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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819654/use-of-the-quick-dementia-rating-system-qdrs-as-an-initial-screening-measure-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Sara E Berman, Rebecca L Koscik, Lindsay R Clark, Kimberly D Mueller, Lisa Bluder, James E Galvin, Sterling C Johnson
The Quick Dementia Rating System (QDRS) and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) assess global cognitive and functional decline. We evaluated whether the shorter QDRS was a valid screen for problems identified by the CDR in individuals with minimal clinical abnormalities. Agreement between QDRS-Global and CDR-Global was assessed for 54 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention. Resource-savings achieved by adopting an "administer CDR-only-if-QDRS-Global>0" approach were estimated based on 238 subsequent participants...
2017: JAD Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818755/biochemical-abnormalities-in-basal-ganglia-and-executive-dysfunction-in-acute-and-euthymic-episode-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#2
Shunkai Lai, Shuming Zhong, Xiaoxiao Liao, Ying Wang, Jingyu Huang, Shanhong Zhang, Yao Sun, Hui Zhao, Yanbin Jia
BACKGROUND: Recent studies found abnormal biochemical metabolism and executive cognitive deficits in acute bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence concerning in euthymic BD is limited. Thus, a comparison between acute and euthymic BD is conductive to better understanding the association between cognition and the outcome of neuroimaging. This study sought to investigate the relationship between the executive function and the biochemical metabolism in acute- and euthymic-episode BD patients and delineate the prominent endophenotype of BD...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818116/distinct-white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-and-extracellular-water-increases-relate-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-and-without-cerebrovascular-disease
#3
Fang Ji, Ofer Pasternak, Siwei Liu, Yng Miin Loke, Boon Linn Choo, Saima Hilal, Xin Xu, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) with concomitant cerebrovascular disease, has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. The brain white matter (WM) microstructural changes in neurodegeneration well-documented by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can originate from brain tissue or extracellular free water changes. The differential microstructural and free water changes in AD with and without cerebrovascular disease, especially in normal-appearing WM, remain largely unknown...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816008/lactuca-capensis-reverses-memory-deficits-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Paula Alexandra Postu, Jaures A K Noumedem, Oana Cioanca, Monica Hancianu, Marius Mihasan, Mitica Ciorpac, Dragos Lucian Gorgan, Brindusa Alina Petre, Lucian Hritcu
We investigated the neuropharmacological effects of the methanolic extract from Lactuca capensis Thunb. leaves (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 21 days on memory impairment in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model produced by direct intraventricular delivery of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42). Behavioural assays such as Y-maze and radial arm maze test were used for assessing memory performance. Aβ1-42 decreased cognitive performance in the behavioural tests which were ameliorated by pre-treatment with the methanolic extract...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815390/abnormal-relationships-between-local-and-global-brain-measures-in-subjects-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis-a-pilot-study
#5
Jun Konishi, Elisabetta C Del Re, Sylvain Bouix, Gabriëlla A M Blokland, Raquelle Mesholam-Gately, Kristen Woodberry, Margaret Niznikiewicz, Jill Goldstein, Yoshio Hirayasu, Tracey L Petryshen, Larry J Seidman, Martha E Shenton, Robert W McCarley
We examined whether abnormal volumes of several brain regions as well as their mutual associations that have been observed in patients with schizophrenia, are also present in individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for developing psychosis. 3T magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 19 CHR and 20 age- and handedness-matched controls. Volumes were measured for the body and temporal horns of the lateral ventricles, hippocampus and amygdala as well as total brain, cortical gray matter, white matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes...
August 16, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814282/alterations-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-default-mode-network-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-an-fmri-study
#6
Moyi Li, Guohua Zheng, Yuhui Zheng, Zhenyu Xiong, Rui Xia, Wenji Zhou, Qin Wang, Shengxiang Liang, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by cognitive functional decline, especially in memory. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in neuroimaging studies that explore alterations between patients and normal individuals to elucidate the pathological mechanisms of different diseases. The current study was performed to investigate alterations in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) in aMCI patients compared to healthy elderly controls, as well as further define the association between neurological alterations and memory function...
August 16, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813200/brain-microstructural-abnormalities-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-without-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-voxel-based-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-study
#7
Hua-Jun Chen, Peng-Fei Liu, Qiu-Feng Chen, Hai-Bin Shi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whole-brain microstructural abnormalities and their correlation with cognitive impairment in patients with cirrhosis using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with cirrhosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent DKI. Cognition was measured using psychometric hepatic encephalopathy (HE) scores. Whole-brain voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate between-group differences in DKI-derived parameters, including mean kurtosis, axial kurtosis, and radial kurtosis...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811866/preliminary-data-on-the-interaction-between-some-biometals-and-oxidative-stress-status-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#8
Ioana-Miruna Balmuș, Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Alin Ciobica, Mircea-Nicusor Nicoara, Romeo Dobrin, Gabriel Plavan, Cristinel Ștefănescu
Increased interest regarding the biometal mechanisms of action and the pathways in which they have regulatory roles was lately observed. Particularly, it was shown that biometal homeostasis dysregulation may lead to neurodegeneration including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, or prion protein disease, since important molecular signaling mechanisms in brain functions implicate both oxidative stress and redox active biometals. Oxidative stress could be a result of a breakdown in metal-ion homeostasis which leads to abnormal metal protein chelation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809400/prenatal-one-carbon-metabolism-dysregulation-programs-schizophrenia-like-deficits
#9
A Alachkar, L Wang, R Yoshimura, A R Hamzeh, Z Wang, N Sanathara, S M Lee, X Xu, G W Abbott, O Civelli
The methionine-folate cycle-dependent one-carbon metabolism is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Since schizophrenia is a developmental disorder, we examined the effects that perturbation of the one-carbon metabolism during gestation has on mice progeny. Pregnant mice were administered methionine equivalent to double their daily intake during the last week of gestation. Their progeny (MET mice) exhibited schizophrenia-like social deficits, cognitive impairments and elevated stereotypy, decreased neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, and abnormally reduced local excitatory synaptic connections in CA1 neurons...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807816/mtor-in-down-syndrome-role-in-a%C3%A3-and-tau-neuropathology-and-transition-to-alzheimer-disease-like-dementia
#10
REVIEW
Fabio Di Domenico, Antonella Tramutola, Cesira Foppoli, Elisabeth Head, Marzia Perluigi, D Allan Butterfield
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and degradation, longevity and cytoskeletal formation. The mTOR pathway represents a key growth and survival pathway involved in several diseases such as cancer, obesity, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies linked the alterations of mTOR pathway to age-dependent cognitive decline, pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) and AD-like dementia in Down syndrome (DS)...
August 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807156/metabolic-factors-and-adult-neurogenesis-impacts-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-brain-repair-in-neurological-diseases
#11
Chong Gao, Jiangang Shen
Adult neurogenesis plays the important roles in animal cognitive and emotional behaviors. Abnormal proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) usually associate with the neural dysfunctions induced by different brain disorders. Therefore, targeting neurogenic factors could be a promoting strategy for neural regeneration and brain repair. Importantly, epidemiological studies suggest metabolism disorders like diabetes and obesity significantly increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric diseases...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807062/neuropsychiatric-characteristics-of-antiterrorist-operation-combatants-in-the-donbass-ukraine
#12
Konstantin N Loganovsky, Natalia A Zdanevich, Marina V Gresko, Donatella Marazziti, Tatiana K Loganovskaja
OBJECTIVE: The present paper aimed to explore the neuropsychiatric characteristics of the antiterrorism (ATO) combatants in the Donets Basin (Donbass) and to propose therapeutic strategies for managing their mental healthcare. METHODS: A total of 54 ATO combatants were included in our study and compared with four groups of subjects exposed to other emergencies, including the Chernobyl disaster and the war in Afghanistan. The neuropsychiatric features were assessed through psychopathological assessments, neurological examinations, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG)...
August 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806762/a-becn1-mutation-mediates-hyperactive-autophagic-sequestration-of-amyloid-oligomers-and-improved-cognition-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Altea Rocchi, Soh Yamamoto, Tabitha Ting, Yuying Fan, Katherine Sadleir, Yigang Wang, Weiran Zhang, Sui Huang, Beth Levine, Robert Vassar, Congcong He
Impairment of the autophagy pathway has been observed during the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by abnormal deposition of extracellular and intracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides. Yet the role of autophagy in Aβ production and AD progression is complex. To study whether increased basal autophagy plays a beneficial role in Aβ clearance and cognitive improvement, we developed a novel genetic model to hyperactivate autophagy in vivo. We found that knock-in of a point mutation F121A in the essential autophagy gene Beclin 1/Becn1 in mice significantly reduces the interaction of BECN1 with its inhibitor BCL2, and thus leads to constitutively active autophagy even under non-autophagy-inducing conditions in multiple tissues, including brain...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806339/cognitive-evaluation-of-cochlear-implanted-adults-using-codex-and-moca-screening-tests
#14
Emmanuèle Ambert-Dahan, Shirley Routier, Lucie Marot, Didier Bouccara, Olivier Sterkers, Evelyne Ferrary, Isabelle Mosnier
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between hearing loss and cognitive function has already been established. The objective of our study was to determine whether the two short cognitive tests, COgnitive Disorders EXamination (CODEX) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), could be used in daily clinical practice to detect cognitive impairment, and its changes after cochlear implantation. PATIENTS: Eighteen patients with severe to profound postlingual progressive hearing loss (mean age ± SEM: 64 ± 3...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805580/tourette-syndrome-and-chronic-tic-disorders-the-clinical-spectrum-beyond-tics
#15
Davide Martino, Christos Ganos, Tamara M Pringsheim
The clinical surveillance and active management of Tourette syndrome (TS) and other primary chronic tic disorders cannot be limited to tics, as these patients manifest a spectrum of sensory-, behavioral-, cognitive-, and sleep-related problems that have a major impact on their functioning and quality of life, influencing enormously clinical decision making on a routine basis. The sensory phenomena of primary tic disorders consist of premonitory urges and heightened sensitivity to external somatosensory and interoceptive stimuli...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805579/nonmotor-manifestations-of-wilson-s-disease
#16
Samar Biswas, Neelanjana Paul, Shyamal K Das
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by excessive copper deposition initially in liver (hepatic variant) followed by brain (neuropsychiatric variant) and other organs such as cornea and kidney due to defect in biliary copper excretion. Predominant presentations of neuropsychiatric variant are extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions such as dystonias, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, and ataxias. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) can appear before clinical disease expression and during ongoing disease process...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805577/nonmotor-symptoms-in-huntington-disease
#17
Francisco Cardoso
Huntington disease (HD) is characterized by the triad of motor abnormalities, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. The aim of this chapter is to describe the frequency, clinical features, and management of behavioral and cognitive dysfunction in HD. Depression, suicidal ideation, apathy, irritability, aggressiveness, obsessions, and compulsions are the most common behavioral abnormalities in HD. All HD patients develop cognitive decline. Recent data suggest that these nonmotor changes are found in premanifest HD gene carriers...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805516/do-graded-activity-therapies-cause-harm-in-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#18
Tom Kindlon
Reporting of harms was much better in the PACE (Pacing, graded Activity, and Cognitive behavioural therapy: a randomised Evaluation) trial than earlier chronic fatigue syndrome trials of graded exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy. However, some issues remain. The trial's poor results on objective measures of fitness suggest a lack of adherence to the activity component of these therapies. Therefore, the safety findings may not apply in other clinical contexts. Outside of clinical trials, many patients report deterioration with cognitive behavioural therapy and particularly graded exercise therapy...
August 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804609/therapeutic-effects-of-ellagic-acid-on-memory-hippocampus-electrophysiology-deficits-and-elevated-tnf-%C3%AE-level-in-brain-due-to-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Shahram Mashhadizadeh, Yaghoub Farbood, Mahin Dianat, Ali Khodadadi, Alireza Sarkaki
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive defects such as learning and memory impairment are amongst the most repetitious sequelae after sever and moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was suggested that ellagic acid (EA), an innate phenol product, display neuroprotective properties against oxidative and inflammatory damages after brain injury. The object of the current study was therapeutic properties of EA on blood-brain barrier (BBB) interruption and elevated content of TNF-α in brain tissue followed by neurologic aftereffects, cognitive and brain electrophysiology deficits as outcomes of diffuse TBI in rat...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804447/activity-dependent-arc-expression-and-homeostatic-synaptic-plasticity-are-altered-in-neurons-from-a-mouse-model-of-angelman-syndrome
#20
Elissa D Pastuzyn, Jason D Shepherd
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from deletions or mutations in chromosome 15, which usually includes the UBE3A gene. Ube3A protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates proteins and targets them for degradation. The immediate-early gene Arc, a master regulator of synaptic plasticity, was identified as a putative substrate of Ube3A, but there have been conflicting reports on whether Arc is a bona fide E3 ligase substrate. Using multiple approaches, we found no evidence for a physical interaction between Arc and Ube3A in vivo...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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