in which improvement interventions are introduced and is seen as useful in healthcare quality improvement projects. There is little empirical evidence on the use of process mapping in healthcare practice. This study advances understanding of the benefits and success factors of process mapping within quality improvement projects. Methods Eight quality improvement projects were purposively selected from different healthcare settings within the UK's National Health Service...
January 1, 2018: Health Services Management Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694964/associations-of-pulse-and-blood-pressure-with-hippocampal-volume-by-apoe-and-cognitive-phenotype-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-adni
#11
Julius S Ngwa, Thomas V Fungwe, Oyonumo Ntekim, Joanne S Allard, Sheree M Johnson, Chimene Castor, Lennox Graham, Sheeba Nadarajah, Richard F Gillum, Thomas O Obisesan
BACKGROUND: It is increasingly evident that high blood pressure can promote reduction in global and regional brain volumes. While these effects may preferentially affect the hippocampus, reports are inconsistent. METHODS: Using data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we examined the relationships of hippocampal volume to pulse pressure (PPR) and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure according to apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 positivity and cognitive status...
April 25, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691835/rufinamide-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-epilepsy
#12
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often requiring treatment with a combination of AEDs. In this review, we summarised the current evidence regarding rufinamide, a novel anticonvulsant medication, which, as a triazole derivative, is structurally unrelated to any other currently used anticonvulsant medication, when used as an add-on treatment for refractory epilepsy...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685703/injury-among-adolescents-with-intellectual-disability-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
David White, Lyn McPherson, Nicholas Lennox, Robert S Ware
INTRODUCTION: Injury is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in adolescents worldwide, and injury rates have been shown to be higher among youth with intellectual disability. Despite this, injury among adolescents with intellectual disability remains poorly investigated. This study aimed to identify characteristics associated with injury among adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. METHODS: A cohort of adolescents with intellectual disability living in southern Queensland, Australia was investigated prospectively between January 2006 and June 2010...
April 12, 2018: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683657/enhancement-of-co-2-uptake-and-selectivity-in-a-metal-organic-framework-by-the-incorporation-of-thiophene-functionality
#14
Vsevolod A Bolotov, Konstantin A Kovalenko, Denis G Samsonenko, Xue Han, Xinran Zhang, Gemma L Smith, Laura McCormick, Simon J Teat, Sihai Yang, Matthew J Lennox, Alice Henley, Elena Besley, Vladimir P Fedin, Danil N Dybtsev, Martin Schröder
The complex [Zn2 (tdc)2 dabco] (H2 tdc = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid; dabco = 1,4-diazabicyclooctane) shows a remarkable increase in carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake and CO2 /dinitrogen (N2 ) selectivity compared to the nonthiophene analogue [Zn2 (bdc)2 dabco] (H2 bdc = benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid; terephthalic acid). CO2 adsorption at 1 bar for [Zn2 (tdc)2 dabco] is 67.4 cm3 ·g-1 (13.2 wt %) at 298 K and 153 cm3 ·g-1 (30.0 wt %) at 273 K. For [Zn2 (bdc)2 dabco], the equivalent values are 46 cm3 ·g-1 (9...
April 23, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672668/distinct-effects-of-apathy-and-dopamine-on-effort-based-decision-making-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Campbell Le Heron, Olivia Plant, Sanjay Manohar, Yuen-Siang Ang, Matthew Jackson, Graham Lennox, Michele T Hu, Masud Husain
Effort-based decision-making is a cognitive process crucial to normal motivated behaviour. Apathy is a common and disabling complication of Parkinson's disease, but its aetiology remains unclear. Intriguingly, the neural substrates associated with apathy also subserve effort-based decision-making in animal models and humans. Furthermore, the dopaminergic system plays a core role in motivating effortful behaviour for reward, and its dysfunction has been proposed to play a crucial role in the aetiology of apathy in Parkinson's disease...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669010/double-disadvantage-in-the-process-of-disablement-race-as-a-moderator-in-the-association-between-chronic-conditions-and-functional-limitations
#16
Ben Lennox Kail, Miles G Taylor, Nick Rogers
Objectives: This study evaluated (a) whether the association between chronic conditions and functional limitations vary by race/ethnicity, and (b) whether socioeconomic status accounted for any observed racial variation in the association between chronic conditions and functional limitations. Method: The Health and Retirement Study data were used to assess whether race/ethnicity moderated the association between chronic conditions and functional limitations, and whether education, income, and/or wealth mediated any of the observed moderation by race/ethnicity...
April 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665648/ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-male-guinea-pigs-an-efficient-model-to-investigate-myocardial-damage-in-cardiovascular-complications
#17
Divya Dasagrandhi, Arul Salomee Kamalabai R, Anusuyadevi Muthuswamy, Angela Marie Lennox, Tamilselvan Jayavelu, Vasudharani Devanathan, Jayachandran Kesavan Swaminathan
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the major problem that aggravates cardiac damage. Several established animal models fail to explain the similarity in disease mechanism and progression as seen in humans; whereas guinea pig shows high similarity in cardiovascular parameters. Hence, current study is aimed to develop an animal model using guinea pigs that may best correlate with disease mechanism of human myocardial I/R injury. Male guinea pigs were randomized into three groups: normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD) and sham; fed with respective diets for 90 days...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650966/understanding-the-adsorption-process-in-zif-8-using-high-pressure-crystallography-and-computational-modelling
#18
Claire L Hobday, Christopher H Woodall, Matthew J Lennox, Mungo Frost, Konstantin Kamenev, Tina Düren, Carole A Morrison, Stephen A Moggach
Some porous crystalline solids change their structure upon guest inclusion. Unlocking the potential of these solids for a wide variety of applications requires full characterisation of the response to adsorption and the underlying framework-guest interactions. Here, we introduce an approach to understanding gas uptake in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by loading liquefied gases at GPa pressures inside the Zn-based framework ZIF-8. An integrated experimental and computational study using high-pressure crystallography, grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and periodic DFT simulations has revealed six symmetry-independent adsorption sites within the framework and a transition to a high-pressure phase...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590326/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-zoster-vaccine-live-in-hiv-infected-adults-with-cd4-cell-counts-above-200-cells-ml-virologically-suppressed-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Constance A Benson, Janet W Andersen, Bernard J C Macatangay, Robbie B Mailliard, Charles R Rinaldo, Sarah Read, Dawn R Bozzolo, Lynette Purdue, Cheryl Jennings, Michael C Keefer, Marshall Glesby, Pablo Tebas, Amy Falk Russell, Jason Martin, Paula Annunziato, Zoran Popmihajlov, Jeffrey L Lennox
Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) risk is increased in HIV-infected persons. Live attenuated zoster vaccine (ZV) reduces HZ incidence and severity in older adults; ZV safety and immunogenicity data in HIV-infected adults are limited. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in HIV-infected adults virologically suppressed on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participants, stratified by CD4+ (200-349 or ≥350 cells/µL), were randomized 3:1 to receive ZV or placebo on day 0 and week 6...
March 26, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588970/prevalence-risk-factors-and-neurobehavioral-comorbidities-of-epilepsy-in-kenyan-children
#20
Charles J Kind, Charles R J C Newton, Symon M Kariuki
Objective: To investigate the prevalence, risk factors, clinical features, and neurobehavioral comorbidities of epilepsy and acute symptomatic seizures in school-aged children in Kilifi, Kenya. Methods: Randomly selected children (N = 11,223) were screened for epilepsy and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Those who screened positive were invited for further clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG), and neuropsychological evaluations. Prevalence was measured by dividing cases by screened population, providing Agresti-Coull confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 2017: Epilepsia Open
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