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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332073/functional-anatomy-of-basal-ganglia-circuits-with-the-cerebral-cortex-and-the-cerebellum
#1
Andreea C Bostan, Richard P Dum, Peter L Strick
The neural connections of the basal ganglia provide important insights into their function. Here, we discuss the current perspective on basal ganglia connections with the cerebral cortex and with the cerebellum. We review the evidence that the basal ganglia participate in functionally segregated circuits with motor and non-motor areas of the cerebral cortex. We then discuss the data that the basal ganglia are interconnected with the cerebellum. These results provide the anatomical substrate for basal ganglia contributions not only to the control of movement, but also to a variety of cognitive and affective functions...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#2
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331877/cerebral-changes-and-disrupted-gray-matter-cortical-networks-in-asymptomatic-older-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Jose L Cantero, Mercedes Atienza, Pascual Sanchez-Juan, Eloy Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis Vazquez-Higuera, Ana Pozueta, Andrea Gonzalez-Suarez, Eduard Vilaplana, Jordi Pegueroles, Victor Montal, Rafael Blesa, Daniel Alcolea, Alberto Lleo, Juan Fortea
The diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers is well established in Alzheimer's disease, but our current knowledge about how abnormal CSF levels affect cerebral integrity, at local and network levels, is incomplete in asymptomatic older adults. Here, we have collected CSF samples and performed structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in cognitively normal elderly as part of a cross-sectional multicenter study (SIGNAL project). To identify group differences in cortical thickness, white matter volume, and properties of structural networks, participants were split into controls (N = 20), positive amyloid-β (Aβ1-42+) (N = 19), and positive phosphorylated tau (N = 18)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331876/app-go-protein-g%C3%AE-%C3%AE-complex-signaling-mediates-a%C3%AE-degeneration-and-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models
#4
Elena Anahi Bignante, Nicolás Eric Ponce, Florencia Heredia, Juliana Musso, María C Krawczyk, Julieta Millán, Gustavo F Pigino, Nibaldo C Inestrosa, Mariano M Boccia, Alfredo Lorenzo
Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ), the proteolytic product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), might cause neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the direct involvement of APP in the mechanism of Aβ-induced degeneration in AD remains on debate. Here, we analyzed the interaction of APP with heterotrimeric Go protein in primary hippocampal cultures and found that Aβ deposition dramatically enhanced APP-Go protein interaction in dystrophic neurites. APP overexpression rendered neurons vulnerable to Aβ toxicity by a mechanism that required Go-Gβγ complex signaling and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase activation...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331727/individual-variation-in-working-memory-is-associated-with-fear-extinction-performance
#5
Daniel M Stout, Dean T Acheson, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, Dewleen G Baker, Mark A Geyer, Victoria B Risbrough
PTSD has been associated consistently with abnormalities in fear acquisition and extinction learning and retention. Fear acquisition refers to learning to discriminate between threat and safety cues. Extinction learning reflects the formation of a new inhibitory-memory that competes with a previously learned threat-related memory. Adjudicating the competition between threat memory and the new inhibitory memory during extinction may rely, in part, on cognitive processes such as working memory (WM). Despite significant shared neural circuits and signaling pathways the relationship between WM, fear acquisition, and extinction is poorly understood...
January 5, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331082/mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-2-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#6
Delia M Talos, Leah M Jacobs, Sarah Gourmaud, Carlos A Coto, Hongyu Sun, Kuei-Cheng Lim, Timothy H Lucas, Kathryn A Davis, Maria Martinez-Lage, Frances E Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic epilepsy syndrome defined by seizures and progressive neurological disabilities, including cognitive impairments, anxiety and depression. Here, human TLE specimens were investigated focusing on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2) activities in the brain, as both pathways may represent unique targets for treatment. METHODS: Surgically resected hippocampal and temporal lobe samples from therapy-resistant TLE patients were analyzed by Western blotting to quantify the expression of established mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity markers and upstream or downstream signaling pathways involving the two complexes...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329108/cracking-novel-shared-targets-between-epilepsy-and-alzheimer-s-disease-need-of-the-hour
#7
Nitika Garg, Rupa Joshi, Bikash Medhi
Epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are interconnected. It is well known that seizures are linked with cognitive impairment, and there are various shared etiologies between epilepsy and AD. The connection between hyperexcitability of neurons and cognitive dysfunction in the progression of AD or epileptogenesis plays a vital role for improving selection of treatment for both diseases. Traditionally, seizures occur less frequently and in later stages of age in patients with AD which in turn implies that neurodegeneration causes seizures...
January 12, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329060/affective-and-cognitive-reactivity-to-mood-induction-in-chronic-depression
#8
Anne Guhn, Philipp Sterzer, Friderike H Haack, Stephan Köhler
BACKGROUND: Chronic depression (CD) is strongly associated with childhood maltreatment, which has been proposed to lead to inefficient coping styles that are characterized by abnormal affective responsiveness and dysfunctional cognitive attitudes. However, while this notion forms an important basis for psychotherapeutic strategies in the treatment of CD, there is still little direct empirical evidence for a role of altered affective and cognitive reactivity in CD. The present study therefore experimentally investigated affective and cognitive reactivity to two forms of negative mood induction in CD patients versus a healthy control sample (HC)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329059/amyloid-burden-and-incident-depressive-symptoms-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Stephanie Perin, Karra D Harrington, Yen Ying Lim, Kathryn Ellis, David Ames, Robert H Pietrzak, Adrian Schembri, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Olivier Salvado, Simon M Laws, Ralph N Martins, Victor L Villemagne, Christopher C Rowe, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
BACKGROUND: Relationships between depression and Alzheimer's disease (AD) may become clearer if studied in preclinical AD where dementia is not present. METHOD: The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively, relationships between brain amyloid-β (Aβ), depressive symptoms and screen positive depression in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Inventory (GDS-15) in CN adults from the Australian Imaging Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study without depression at baseline and classified as having abnormally high (Aβ+; n = 136) or low (Aβ-; n = 449) Aβ according to positron emission tomography at 18-month intervals over 72 months...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328980/consequence-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-on-neurovascular-coupling-evoked-by-speech-syllables-in-preterm-neonates
#10
Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Guy Kongolo, Marc Fournier, Sabrina Goudjil, Fabrice Wallois
Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) is the leading cause of neurological and cognitive impairment in preterm neonates with an incidence that increases with increasing prematurity. In the present study, we tested how preterm neonates with IVH react to external stimulation (i.e. speech syllables). We compared their neural responses measured by electroencephalography (EEG), and hemodynamic responses measured by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), with those of healthy preterms. A neural response to syllables was observed in these infants, but did not induce a vascular response in contrast with healthy neonates...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327279/emotion-recognition-and-psychological-comorbidity-in-friedreich-s-ataxia
#11
Teresa Costabile, Veronica Capretti, Filomena Abate, Agnese Liguori, Francesca Paciello, Chiara Pane, Anna De Rosa, Silvio Peluso, Giuseppe De Michele, Alessandro Filla, Francesco Saccà
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive disease presenting with ataxia, corticospinal signs, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiac abnormalities. Little effort has been made to understand the psychological and emotional burden of the disease. The aim of our study was to measure patients' ability to recognize emotions using visual and non-verbal auditory hints, and to correlate this ability with psychological, neuropsychological, and neurological variables. We included 20 patients with FRDA, and 20 age, sex, and education matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 11, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327097/-clinical-and-cognitive-aspects-of-functional-psychogenic-tremor
#12
REVIEW
K E Zeuner, R Schmidt, P Schwingenschuh
Functional (psychogenic) tremor is the most common functional movement disorder. Characteristic clinical features, so called red flags, can help to make the clinical distinction of this type from other tremor disorders. The most common features include the variability of frequency and amplitude. Clinical examination should include different types of distraction including motor or cognitive tasks or testing the influence of suggestibility on tremor amplitude, frequency or direction. Patients often report sudden onset and remissions that may last for months or even years...
January 11, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325620/primary-familial-brain-calcifications
#13
Beatriz Quintáns, Joao Oliveira, María-Jesús Sobrido
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disease with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain regions. The disease usually presents as a combination of abnormal movements, cognitive and psychiatric manifestations, clinically indistinguishable from other adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders. The differential diagnosis must be established with genetic and nongenetic disorders that can also lead to calcium deposits in encephalic structures. In the past years PFBC causal mutations have been discovered in genes related to calcium phosphate homeostasis (SLC20A2, XPR1) and in genes involved with endothelial function and integrity (PDGFB, PDGFRB)...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324915/self-report-instruments-of-cognitive-failures-as-screening-tools-for-subjective-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#14
Vasileios Papaliagkas, G Papantoniou, Magda Tsolaki, Despina Moraitou
BACKGROUND: The term "Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI)" is the most widely accepted term for cognitive complaints of otherwise apparently healthy older adults. It is presently clear that SCI might be a risk factor for the development of Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia. As regards SCI measurement and potential diagnosis, several studies showed that SCI is a condition in which people score in the normal range on common tests but believe they experience cognitive decline. Hence, to assess the characteristic of the SCI subtle cognitive decline, self-report measures were developed to estimate "self-experience" of minimal decline in cognition seem the most appropriate tools...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323336/schisandrin-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-and-attenuates-a%C3%AE-deposition-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-involvement-of-adjusting-neurotransmitters-and-their-metabolite-changes-in-the-brain
#15
Bin-Bin Wei, Ming-Yan Liu, Zai-Xing Chen, Min-Jie Wei
Neurotransmitters (NTs) in the brain are involved in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Schisandrin is a major ingredient of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and has been used for the treatment of AD. In this study we examined the therapeutic effects of schisandrin in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, and correlated the beneficial effects on cognitive impairment with the adjustments in NTs and their metabolites in the mouse brains. APP/PS1 mice were treated with schisandrin (2 mg·kg-1·d-1, ip) for 2 weeks...
January 11, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321714/cavum-vergae-liability-and-steroid-treatment-manic-episode-brain-imaging-findings-and-clinical-follow-up-of-a-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-case
#16
Emre Misir, İbrahim Tolga Binbay, Bilge Targitay, Hidayet Ece Arat, Gerçek Can, Köksal Alptekin
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or Lupus is a chronic and idiopathic autoimmune connective tissue disease that involves several organs and organ systems. SLE may lead to a group of psychiatric manifestations, including delirium, anxiety disorders, cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders, and psychosis, which are caused by organic or non-organic factors. In addition, it is thought that the most common cause of neuropsychiatric lupus is corticosteroid use; central nervous system involvement and inflammatory processes also have an important role in the development of psychiatric manifestations...
December 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321361/a-novel-contiguous-deletion-involving-ndp-maob-and-efhc2-gene-in-a-patient-with-familial-norrie-disease-bilateral-blindness-and-leucocoria-without-other-deficits
#17
Bei Jia, Liping Huang, Yaoyu Chen, Siping Liu, Cuihua Chen, Ke Xiong, Lanlin Song, Yulai Zhou, Xinping Yang, Mei Zhong
Contiguous microdeletions of the Norrie disease pseudoglioma (NDP) region on chromosome Xp11.3 have been widely confirmed as contributing to the typical clinical features of Norrie disease (ND). However, the precise relation between genotype and phenotype could vary. The contiguous deletion of NDP and its neighbouring genes, MAOA/B and EFHC2, reportedly leads to syndromic clinical features such as microcephaly, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Herewe report a novel contiguous microdeletion of the NDP region containing the MAOB and EFHC2 genes,which causes eye defects but no cognitive disability...
December 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320524/patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-fatigue-present-with-depressive-symptoms-and-selected-cognitive-deficits-but-with-normal-attention-performance-and-brain-structure
#18
Roman Zenouzi, Janina von der Gablentz, Marcus Heldmann, Martin Göttlich, Christina Weiler-Normann, Marcial Sebode, Hanno Ehlken, Johannes Hartl, Anja Fellbrich, Susanne Siemonsen, Christoph Schramm, Thomas F Münte, Ansgar W Lohse
BACKGROUND: In primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) fatigue is a major clinical challenge of unknown etiology. By demonstrating that fatigue in PBC is associated with an impaired cognitive performance, previous studies have pointed out the possibility of brain abnormalities underlying fatigue in PBC. Whether structural brain changes are present in PBC patients with fatigue, however, is unclear. To evaluate the role of structural brain abnormalities in PBC patients severely affected from fatigue we, therefore, performed a case-control cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) study and correlated changes of white and grey brain matter with the cognitive and attention performance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318932/decreased-taurine-and-creatine-in-the-thalamus-may-relate-to-behavioral-impairments-in-ethanol-fed-mice-a-pilot-study-of-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#19
Su Xu, Wenjun Zhu, Yamin Wan, JiaBei Wang, Xi Chen, Liya Pi, Mary Kay Lobo, Bin Ren, Zhekang Ying, Michael Morris, Qi Cao
Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is highly prevalent, observed in up to 80% of patients with liver dysfunction. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is defined as hepatic encephalopathy with cognitive deficits and no grossly evident neurologic abnormalities. Clinical management may be delayed due to the lack of in vivo quantitative methods needed to reveal changes in brain neurobiochemical biomarkers. To gain insight into the development of alcoholic liver disease-induced neurological dysfunction (NDF), a mouse model of late-stage alcoholic liver fibrosis (LALF) was used to investigate changes in neurochemical levels in the thalamus and hippocampus that relate to behavioral changes...
January 2018: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317619/phf8-histone-demethylase-deficiency-causes-cognitive-impairments-through-the-mtor-pathway
#20
Xuemei Chen, Shuai Wang, Ying Zhou, Yanfei Han, Shengtian Li, Qing Xu, Longyong Xu, Ziqi Zhu, Youming Deng, Lu Yu, Lulu Song, Adele Pin Chen, Juan Song, Eiki Takahashi, Guang He, Lin He, Weidong Li, Charlie Degui Chen
Epigenomic abnormalities caused by genetic mutation in epigenetic regulators can result in neurodevelopmental disorders, deficiency in neural plasticity and mental retardation. As a histone demethylase, plant homeodomain finger protein 8 (Phf8) is a candidate gene for syndromal and non-specific forms of X-chromosome-linked intellectual disability (XLID). Here we report that Phf8 knockout mice displayed impaired learning and memory, and impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) without gross morphological defects...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
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