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Non-alcoholic steatosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430653/preventive-effects-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-tofogliflozin-on-diethylnitrosamine-induced-liver-tumorigenesis-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#1
Koki Obara, Yohei Shirakami, Akinori Maruta, Takayasu Ideta, Tsuneyuki Miyazaki, Takahiro Kochi, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takuji Tanaka, Mitsuru Seishima, Masahito Shimizu
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors are expected to ameliorate the abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor tofogliflozin on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease-related liver tumorigenesis in C57BL/KsJ-+Leprdb/+Leprdb obese and diabetic mice. The direct effects of tofogliflozin on human liver cancer cell proliferation were also evaluated. Mice were administered diethylnitrosamine-containing water for 2 weeks and were treated with tofogliflozin throughout the experiment...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429344/up-regulation-of-microrna-367-promotes-liver-steatosis-through-repressing-tbl1-in-obese-mice
#2
D-D Li, Y Liu, L Xue, D-Y Su, W-Y Pang
OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence has demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in the progression of metabolic disorders, including obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the present study, the expression and function of miR-367 were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice aged 8 weeks were fed with a normal diet (ND) or high-fat-diet (HFD). The expression levels of miR-367 were analyzed in livers from two groups of mice by quantitative real-time PCR...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428116/cycloastragenol-improves-hepatic-steatosis-by-activating-farnesoid-x-receptor-signalling
#3
Ming Gu, Shiying Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhao, Jinwen Huang, Yahui Wang, Yin Li, Shengjie Fan, Li Yang, Guang Ji, Qingchun Tong, Cheng Huang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a global health problem. However, there is no approved therapy for NAFLD. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a potential drug target for treatment of NAFLD. In an attempt to screen FXR agonists, we found that cycloastragenol (CAG), a natural occurring compound in Astragali Radix, stimulated FXR transcription activity. In animal studies, we demonstrated that CAG treatment resulted in obvious reduction of high-fat diet induced lipid accumulation in liver accompanied by lowered blood glucose, serum triglyceride levels and hepatic bile acid pool size...
April 17, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426902/hepatic-steatosis-after-pediatric-liver-transplant
#4
Emily R Perito, Tabitha Vase, Rageshree Ramachandran, Andrew Phelps, Kuang-Yu Jen, Robert H Lustig, Vickie A Feldstein, Philip Rosenthal
RATIONALE: Hepatic steatosis develops after liver transplant in 30% of adults, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in non-transplanted children. However, post-transplant steatosis has been minimally studied in pediatric liver transplant recipients. We explored the prevalence, persistence, and association with chronic liver damage of hepatic steatosis in these children. RESULTS: In this single-center study of pediatric patients transplanted 1988-2015 (n=318), 31% of those with any post-transplant biopsy (n=271) had ≥1 biopsy with steatosis...
April 20, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426815/using-controlled-attenuation-parameter-combined-with-ultrasound-to-survey-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Yi-Hao Yen, Jin-Bor Chen, Ben-Chung Cheng, Jung-Fu Chen, Kuo-Chin Chang, Po-Lin Tseng, Cheng-Kun Wu, Ming-Chao Tsai, Ming-Tsung Lin, Tsung-Hui Hu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a non-invasive method for measuring hepatic steatosis (HS). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). CVDs are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in hemodialysis patients. METHOD: We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis, as well as patients with normal renal function who served as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425154/rifaximin-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-an-open-label-pilot-study
#6
Jeremy F L Cobbold, Stephen Atkinson, Julian R Marchesi, Ann Smith, Sann N Wai, Julie Stove, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Nicola Jackson, A Margot Umpleby, Julie Fitzpatrick, E Louise Thomas, Jimmy D Bell, Elaine Holmes, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Robert D Goldin, Michael S Yee, Quentin M Anstee, Mark R Thursz
AIM: Gut microbial dysbiosis is implicated in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated downstream effects of gut microbiota modulation on markers of hepatic inflammation, steatosis, and hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with NASH using Rifaximin therapy. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven NASH and elevated aminotransferase values were included in this open-label pilot study, all receiving 6 weeks Rifaximin 400 mg twice daily, followed by a 6 week observation period...
April 20, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422172/transient-elastography-as-a-screening-tool-for-liver-fibrosis-in-a-large-hemodialysis-population
#7
Ben-Chung Cheng, Yi-Hao Yen, Jung-Fu Chen, Cheng-Kun Wu, Kuo-Chin Chang, Po-Lin Tseng, Ming-Chao Tsai, Ming-Tsung Lin, Jung-Ting Lin, Jin-Bor Chen, Tsung-Hui Hu
Metabolic syndrome, an etiological factor in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is often present in hemodialysis patients. Little is known about the prevalence of, and factors associated with, liver fibrosis in hemodialysis populations. We used transient elastography (TE) to investigate these phenomena. 659 patients treated with chronic hemodialysis were enrolled. We excluded those with excess alcohol intake, liver stiffness measurement (LSM) failure, or unreliable LSM values. LSM ≥8.0 kPa was used as a cutoff suggesting clinically relevant fibrosis...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421320/hepatocyte-specific-depletion-of-ubiquitin-regulatory-x-domain-containing-protein-8-accelerates-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-model
#8
Norihiro Imai, Michitaka Suzuki, Yoji Ishizu, Teiji Kuzuya, Takashi Honda, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoshiki Hirooka, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Hidemi Goto, Toyoshi Fujimoto
Ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing protein 8 (UBXD8) is engaged in the degradation of lipidated apolipoprotein B in hepatocytes. We previously showed that hepatocyte-specific UBXD8-deficient mice (U8-HKO) fed a moderately high-fat diet (31 kcal % fat) showed periportal macrovesicular steatosis along with a decrease in very low-density lipoprotein secretion, but did not develop fibrosis. In the present study, we examined whether U8-HKO mice show NASH-like phenotypes when fed a very high-fat diet (60 kcal % fat)...
April 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420094/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-new-insights-and-potential-new-treatments
#9
REVIEW
Hironori Kitade, Guanliang Chen, Yinhua Ni, Tsuguhito Ota
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common chronic liver disorders worldwide. It is associated with clinical states such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, and covers a wide range of liver changes, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Metabolic disorders, such as lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, and inflammation, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, but the underlying mechanisms, including those that drive disease progression, are not fully understood...
April 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419855/a-randomized-trial-of-silymarin-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Wah-Kheong Chan, Nik Raihan Nik Mustapha, Sanjiv Mahadeva
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Silymarin is a complex mixture of 6 major flavonolignans and other minor polyphenolic compounds derived from the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum; it has shown anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, and may be useful in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to study the efficacy of silymarin in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-the more severe form of NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of consecutive adults with biopsy-proven NASH and a NAFLD activity score (NAS) of 4 or more at a tertiary care hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from November 2012 through August 2014...
April 15, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419000/exercise-induced-autophagy-in-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Sung Kook Chun, Sooyeon Lee, Ming-Jim Yang, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Jae-Sung Kim
Hepatic steatosis prevails each year. Autophagy is integral in mitochondrial quality control and lipid homeostasis in the liver. No pharmacological strategies are currently available to reduce hepatic steatosis, but exercise has been known to improve clinical outcomes of chronic liver disease, particularly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent studies suggest that exercise may improve NAFLD through enhancing autophagy.
April 17, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414763/enhanced-offspring-predisposition-to-steatohepatitis-with-maternal-high-fat-diet-is-associated-with-epigenetic-and-microbiome-alterations
#12
Umesh D Wankhade, Ying Zhong, Ping Kang, Maria Alfaro, Sree V Chintapalli, Keshari M Thakali, Kartik Shankar
OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important co-morbidity associated with obesity and a precursor to steatohepatitis. However, the contributions of gestational and early life influences on development of NAFLD and NASH remain poorly appreciated. METHODS: Two independent studies were performed to examine whether maternal over-nutrition via exposure to high fat diet (HFD) leads to exacerbated hepatic responses to post-natal HFD and methionine choline deficient (MCD) diets in the offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405325/controlled-attenuation-parameter-using-the-fibroscan%C3%A2-xl-probe-for-quantification-of-hepatic-steatosis-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-an-asian-population
#13
Wah-Kheong Chan, Nik Raihan Nik Mustapha, Grace Lai-Hung Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Sanjiv Mahadeva
BACKGROUND: The FibroScan® XL probe reduces failure of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and unreliable results in obese patients. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to evaluate the accuracy of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) obtained using the XL probe for the estimation of hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Adult NAFLD patients with a liver biopsy within six months were included and were examined with the FibroScan® M and XL probes...
February 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388904/effect-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-sinisan-on-chronic-restraint-stress-induced-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-rat-study
#14
Fafeng Cheng, Chongyang Ma, Xueqian Wang, Changming Zhai, Guoli Wang, Xiaolin Xu, Jie Mu, Changxiang Li, Zisong Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Wenchao Yue, Xin Du, Yajun Lian, Wenxiang Zhu, Xiangjun Yin, Zhen Wei, Wenjie Song, Qingguo Wang
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common forms of liver disease worldwide, and it is always regarded as a consequence of a sedentary, food-abundant lifestyle, sitting for an extended time, and a low physical activity level, which often coincide with chronic and long-lasting psychological stress. A Chinese medicine Sinisan (SNS) may be a potential formula for treating this kind of disease. METHODS: In this study, a long-term chronic restraint stress protocol was used to investigate the mechanism underlying stress-induced NALFD...
April 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386616/molecular-adaptations-underlying-the-beneficial-effects-of-hydroxytyrosol-in-the-pathogenic-alterations-induced-by-a-high-fat-diet-in-mouse-liver-ppar-%C3%AE-and-nrf2-activation-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-down-regulation
#15
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Paola Illesca, Francisca Echeverría, Alejandra Espinosa, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Macarena Ortiz, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
SCOPE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition characterized by an increment in the liver fat content, with a concomitant reduction in the content of n-3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs), downregulation of PPAR-α activity, and upregulation of NF-κB activity, effects that induce pro-lipogenic and pro-inflammatory responses. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a polyphenol with cytoprotective effects present in extra virgin olive oil, improves the cellular antioxidant capacity for activation of transcription factor Nrf2...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384519/kefir-alleviates-obesity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota-and-mycobiota-targeted-and-untargeted-community-analysis-with-correlation-of-biomarkers
#16
Dong-Hyeon Kim, Hyunsook Kim, Dana Jeong, Il-Byeong Kang, Jung-Whan Chon, Hong-Seok Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
Kefir is a probiotic beverage containing over 50 species of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, the anti-obesity and anti-non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects of kefir were comprehensively addressed along with targeted and untargeted community analysis of the fecal microbiota in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model. HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated either kefir or milk (control) once a day for 12 weeks, and body and organ weight, fecal microbiota and mycobiota, histopathology, blood cholesterol and cytokines and gene expressions were analyzed...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381526/mirna-132-induces-hepatic-steatosis-and-hyperlipidaemia-by-synergistic-multitarget-suppression
#17
Geula Hanin, Nadav Yayon, Yonat Tzur, Rotem Haviv, Estelle R Bennett, Shiran Udi, Yoganathan R Krishnamoorthy, Eleni Kotsiliti, Rivka Zangen, Ben Efron, Joseph Tam, Orit Pappo, Eyal Shteyer, Eli Pikarsky, Mathias Heikenwalder, David S Greenberg, Hermona Soreq
OBJECTIVE: Both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the multitarget complexity of microRNA (miR) suppression have recently raised much interest, but the in vivo impact and context-dependence of hepatic miR-target interactions are incompletely understood. Assessing the relative in vivo contributions of specific targets to miR-mediated phenotypes is pivotal for investigating metabolic processes. DESIGN: We quantified fatty liver parameters and the levels of miR-132 and its targets in novel transgenic mice overexpressing miR-132, in liver tissues from patients with NAFLD, and in diverse mouse models of hepatic steatosis...
April 5, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374992/liquid-extraction-surface-analysis-mass-spectrometry-identifies-the-presence-and-severity-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Zoe Hall, Yajing Chu, Julian Leether Griffin
The early stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are characterised by the accumulation of fat in the liver (steatosis). This can lead to cell injury and inflammation resulting in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). To determine whether lipid profiling of liver tissue can identify metabolic signatures associated with disease presence and severity, we explored liquid extraction surface analysis-mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) as a novel sampling tool. Using LESA-MS, lipids were extracted directly from the surface of ultra-thin slices of liver tissue prior to detection by high resolution mass spectrometry (MS)...
April 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373874/immunoregulatory-role-of-nk-cells-in-tissue-inflammation-and-regeneration
#19
REVIEW
Annie Tosello-Trampont, Fionna A Surette, Sarah E Ewald, Young S Hahn
NK cells represent an important first line of defense against viral infection and cancer and are also involved in tissue homeostasis. Studies of NK cell activation in the last decade have revealed that they are able to respond to the inflammatory stimuli evoked by tissue damage and contribute to both progression and resolution of diseases. Exacerbation of the inflammatory response through interactions between immune effector cells facilitates the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) into steatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373762/traditional-chinese-herbal-extracts-inducing-autophagy-as-a-novel-approach-in-therapy-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Cong Liu, Jia-Zhi Liao, Pei-Yuan Li
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver diseases around the world due to the modern sedentary and food-abundant lifestyle, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver related with causes other than alcohol abuse. It is widely acknowledged that insulin resistance, dysfunctional lipid metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis/necrosis may all contribute to NAFLD. Autophagy is a protective self-digestion of intracellular organelles, including lipid droplets (lipophagy), in response to stress to maintain homeostasis...
March 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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