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Cognitive abnormalities

Sanath Allampati, Kevin D Mullen
Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with decompensated liver disease. The spectrum of disease ranges from trivial abnormalities in complex decision making and prolonged reaction time to coma in its most severe form1. The very initial stages, recently termed covert Hepatic Encephalopathy (CHE), can only be diagnosed with the help of neuropsychiatric testing while the later and more severe forms, termed overt Hepatic Encephalopathy (OHE), can be diagnosed clinically. Severity of HE is graded based on West Haven Criteria and please refer to table 1 for more details2...
October 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Mingxiong Huang, Deborah L Harrington, Ashley Robb, Annemarie Angeles, Sharon Nichols, Angela I Drake, Tao Song, Mithun Diwakar, Charles W Huang, Victoria Risbrough, Anders M Dale, Hauke Bartsch, Scott Matthews, Jeffrey W Huang, Roland R Lee, Dewleen G Baker
Blast mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military service members and Veterans. However, the mechanism of persistent disability is not fully understood. The present study investigated disturbances in brain functioning in mTBI participants using a source-imaging-based approach to analyze functional connectivity (FC) from resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG). Study participants included 26 active-duty service members or Veterans who had blast mTBI with persistent post-concussive symptoms and 22 healthy control active-duty service members or Veterans...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Marilena Vecchi, Carmen Barba, Debora De Carlo, Micol Stivala, Renzo Guerrini, Emilio Albamonte, Domiziana Ranalli, Domenica Battaglia, Giada Lunardi, Clementina Boniver, Benedetta Piccolo, Francesco Pisani, Gaetano Cantalupo, Giuliana Nieddu, Susanna Casellato, Silvia Cappanera, Elisabetta Cesaroni, Nelia Zamponi, Domenico Serino, Lucia Fusco, Alessandro Iodice, Filippo Palestra, Lucio Giordano, Elena Freri, Ilaria De Giorgi, Francesca Ragona, Tiziana Granata, Isabella Fiocchi, Stefania Maria Bova, Massimo Mastrangelo, Alberto Verrotti, Sara Matricardi, Elena Fontana, Davide Caputo, Francesca Darra, Bernardo Dalla Bernardina, Francesca Beccaria, Giuseppe Capovilla, Maria Pia Baglietto, Alessandra Gagliardi, Aglaia Vignoli, Maria Paola Canevini, Egle Perissinotto, Stefano Francione
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, neuropsychological, and psychopathologic features of a cohort of children with a new diagnosis of symptomatic or presumed symptomatic focal epilepsy at time of recruitment and through the first month. The selected population will be followed for 2-5 years after enrollment to investigate the epilepsy course and identify early predictors of drug resistance. METHODS: In this observational, multicenter, nationwide study, children (age 1 month-12...
October 20, 2016: Epilepsia
Alessandro D'Ambrosio, Elisabetta Pagani, Gianna C Riccitelli, Bruno Colombo, Mariaemma Rodegher, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of cerebellar sub-regions on motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS: Whole and sub-regional cerebellar volumes, brain volumes, T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (LV), and motor performance scores were obtained from 95 relapse-onset MS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). MS patients also underwent an evaluation of working memory and processing speed functions. Cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes were segmented using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT) from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12)...
October 19, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Anne Synnes, Thuy Mai Luu, Diane Moddemann, Paige Church, David Lee, Michael Vincer, Marilyn Ballantyne, Annette Majnemer, Dianne Creighton, Junmin Yang, Reginald Sauve, Saroj Saigal, Prakesh Shah, Shoo K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Identify determinants of neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm children. METHODS: Prospective national cohort study of children born between 2009 and 2011 at <29 weeks gestational age, admitted to one of 28 Canadian neonatal intensive care units and assessed at a Canadian Neonatal Follow-up Network site at 21 months corrected age for cerebral palsy (CP), visual, hearing and developmental status using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III)...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Gabriele Cipriani, Cecilia Carlesi, Claudio Lucetti, Sabrina Danti, Angelo Nuti
BACKGROUND: Eating problems and dietary changes have been reported in patients with dementia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article is to explore the generalized problems with nutrition, diet, feeding, and eating reported among patients with dementia. METHODS: Medline and Google Scholar searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters, and books published before 2016. Search terms used included behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, dementia, dietary changes, eating behavior...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Natarajan Suganthy, Kasi Pandima Devi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Quercetin, a ubiquitous flavonoid that is widely distributed in plants is classified as a cognitive enhancer in traditional and oriental medicine. The protective effects of quercetin for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and cerebrovascular diseases have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The free radical scavenging activity of quercetin has been well-documented, wherein quercetin has been observed to exhibit protective effects against oxidative stress mediated neuronal damage by modulating the expression of NRF-2 dependent antioxidant responsive elements, and attenuation of neuroinflammation by suppressing NF-κB signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1)...
October 15, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Alexander I Tröster, Joseph Jankovic, Michele Tagliati, DeLea Peichel, Michael S Okun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurobehavioral safety of constant-current subthalamic deep brain stimulation and to compare the neuropsychological effects of stimulation versus electrode placement alone. METHODS: A total of 136 patients with Parkinson's disease underwent bilateral subthalamic device implantation in this randomized trial. Patients received stimulation either immediately after device implantation (n = 101; active stimulation) or beginning 3 months after surgery (n = 35; delayed activation control)...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
Youn Hee Jee, Nadine Sowada, Thomas C Markello, Iraj Rezvani, Guntram Borck, Jeffrey Baron
Linear growth failure can be caused by many different genetic abnormalities. In many cases, the genetic defect affects not only the growth plate, causing short stature, but also other organs/tissues causing additional clinical abnormalities. The proband was evaluated at 10 years of age for impaired postnatal linear growth (height 113.3 cm, -4.6 SDS), a bone age that was delayed by 5 years, dysmorphic facies, cognitive impairment, and central nervous system anomalies. His younger brother, presented only with growth failure at 10 months of age...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Genetics
Joe Bathelt, Duncan Astle, Jessica Barnes, F Lucy Raymond, Kate Baker
Childhood speech and language deficits are highly prevalent and are a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is difficult to investigate the underlying causal pathways because many diagnostic groups have a heterogeneous aetiology. Studying disorders with a shared genetic cause and shared cognitive deficits can provide crucial insight into the cellular mechanisms and neural systems that give rise to those impairments. The current study investigated structural brain differences of individuals with mutations in ZDHHC9, which is associated with a specific neurodevelopmental phenotype including prominent speech and language impairments and intellectual disability...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Ryan A Stevenson, Sohee Park, Channing Cochran, Lindsey G McIntosh, Jean-Paul Noel, Morgan D Barense, Susanne Ferber, Mark T Wallace
Recent neurobiological accounts of schizophrenia have included an emphasis on changes in sensory processing. These sensory and perceptual deficits can have a cascading effect onto higher-level cognitive processes and clinical symptoms. One form of sensory dysfunction that has been consistently observed in schizophrenia is altered temporal processing. In this study, we investigated temporal processing within and across the auditory and visual modalities in individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and age-matched healthy controls...
October 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Rimpi Arora, Rahul Deshmukh
Embelin, the main active constituent of Embelia ribes, has been reported to possess various pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanisms and therapeutic potential of embelin against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic dementia in rats. STZ was infused bilaterally at the dose of (3 mg/kg/1 μl/1 min) ICV on day first and third. Spatial and non-spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze and object recognition task in rats...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Marloes A M Janssen, Max Hinne, Ronald J Janssen, Marcel A van Gerven, Stefan C Steens, Bozena Góraj, Peter P Koopmans, Roy P C Kessels
Despite long-term successful treatment with cART, impairments in cognitive functioning are still being reported in HIV-infected patients. Since changes in cognitive function may be preceded by subtle changes in brain function, neuroimaging techniques, such as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have become useful tools in assessing HIV-associated abnormalities in the brain. The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which HIV infection in virologically suppressed patients is associated with disruptions in subcortical regions of the brain in comparison to a matched HIV-negative control group...
October 15, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Monica E Ellwood-Lowe, Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
In the nascent field of the cognitive neuroscience of socioeconomic status (SES), researchers are using neuroimaging to examine how growing up in poverty affects children's neurocognitive development, particularly their language abilities. In this review we highlight difficulties inherent in the frequent use of reverse inference to interpret SES-related abnormalities in brain regions that support language. While there is growing evidence suggesting that SES moderates children's developing brain structure and function, no studies to date have elucidated explicitly how these neural findings are related to variations in children's language abilities, or precisely what it is about SES that underlies or contributes to these differences...
October 3, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Gianluca Coppola, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Jean Schoenen, Francesco Pierelli
OBJECTIVE: We used MRI to search for changes in thalamo-cortical networks and thalamic microstructure during spontaneous migraine attacks by studying at the same time structure with diffusion tensor imaging and resting state function in interconnected brain networks with independent component analysis. METHODS: Thirteen patients with untreated migraine without aura (MI) underwent 3T MRI scans during an attack and were compared to a group of 19 healthy controls (HC)...
October 14, 2016: Neurology
Clément Dondé, David Luck, Stéphanie Grot, David I Leitman, Jerome Brunelin, Frédéric Haesebaert
CONTEXT: Patients with schizophrenia display abnormalities in pitch discrimination of non-verbal tones as revealed by the Tone-Matching Task (TMT). It may lead to deficits in higher-order cognitive functions and clinical symptoms. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis pooling data about TMT score differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, to evaluate the deficit's effect size, and to develop reliable knowledge about pitch processing impairment and its pejorative impact...
October 11, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Wei-Shan Tsao, Hsi-Pao Hsieh, Yi-Ting Chuang, Min-Muh Sheu
PURPOSE: Students with cognitive impairment are at increased risk of suffering from visual impairment due to refractive errors and ocular disease, which can adversely influence learning and daily activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular and visual status among students at the special education school in Hualien. METHODS: All students at the National Hualien Special Education School were evaluated. Full eye examinations were conducted by a skilled ophthalmologist...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Yu-Shu Huang, Christian Guilleminault, Fang-Ming Hwang, Chuan Cheng, Cheng-Hui Lin, Hsueh-Yu Li, Li-Ang Lee
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with chronic systemic inflammation and with cognitive impairments. This study aimed to investigate the status of proinflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interleukin 23 (IL-23) and cognition in pediatric OSA.Controls and OSA children participated in the study. Exclusion criteria were adenotonsillectomy, heart, neurological and severe psychiatric diseases, craniofacial syndromes, and obesity. Polysomnogram was followed by serum testing for inflammatory markers and neurocognitive tests such as continuous performance task (CPT) and Wisconsin card sorting test, questionnaires, analyses of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-17, and IL-23...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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