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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527230/imaging-and-neuropsychological-correlates-of-white-matter-lesions-in-different-subtypes-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review
#1
Charlene L M Lam, Jenny Yiend, Tatia M C Lee
BACKGROUND: White matter lesions (WML) are prevalent in older adults. The association between WML and cognition in different subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is inconsistent in the literature. OBJECTVES: We aim to provide a systematic review on the impact of WML in different subtypes of MCI, and discuss the recent findings on white matter plasticity. METHODS: We reviewed peer-reviewed articles from January 2011 to August 2016 and identified 12 studies investigating the association between WML and subtypes of MCI with both neuroimaging and cognitive measures...
May 13, 2017: NeuroRehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527210/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-and-clinical-progression-in-patients-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Steffen Wolfsgruber, Alexandra Polcher, Alexander Koppara, Luca Kleineidam, Lutz Frölich, Oliver Peters, Michael Hüll, Eckart Rüther, Jens Wiltfang, Wolfgang Maier, Johannes Kornhuber, Piotr Lewczuk, Frank Jessen, Michael Wagner
BACKGROUND: There is very limited data on the prevalence of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their predictive value for clinical progression in memory clinic patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of abnormal CSF biomarkers of AD and their predictive value for clinical progression in memory clinic patients with SCD in comparison to patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from the same cohort...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526935/diabetes-induced-abnormalities-of-mitochondrial-function-in-rat-brain-cortex-the-effect-of-n-3-fatty-acid-diet
#3
Maria Chomova, Maria Balazova, Jana Muchova
Diabetic encephalopathy, a proven complication of diabetes is associated with gradually developing end-organ damage in the CNS increasing the risk of stroke, cognitive dysfunction or Alzheimer's disease. This study investigated the response of rat cortical mitochondria to streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the potential for fish oil emulsion (FOE) to modulate mitochondrial function. Diabetes-induced deregulation of the respiratory chain function as a result of diminished complex I activity (CI) and cytochrome c oxidase hyperactivity was associated with attenuation of antioxidant defense of isolated cortical mitochondria, monitored by SOD activity, the thiol content, the dityrosine and protein-lipid peroxidation adduct formation...
May 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526817/myelination-of-the-brain-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-in-vivo-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#4
Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
Evidence from post-mortem, genetic, neuroimaging, and non-human animal research suggests that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormalities in brain myelin content. Brain regions implicated in this research, and in MDD more generally, include the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), insula, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We examined whether MDD is characterized by reduced myelin at the whole-brain level and in NAcc, LPFC, insula, sgACC, and mPFC...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525592/neurosyphilis-increases-hiv-associated-central-nervous-system-inflammation-but-does-not-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-hiv-infected-individuals-with-syphilis
#5
Emily L Ho, Clare L Maxwell, Shelia B Dunaway, Sharon K Sahi, Lauren C Tantalo, Sheila A Lukehart, Christina M Marra
Background: HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis have cognitive impairment. We tested the hypothesis that neurosyphilis causes cognitive impairment in HIV by amplifying HIV-related CNS inflammation. Methods: 132 HIV-infected participants enrolled in a study of CSF abnormalities in syphilis underwent the mental alternation test (MAT), venipuncture and lumbar puncture. CSF concentrations of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and neurofilament light (NFL) were determined by commercial assays...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525567/saccadic-eye-movements-and-attentional-control-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Nicolas Noiret, Nicolas Carvalho, Éric Laurent, Gilles Chopard, Mickaël Binetruy, Magali Nicolier, Julie Monnin, Eloi Magnin, Pierre Vandel
Objective: Several studies have demonstrated saccadic eye movement (SEM) abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD) when patients performed prosaccade (PS) and antisaccade (AS) tasks. Some studies have also showed that SEM abnormalities were correlated with dementia rating tests such as the Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE). Therefore, it has been suggested that SEMs could provide useful information for diagnosis. However, little is known about predictive saccades (PreS)-saccades triggered before or very quickly after stimuli appearance-and their relationships with cognition in AD...
May 19, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523540/rubinstein-taybi-syndrome-and-epigenetic-alterations
#7
Edward Korzus
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder in humans characterized by growth and psychomotor delay, abnormal gross anatomy, and mild to severe mental retardation (Rubinstein and Taybi, Am J Dis Child 105:588-608, 1963, Hennekam et al., Am J Med Genet Suppl 6:56-64, 1990). RSTS is caused by de novo mutations in epigenetics-associated genes, including the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREBBP), the gene-encoding protein referred to as CBP, and the EP300 gene, which encodes the p300 protein, a CBP homologue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523532/progressive-pathological-changes-in-neurochemical-profile-of-the-hippocampus-and-early-changes-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-tau-transgenic-mice-rtg4510
#8
Jieun Kim, In-Young Choi, Karen E Duff, Phil Lee
Tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD-tau) dementia, characterized by pathologic aggregation of the microtubule-associated tau protein and formation of neurofibrillary tangles, have been linked to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. The early detection of cerebral abnormalities and the identification of biological contributors to the continuous pathologic processes of neurodegeneration in tauopathies critically hinge on sensitive and reliable measures of biomarkers in the living brain...
May 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522792/transgenic-autoinhibition-of-p21-activated-kinase-exacerbates-synaptic-impairments-and-fronto-dependent-behavioral-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Cyril Bories, Dany Arsenault, Myriam Lemire, Cyntia Tremblay, Yves De Koninck, Frédéric Calon
Defects in p21-activated kinase (PAK) lead to dendritic spine abnormalities and are sufficient to cause cognition impairment. The decrease in PAK in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is suspected to underlie synaptic and dendritic disturbances associated with its clinical expression, particularly with symptoms related to frontal cortex dysfunction. To investigate the role of PAK combined with Aβ and tau pathologies (3xTg-AD mice) in the frontal cortex, we generated a transgenic model of AD with a deficit in PAK activity (3xTg-AD-dnPAK mice)...
May 16, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522369/electroencephalographic-monitoring-during-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-in-an-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patient-with-locked-in-state
#10
Kazuko Hayashi, Ryuhei Araki, Akiko Tanaka
Recently, the cognitive abilities of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been found to be impaired along with the neurodegeneration of motor neurons. Electroencephalography (EEG) of end-stage ALS patients has reportedly shown specific features based on neuronal network modulations, differing from EEG of other patients with cognitive failure and dementia. However, EEG of end-stage ALS patients during anaesthesia has not yet been reported. A 64-year-old male ALS patient with locked-in state (LIS), supported by tracheostomy positive-pressure ventilation (TPPV) and enteral nourishment for 9years, underwent scheduled general anaesthesia for repair of a fractured mandible...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520944/multiple-causes-of-syncope-in-the-elderly-diagnostic-outcomes-of-a-dutch-multidisciplinary-syncope-pathway
#11
Susanne C de Ruiter, Johan F H Wold, Tjeerd Germans, Jaap H Ruiter, René W M M Jansen
Aims: To assess the diagnostic outcomes of a multidisciplinary pathway for elderly syncope patients. Methods and results: Observational cohort study at a Fall and Syncope Clinic, including consecutive syncope patients aged ≥65 years between 2011 and 2014. Measurements: The sort, number, and accuracy of diagnoses resulting in syncope. Secondary outcomes: reliability of the medical history and the number of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities. The 117 included patients (72% females) had a mean age of 80 ± 6...
May 17, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518477/acute-oligodendrocyte-loss-with-persistent-white-matter-injury-in-a-third-trimester-equivalent-mouse-model-of-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#12
Jessie Newville, Carlos Fernando Valenzuela, Lu Li, Lauren L Jantzie, Lee Anna Cunningham
Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development...
May 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516430/ramelteon-improves-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-like-behaviors-exhibited-by-fatty-acid-binding-protein-3-null-mice
#13
Yasushi Yabuki, Ibuki Takahata, Kazuya Matsuo, Yuji Owada, Kohji Fukunaga
We previously reported that fatty acid-binding protein 3 (FABP3) knockout (Fabp3 (-/-)) mice exhibit abnormal dopamine-related behaviors such as enhanced dopamine D2 receptor antagonist-induced catalepsy behaviors. Here, we report that Fabp3 null mice exhibit cognitive deficits, hyperlocomotion and impaired fear extinction, and thus show post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like behaviors. Notably, chronic administration of ramelteon (1.0 mg/kg, p.o.), a melatonin receptor agonist, improved all PTSD-like behaviors tested in Fabp3 (-/-) mice...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515367/association-of-impaired-neuronal-migration-with-cognitive-deficits-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#14
Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Kimiko Deguchi, Taku Nagai, Yukiko Ito, Keitaro Yoshida, Toshihiro Endo, Seico Benner, Wei Shan, Ayako Kitazawa, Michihiko Aramaki, Kazuhiro Ishii, Minkyung Shin, Yuki Matsunaga, Kanehiro Hayashi, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama, Kenji F Tanaka, Kohichi Tanaka, Sachio Takashima, Masahiro Nakayama, Masayuki Itoh, Yukio Hirata, Barbara Antalffy, Dawna D Armstrong, Kiyofumi Yamada, Ken Inoue, Kazunori Nakajima
Many extremely preterm infants (born before 28 gestational weeks [GWs]) develop cognitive impairment in later life, although the underlying pathogenesis is not yet completely understood. Our examinations of the developing human neocortex confirmed that neuronal migration continues beyond 23 GWs, the gestational week at which extremely preterm infants have live births. We observed larger numbers of ectopic neurons in the white matter of the neocortex in human extremely preterm infants with brain injury and hypothesized that altered neuronal migration may be associated with cognitive impairment in later life...
May 18, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514831/hypericum-perforatum-extract-attenuates-behavioral-biochemical-and-neurochemical-abnormalities-in-aluminum-chloride-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-rats
#15
Zheng Cao, Fan Wang, Chunyu Xiu, Jian Zhang, Yanfei Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Aluminum, a neurotoxic metal, is considered as the pathological hallmark and contributing factor of AD. Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) is a neuroprotective agent that can prevent neurodegenerative pathologies through antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and regulating neurotransmitter release in animal model of neuropathy. The present study aimed to identify the potential neuroprotective of HPE on AlCl3-induced AD rats...
May 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514203/cost-effectiveness-of-mr-imaging-guided-strategies-for-detection-of-prostate-cancer-in-biopsy-naive-men
#16
Shivani Pahwa, Nicholas K Schiltz, Lee E Ponsky, Ziang Lu, Mark A Griswold, Vikas Gulani
Purpose To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of multiparametric diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination followed by MR imaging-guided biopsy strategies in the detection of prostate cancer in biopsy-naive men presenting with clinical suspicion of cancer for the first time. Materials and Methods A decision-analysis model was created for biopsy-naive men who had been recommended for prostate biopsy on the basis of abnormal digital rectal examination results or elevated prostate-specific antigen levels (age groups: 41-50 years, 51-60 years, and 61-70 years)...
May 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512863/defining-a-multimodal-signature-of-remote-sports-concussions
#17
Sébastien Tremblay, Yasser Iturria-Medina, José María Mateos-Pérez, Alan C Evans, Louis De Beaumont
Sports-related concussions lead to persistent anomalies of the brain structure and function that interact with the effects of normal ageing. Although post-mortem investigations have proposed a bio-signature of remote concussions, there is still no clear in vivo signature. In the current study, we characterized white matter integrity in retired athletes with a history of remote concussions by conducting a full-brain, diffusion-based connectivity analysis. Next, we combined MRI diffusion markers with MR spectroscopic, MRI volumetric, neurobehavioral and genetic markers to identify a multidimensional in vivo signature of remote concussions...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512443/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-post-concussion-syndrome-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#18
Robson Luis Oliveira de Amorim, André Russowsky Brunoni, Mirian Akiko Furutani de Oliveira, Ana Luiza Costa Zaninotto, Marcia Mitie Nagumo, Vinícius Monteiro de Paula Guirado, Iuri Santana Neville, Gláucia Rosana Guerra Benute, Mara Cristina Souza de Lucia, Wellingson Silva Paiva, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) represents 70-80% of all treated brain injuries. A considerable proportion of MTBI patients experience post-concussion symptoms for a prolonged period after MTBI, and these symptoms are diagnosed as persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS). PPCS is defined as a range of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms. However, memory and executive dysfunction seems to be one of the most debilitating symptoms. Recently, non-invasive brain stimulation has been studied as a potential treatment method for traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511984/comparison-of-three-cognitive-exams-in-cardiac-arrest-survivors
#19
Allison C Koller, Jon C Rittenberger, Melissa J Repine, Patrick W Morgan, Jeffrey Kristan, Clifton W Callaway
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits may detract from quality of life after cardiac arrest. Their pattern and prevalence are not well documented. We used the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) and the 41 Cent Test (41CT) to assess cognitive impairment in cardiac arrest survivors and examine the exams' diagnostic accuracy. We hypothesized that the scores of these exams would indicate the presence of cognitive impairment in arrest survivors, that the overall scores on the three study assessments would correlate with one another, and that the 41CT, MOCA, and executive function element of the CAMCI would vary independently from other non-executive CAMCI components, reflecting executive function impairment after cardiac arrest...
May 13, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511080/cadmium-and-alzheimer-s-disease-mortality-in-u-s-adults-updated-evidence-with-a-urinary-biomarker-and-extended-follow-up-time
#20
Qing Peng, Kelly M Bakulski, Bin Nan, Sung Kyun Park
Cadmium has been linked to impaired cognitive function in adults and may cause behavioral, physiological and molecular abnormalities characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in animals. Evidence linking cadmium and AD in humans is limited, but supportive. In the most recent epidemiologic study, blood cadmium in U.S. adults was positively associated with elevated AD mortality 7-13 years later. The association between urinary cadmium - an arguably more appropriate biomarker for studying chronic diseases - and AD mortality has not yet been explored...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Research
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