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Cognitive abnormalities

Geoffrey Littlejohn, Emma Guymer
Fibromyalgia is a high impact chronic pain disorder with a well-defined and robust clinical phenotype. Key features include widespread pain and tenderness, high levels of sleep disturbance, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction and emotional distress. Abnormal processing of pain and other sensory input occurs in the brain, spinal cord and periphery and is related to the processes of central and peripheral sensitization. As such, fibromyalgia is deemed to be one of the central sensitivity syndromes. There is increasing evidence of neurogenically derived inflammatory mechanisms occurring in the peripheral tissues, spinal cord and brain in fibromyalgia...
March 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Jin Hwan Lee, James Ya Zhang, Zheng Zachory Wei, Shan Ping Yu
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose unique clinical hallmark is a constellation of impaired social and/or cognitive behaviors. GluN3A (NR3A) is a unique inhibitory subunit in the NMDAR complex. The role of GluN3A in social behavioral activities is obscure. In this study, we sought to evaluate altered social activities in adult GluN3A knockout (KO) mice...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Ben Chen, Xiaomei Zhong, Naikeng Mai, Qi Peng, Zhangying Wu, Cong Ouyang, Weiru Zhang, Wanyuan Liang, Yujie Wu, Sha Liu, Lijian Chen, Yuping Ning
Background: Late-life depression patients are at a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, and diminished olfactory identification is an indicator in early screening for Alzheimer's disease in the elderly. However, whether diminished olfactory identification is associated with risk of developing Alzheimer's disease in late-life depression patients remains unclear. Methods: One hundred and twenty-five late-life depression patients, 50 Alzheimer's disease patients, and 60 normal controls were continuously recruited...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Sally Robinson, Tammy Hedderly, Giulia Conte, Osman Malik, Francesco Cardona
OBJECTIVE: Misophonia is a condition characterized by the dislike or hatred (miso) of specific sounds (phonia) that results in an extreme emotional response. There has been growing interest in misophonia, with emerging evidence from neurodevelopmental populations and ongoing debate regarding the psychiatric classification and the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. This is the first article to report on misophonic experiences and associated clinical characteristics in young people with tic disorders...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Brian E Powers, Nicholas A Santiago, Barbara J Strupp
The Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome recapitulates the hallmark areas of dysfunction that characterize the human disorder, including impaired performance in tasks designed to tap hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Unfortunately, performance in the water maze tasks most commonly used for this purpose can be affected by behavioral and/or physiological abnormalities characteristic of Ts65Dn mice (e.g., thigmotaxis, susceptibility to hypothermia, stress reactivity), which complicates interpretation of impaired performance...
February 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Magdalena Martinez-Losa, Tara E Tracy, Keran Ma, Laure Verret, Alexandra Clemente-Perez, Abdullah S Khan, Inma Cobos, Kaitlyn Ho, Li Gan, Lennart Mucke, Manuel Alvarez-Dolado, Jorge J Palop
Inhibitory interneurons regulate the oscillatory rhythms and network synchrony that are required for cognitive functions and disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Network dysrhythmias in AD and multiple neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with hypofunction of Nav1.1, a voltage-gated sodium channel subunit predominantly expressed in interneurons. We show that Nav1.1-overexpressing, but not wild-type, interneuron transplants derived from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) enhance behavior-dependent gamma oscillatory activity, reduce network hypersynchrony, and improve cognitive functions in human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP)-transgenic mice, which simulate key aspects of AD...
March 15, 2018: Neuron
Russell Ouellette, Åsa Bergendal, Sara Shams, Juha Martola, Caterina Mainero, Maria Kristoffersen Wiberg, Sten Fredrikson, Tobias Granberg
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term progression of cognitive dysfunction and its neuroanatomical correlates and predictors in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A cohort of 37 MS patients reflecting five decades of disease duration and all subtypes was followed over 17.5 years. Matched controls were recruited at the last follow-up. Global cognitive functioning was assessed using a principal component cognitive index based on comprehensive neuropsychological testing...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Larisa V Lysenko, Jeesun Kim, Francisco Madamba, Anna A Tyrtyshnaia, Aarti Ruparelia, Alexander M Kleschevnikov
Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of developmental abnormalities leading to intellectual disability. One notable phenomenon affecting the formation of nascent neural circuits during late developmental periods is developmental switch of GABA action from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing mode. We examined properties of this switch in DS using primary cultures and acute hippocampal slices from Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Cultures of DIV3-DIV13 Ts65Dn and control normosomic (2 N) neurons were loaded with FURA-2 AM, and GABA action was assessed using local applications...
March 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Shayan Amiri, Aliakbar Yousefi-Ahmadipour, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Majid Momeny, Heshmat Hosseini-Chegeni, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Sharmin Kharrazi, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Amini, Somayeh Jafarinejad, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently used in a wide range of consumer products. Considering the small size of Ag-NPs, they are able to pass through variety of biological barriers and exert their effects. In this regard, the unique physicochemical properties of Ag-NPs along with its high application in the industry have raised concerns about their negative effects on human health. Therefore, it investigated whether prenatal exposure to low doses of Ag-NPs is able to induce any abnormality in the cognitive and behavioral performance of adult offspring...
March 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Il Hwan Byun, Jong Won Hong, Mohammed Ahmed Hussein, Yong Oock Kim
PURPOSE: Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a congenital condition resulting premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. CRS is classified according to the involved sutures into sagittal, metopic, unicoronal, unilambdoid, bicoronal, and multiple-suture CRS, with sagittal suture fusion known to be the most common type. Although multiple studies have presented demographic characteristics of CRS patients, to date, there is no study representing an Asian population. We sought to compare the demographic characteristics of Asian patients to those of Western patients, considering previous reports...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Xiao Luo, Kaicheng Li, Y L Jia, Qingze Zeng, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Tiantian Qiu, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Zhujing Shen, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Chao Wang, J J Xu, Minming Zhang
The APOE ε4 allele is associated with impaired intrinsic functional connectivity in neural networks, especially in the default mode network (DMN). However, effective connectivity (EC) reflects the direct causal effects of one brain region to another, which has rarely been investigated. Recently, Granger causality analysis (GCA) proved suitable for the study of directionality in neuronal interactions. Using GCA, we examined the differences in the EC between the anterior medial prefrontal cortex/posterior cingulate cortex (aMPFC/PCC) and the whole brain in 17 ε4 carrying and 32 non-carrying cognitively intact elderly individuals...
March 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Alireza Mohammadi, Ali Maleki-Jamshid, Davood Sanooghi, Peiman Brouki Milan, Arash Rahmani, Farshid Sefat, Koorosh Shahpasand, Mansoureh Soleimani, Mehrdad Bakhtiari, Rafie Belali, Faezeh Faghihi, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, George Perry, Masoud Mozafari
A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Noa Tsujii, Wakako Mikawa, Toru Adachi, Tomoyuki Hirose, Osamu Shirakawa
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BD-I) share genetic risk factors and cognitive impairments, but these conditions may exhibit differences in cortical functioning associated with inhibitory control. We measured hemodynamic responses during a stop-signal task using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 20 patients with SZ, 21 patients with BD-I and 18 healthy controls (HCs). We used stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) to estimate behavioural inhibition. Compared with HCs, patients with either SZ or BD-I exhibited significantly reduced activation in the bilateral inferior, middle and superior frontal gyri...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
R Sheelakumari, C Kesavadas, V S Lekha, Sunitha Justus, P Sankara Sarma, Ramshekhar Menon
Context: Annually 10-12% of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are likely to progress to Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The morphometric profile in stable non-converters has not been adequately characterized. Aims: To determine the structural differences between amnestic MCI and early AD using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation with neuropsychological test performances. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based case-control study...
March 2018: Neurology India
Yehuda Ben-Shahar
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element that acts as a metal co-factor in diverse biochemical and cellular functions. However, chronic environmental exposure to high levels of Mn is a well-established risk factor for the etiology of severe, atypical parkinsonian syndrome (manganism) via its accumulation in the basal ganglia, pallidum, and striatum brain regions, which is often associated with abnormal dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neural signaling. Recent studies have indicated that chronic Mn exposure at levels that are below the risk for manganism can still cause behavioral, cognitive, and motor dysfunctions via poorly understood mechanisms at the molecular and cellular levels...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Damiano Terenzi, Raffaella I Rumiati, Mauro Catalan, Lucia Antonutti, Giovanni Furlanis, Paolo Garlasco, Paola Polverino, Claudio Bertolotti, Paolo Manganotti, Marilena Aiello
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy are at risk of developing impulse control disorders (ICDs) (such as gambling, binge eating, and others). According to recent evidence, compulsive reward seeking in ICDs may arise from an excessive attribution of incentive salience (or 'wanting') to rewards. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested this hypothesis in patients with PD who developed binge eating (BE). METHODS: Patients with BE, patients without BE, and healthy controls performed different experimental tasks assessing food liking and wanting...
March 9, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Yoonjin Nah, Na-Young Shin, Sehjung Yi, Seung-Koo Lee, Sanghoon Han
Numerous studies have suggested that postpartum women show a decline in cognitive abilities. However, to date, no study has investigated the presence of qualitative alterations in recognition memory processes in postpartum women that may lead to a decline in cognitive ability. To address this issue, we employed the Remember/Know procedure and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results demonstrated that compared with the matched control (CTRL) group, the postpartum (PP) group endorsed "Remember" less and "Know" more to old items...
March 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Katherine M Satrom, Kathleen Ennis, Brian M Sweis, Tatyana M Matveeva, Jun Chen, Leif Hanson, Akhil Maheshwari, Raghavendra Rao
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including abnormal neurodevelopment. Hippocampus-mediated cognitive deficits are common in this population, but the specific effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus are not known. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the acute and long-term effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus in neonatal rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of hyperglycemia...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Huihui Sun, Naijun Wan, Xinli Wang, Liang Chang, Dazhi Cheng
18p deletion syndrome is a rare chromosomal disease caused by deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18. By using cytogenetic and SNP array analysis, we identified a girl with 18p deletion syndrome exhibiting craniofacial anomalies, intellectual disability, and short stature. G-banding analysis of metaphase cells revealed an abnormal karyotype 46,XX,del(18)(p10). Further, SNP array detected a 15.3-Mb deletion at 18p11.21p11.32 (chr18:12842-15375878) including 61 OMIM genes. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis showed that clinical manifestations of the patient were correlated with LAMA1, TWSG1, and GNAL deletions...
March 16, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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