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pituitary tumors

Kathrin Fielitz, Kristina Althoff, Katleen De Preter, Julie Nonnekens, Jasmin Ohli, Sandra Elges, Wolfgang Hartmann, Günter Klöppel, Thomas Knösel, Marc Schulte, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Daniela Beisser, Henning Reis, Annette Eyking, Elke Cario, Johannes H Schulte, Alexander Schramm, Ulrich Schüller
Amplification or overexpression of MYCN is involved in development and maintenance of multiple malignancies. A subset of these tumors originates from neural precursors, including the most aggressive forms of the childhood tumors, neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma. In order to model the spectrum of MYCN-driven neoplasms in mice, we transgenically overexpressed MYCN under the control of the human GFAP-promoter that, among other targets, drives expression in neural progenitor cells. However, LSL-MYCN;hGFAP-Cre double transgenic mice did neither develop neural crest tumors nor tumors of the central nervous system, but presented with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas and, less frequently, the pituitary gland...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
I Nakachi, B A Helfrich, M A Spillman, E A Mickler, C J Olson, J L Rice, C D Coldren, L E Heasley, M W Geraci, R S Stearman
Src kinase is recognized as a key target for molecular cancer therapy. However, methods to efficiently select patients responsive to Src inhibitors are lacking. We explored the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines to the Src kinase inhibitor saracatinib to identify predictive markers of drug sensitivity using gene microarrays. Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) was selected as a potential biomarker as mRNA levels were correlated with saracatinib resistance, as well as higher PTTG1 protein expression...
October 20, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
Gerwyn Morris, George Anderson, Michael Maes
There is evidence that immune-inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways play a role in the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). There is also evidence that these neuroimmune diseases are accompanied by hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypoactivity as indicated by lowered baseline glucocorticoid levels. This paper aims to review the bidirectional communications between immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways and HPA axis hypoactivity in ME/CFS, considering two possibilities: (a) Activation of immune-inflammatory pathways is secondary to HPA axis hypofunction via attenuated negative feedback mechanisms, or (b) chronic activated immune-inflammatory and O&NS pathways play a causative role in HPA axis hypoactivity...
October 20, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Nathan T Zwagerman, Georgios Zenonos, Stefan Lieber, Wei-Hsin Wang, Eric W Wang, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Carl H Snyderman, Paul A Gardner
The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has significantly evolved since its initial uses in pituitary and sinonasal surgery. The literature is filled with reports and case series demonstrating efficacy and advantages for the entire ventral skull base. With competence in 'minimally invasive' parasellar approaches, larger and more complex approaches were developed to utilize the endonasal corridor to create maximally invasive endoscopic skull base procedures. The challenges of these more complex endoscopic procedures include a long learning curve and navigating in a narrow corridor; reconstruction of defects presented new challenges and early experience revealed a significantly higher risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Bette K Kleinschmidt-DeMasters
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most pituitary region masses are pituitary adenomas; however, when other sellar region masses are encountered by clinicians or pathologists, the differential diagnosis can be broad. This review will focus on updates for pituitary adenomas, as well as briefly discuss some of these other entities: Rathke cleft cyst, hypophysitis, craniopharyngioma, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of new immunohistochemical (IHC) tools for assessing transcription factors, pituitary transcription factor-1, steroidogenic factor-1, and the not-yet-widely available Tpit IHC have provided insights into origin particularly of clinically silent and even hormone-negative pituitary adenomas...
October 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
J N Wang, L X Wang, W Lian, B Xing, Y Yao, M Feng, R Z Wang
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment of pituitary adenomas of childhood and adolescence. Methods: Thisarticle was a retrospective study of 140 pituitary adenomas of childhood and adolescence that was admitted into Peking Union Medical College Hospital from December 1987 to December 2014, whose clinical manifestations, hormone secretions, images, pathological types, surgical complications and follow-ups were studied. Results: A total of 58 (41.4%) males and 82 females (58.6%) were included, whose mean age was 12...
October 11, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Liliya Rostomyan, Albert Beckers
Growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary tumors may be caused by genetic abnormalities in a variety of genes including AIP, MEN1, CDKN1B, and PRKAR1A. These can lead to GH secreting pituitary adenomas as an isolated occurrence (e.g. as aggressive sporadic adenomas or in familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA)) or as part of syndromic conditions such as MEN1 or Carney complex. These tumors have more aggressive features than sporadic acromegaly, including a younger age at disease onset and larger tumor size, and they can be challenging to manage...
October 12, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Aruna Nambirajan, Mehar C Sharma, Madhu Rajeshwari, Aanchal Kakkar, Vaishali Suri, Chitra Sarkar
Ependymomas are gliomas that recapitulate normal ependymal cells. The epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) shows "dot-like" and "ring-like" staining patterns, highlighting "microlumens" or intracytoplasmic rosettes, a pathognomonic ultrastructural feature. NHERF1/EBP50, an adaptor protein localized at the apical plasma membrane of human epithelia, has been found to localize to these microlumens. We aimed to analyze the staining patterns of EMA and EBP50 in ependymomas and other tumors, and thereby compare their diagnostic utility...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi, Nora Kogelnik, Eleonore Fröhlich, Wolfgang Sattler, Peter Holzer
Microbial metabolites are known to affect immune system, brain, and behavior via activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Unlike the effect of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the role of other TLR agonists in immune-brain communication is insufficiently understood. We therefore hypothesized that the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) causes immune activation in the periphery and brain, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and emotional behavior...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Adomas Bunevicius, Sarunas Tamasauskas, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Albertas Sliauzys, Robertas Bunevicius
BACKGROUND: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. METHODS: Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54...
October 14, 2016: Early Human Development
Huang Guo-Dong, Ji Tao, Yang Ji-Hu, Zheng Wen-Jian, Zhang Xie-Jun, Guo Jian, Li Zhen, Jiang Tai-Peng, Ding Jian-Jun, Gao Yong-Zhong, Liu Wenlan, Li Wei-Ping
BACKGROUND: To compare the clinical outcomes and complications of 247 pituitary tumor patients managed by endoscopic and microscopic approaches in our hospital. METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective review of 100 pituitary tumor patients treated by endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETS) and 147 patients treated by microscopic transsphenoidal surgery (MTS) at our center from January 2007 to July 2014. The tumors were stratified by Knosp classification and modified Hardy classification, and tumor gross total resection (GTR)/remission rate, visual improvement rate, complications, operation time, intraoperative bleeding and length of hospital stay were compared between ETS and MTS...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
June Yowtak, Suash Sharma, Scott E Forseen, Cargill H Alleyne
BACKGROUND: Mixed tumors of adenomatous and neuronal cells in the sellar region are an uncommon finding. The origins of these heterogeneous tumors are unknown and management of these lesions still debated. We report a very rare case of anterior gray matter pituicytic heterotopia with monomorphic anterior pituitary cells that likely represents a variant of non-secreting pituitary adenoma - neuronal choristoma (PANCH) without any ganglion cells. We also review the current literature for the different clinical presentations of PANCH...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Francisca Caimari, Márta Korbonits
Recently, a number of novel genetic alterations have been identified that predispose individuals to pituitary adenomas. Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas are relatively common, present in 0.1% of the general population. They are mostly benign monoclonal neoplasms that arise from any of the five hormone-secreting cell types of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and cause disease due to hormonal alterations and local space-occupying effects. The pathomechanism of pituitary adenomas includes alterations in cell-cycle regulation and growth factor signaling, which are mostly due to epigenetic changes; somatic and especially germline mutations occur more rarely...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Chikezie I Eseonu, Karim ReFaey, Jordina Rincon-Torroella, Oscar Garcia, Gary S Wand, Roberto Salvatori, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa
OBJECTIVE: The transition from microscopic to a fully endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery requires a surgeon to assess how the change in technique will affect the extent of tumor resection (EOR), outcomes, and complications. We compared a single surgeon's experience transitioning from one technique to the other, and examined the operative outcomes and EOR between microscopic versus endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: Retrospective data analysis of adult patients who were treated surgically for a pituitary adenoma between August 2005 and May 2015 by a single neurosurgeon, who was originally trained and practiced in the microscopic transsphenoidal approach...
October 11, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Figen Barut, Perihan Udul, Furuzan Kokturk, Nilufer Onak Kandemir, Sevinc Hallac Keser, Sukru Oguz Ozdamar
The evidence that PITX1 (pituitary homeobox 1) is a significant tumor suppressor in human cancer remains largely circumstantial, but it clearly warrants further study as little is known about the tumor-inhibitory roles of PITX1 in cutaneous malignant melanoma. The aims of this study were to investigate PITX1 gene expression in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma and to evaluate its potential relevance to clinicopathological characteristics and tumor cell proliferation. Clinicopathological findings of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma were analyzed retrospectively...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Bon-Jour Lin, Tzu-Tsao Chung, Meng-Chi Lin, Chin Lin, Dueng-Yuan Hueng, Yuan-Hao Chen, Chung-Ching Hsia, Da-Tong Ju, Hsin-I Ma, Ming-Ying Liu, Chi-Tun Tang
Cavernous segment internal carotid artery (CSICA) injury during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumor is rare but fatal. The aim of this study is to investigate anatomical relationship between pituitary macroadenoma and corresponding CSICA using quantitative means with a sense to improve safety of surgery.In this retrospective study, a total of 98 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries were enrolled from 2005 to 2014. Intercarotid distances between bilateral CSICAs were measured in the 4 coronal levels, namely optic strut, convexity of carotid prominence, median sella turcica, and dorsum sellae...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Robert Fenstermaker, Ajay Abad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews sellar and parasellar anatomy and the appearance of normal bone and soft tissue components on both CT and MRI. Pituitary gland structure and function are discussed with respect to hormone secretion, along with clinical syndromes caused by perturbations in hormone levels. Syndromes and specific diseases in the sellar and parasellar regions are discussed along with characteristic clinical features and imaging findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Bone and calcifications are best visualized with CT scans, while soft tissues are better defined using MRI...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Xiaoning Li, Oleh Taratula, Olena Taratula, Canan Schumann, Tamara Minko
Targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents to cancer sites has significant potential to improve the therapeutic outcome of treatment while minimizing severe side effects. It is widely accepted that decoration of the drug delivery systems with targeting ligands that bind specifically to the receptors on the cancer cells is a promising strategy that may substantially enhance accumulation of anticancer agents in the tumors. Due to the transformed cellular nature, cancer cells exhibit a variety of overexpressed cell surface receptors for peptides, hormones, and essential nutrients, providing a significant number of target candidates for selective drug delivery...
October 13, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Ramesh R Dargad, Jai D Parekh, Rohit R Dargad
Acromegaly is a rare condition with an approximate incidence of 3-4 new cases per million per year and occurs as a result of excess secretion of growth hormone (GH). It is associated with several cardiovascular manifestations of which dilated cardiomyopathy with systolic and diastolic dysfunction is relatively rare but associated with increased mortality. There are very few documented cases of acromegaly with dilated cardiomyopathy in Indian female patients in literature, thus justifying the uniqueness of our case...
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mustafa Özçetin, Mehmet Karacı, Ertuğ Toroslu, Nurullah Edebali
Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
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