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Non-alcoholic steatosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331340/hsp72-protects-from-liver-injury-via-attenuation-of-hepatocellular-death-oxidative-stress-and-jnk-signaling
#1
Kateryna Levada, Nurdan Guldiken, Xiaoji Zhang, Giovanna Vella, Fa-Rong Mo, Laura P James, Johannes Haybaeck, Sonja M Kessler, Alexandra K Kiemer, Thomas Ott, Daniel Hartmann, Norbert Hüser, Marianne Ziol, Christian Trautwein, Pavel Strnad
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a molecular chaperone that is upregulated in response to stress and possesses broad cytoprotective functions. To determine its hepatic function, we studied its expression in human liver disorders and its biological significance in newly generated transgenic animals. AIM AND METHODS: Double transgenic mice overexpressing Hsp72 (gene HSPA1A) under the control of a tissue-specific tetracycline-inducible system (Hsp72-LAP mice) were produced...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330836/pathogenesis-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-mediated-by-yap
#2
Ping Chen, Qihui Luo, Chao Huang, Qi Gao, Like Li, Jingfei Chen, Bing Chen, Wentao Liu, Wen Zeng, Zhengli Chen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the interaction between Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathways in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Serum samples of monkeys with biopsy-proven NAFLD and healthy normal monkeys were used to measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG) and albumin (ALB) with the BECKMAN CX5 PRO...
January 12, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330220/regulation-of-drug-metabolism-by-the-interplay-of-inflammatory-signaling-steatosis-and-xeno-sensing-receptors-in-heparg-cells
#3
Norman Tanner, Lisa Kubik, Claudia Luckert, Maria Thomas, Ute Hofmann, Ulrich M Zanger, Linda Bohmert, Alfonso Lampen, Albert Braeuning
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by triglyceride deposition in hepatocytes due to imbalanced lipid homeostasis, is of increasing concern in Western countries, with progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Previous studies suggest a complex, mutual influence of hepatic fat accumulation, NASH-related inflammatory mediators, and drug-sensing receptors regulating xenobiotic metabolism. Here, we investigated the suitability of human HepaRG hepatocarcinoma cells as a model for NAFLD and NASH...
January 12, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329924/effects-of-dark-chocolate-on-endothelial-function-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#4
L Loffredo, F Baratta, P Ludovica, S Battaglia, R Carnevale, C Nocella, M Novo, G Pannitteri, F Ceci, F Angelico, F Violi, M Del Ben
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in inducing endothelial dysfunction and progression from simple fatty liver steatosis (FLD) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Polyphenols could reduce oxidative stress and restore endothelial function by inhibiting the nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-phosphate (NADPH) oxidase isoform Nox2. The aim of this study was to assess endothelial function and oxidative stress in a population affected by simple FLD and NASH. Furthermore, we analysed the effect of high vs low content of cocoa polyphenols on endothelial function and oxidative stress in patients with NASH...
November 13, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326427/severe-steatosis-induces-portal-hypertension-by-systemic-arterial-hyporeactivity-and-hepatic-vasoconstrictor-hyperreactivity-in-rats
#5
Denise Van der Graaff, Wilhelmus J Kwanten, Filip J Couturier, Jesse S Govaerts, Wim Verlinden, Isabel Brosius, Michiel D'Hondt, Ann Driessen, Benedicte Y De Winter, Joris G De Man, Peter P Michielsen, Sven M Francque
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent chronic liver disease. The presence of portal hypertension has been demonstrated in NAFLD prior to development of inflammation or fibrosis, and is a result of extrahepatic and intrahepatic factors, principally driven by vascular dysfunction. An increased intrahepatic vascular resistance potentially contributes to progression of NAFLD via intralobular hypoxia. However, the exact mechanisms underlying vascular dysfunction in NAFLD remain unknown...
January 11, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323715/alleviation-of-palmitic-acid-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-through-ip3r-controlled-ca2-release
#6
Wei-Chun Xiao, Zhang Jing, Si-Li Chen, Yi-Jun Shi, Fan Xiao, Wei An
The aberrant release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contributes to the onset of ER stress, which is closely related to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We previously reported that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) alleviates ER stress and protects hepatocytes from lipotoxicity. However, the link between ALR protection and the suppression of ER stress remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the protection against liver steatosis afforded by ALR is related to its inhibition of calcium overflow from the ER to the mitochondria...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322544/role-of-bisphenol-a-as-environmental-factor-in-the-promotion-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-clinical-study
#7
M Dallio, M Masarone, S Errico, A G Gravina, C Nicolucci, R Di Sarno, L Gionti, C Tuccillo, M Persico, P Stiuso, N Diano, C Loguercio, A Federico
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A is an endocrine disrupting chemical associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and liver enzyme abnormalities. AIM: To evaluate bisphenol A plasma and urine levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, we evaluated, in human HepG2 cells, the effects of exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A on both oxidative stress induction and cell proliferation...
January 11, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319180/wisp1-promotes-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-via-tlr4-jnk-signaling
#8
Tae Woo Jung, Changmuk Kang, Jiwon Goh, Soo In Chae, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Tae Jin Lee, A M Abd El-Aty, Ji Hoon Jeong
Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP1) is a Cyr61/CTGF/NOV (CCN) family matricellular protein involved in adipogenesis and low-grade inflammation in obesity. However, the roles of WISP1 in hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remain elusive. Mouse primary hepatocytes and differentiated mouse skeletal muscle cells (C2C12) were treated with various concentrations of WISP1 and the functions and signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blot analysis. In vivo transfection for WISP1 knockdown was also performed to examine the effects of WISP1 on hepatic steatosis and skeletal muscle insulin resistance...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315766/disruption-of-adenosine-2a-receptor-exacerbates-nafld-through-increasing-inflammatory-responses-and-srebp1c-activity
#9
Yuli Cai, Honggui Li, Mengyang Liu, Ya Pei, Juan Zheng, Jing Zhou, Xianjun Luo, Wenya Huang, Linqiang Ma, Qiuhua Yang, Shaodong Guo, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Qifu Li, Tianshu Zeng, Fanyin Meng, Heather Francis, Shannon Glaser, Lulu Chen, Yuqing Huo, Gianfranco Alpini, Chaodong Wu
Adenosine 2A receptor (A2A R) exerts protective roles in endotoxin- and/or ischemia-induced tissue damages. However, the role for A2A R in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains largely unknown. We sought to examine the effects of global and/or myeloid cell-specific A2A R disruption on the aspects of obesity-associated NAFLD and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Global and/or myeloid cell-specific A2A R-disrupted mice, as well as control mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) to induce NAFLD. Also, bone marrow-derived macrophages and primary mouse hepatocytes were examined for inflammatory and metabolic responses...
January 9, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311399/efficacy-of-probiotics-and-smectite-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Nazarii Kobyliak, Ludovico Abenavoli, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Tetyana Beregova
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Smectite is a natural silicate that binds to digestive mucous and has the ability to bind endo- and exotoxins. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus smectite is superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced NAFLD model in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 60 rats divided into 4 groups 15 animals in each...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299759/translating-scientific-discovery-the-need-for-preclinical-models-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#11
REVIEW
Abdul M Oseini, Banumathi K Cole, Danny Issa, Ryan E Feaver, Arun J Sanyal
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world, affecting about 1/3 of the US general population and remaining as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The hallmark of the disease is the excessive accumulation of fat within the liver cells (hepatocytes), which eventually paves the way to cellular stress, injury and apoptosis. NAFLD is strongly associated with components of the metabolic syndrome and is fast emerging as a leading cause of liver transplant in the USA...
January 3, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291167/epidemic-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
Adnan Said, Aiman Ghufran
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence is increasing worldwide, paralleling the obesity epidemic. Although most cases are associated with cirrhosis, HCC can occur without cirrhosis in NAFLD. Diabetes and obesity are associated risk factors for HCC in patients. Given the sheer magnitude of the underlying risk factors (diabetes, obesity, non-cirrhotic NAFLD) screening for HCC in the non-cirrhotic population is not recommended. Optimal screening strategies in NAFLD cirrhosis are not completely elucidated with Ultrasound having significant limitations in detection of liver lesions in the presence of obesity and steatosis...
December 10, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289645/hepatic-regulation-of-vldl-receptor-by-ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-and-fgf21-modulates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Mohammad Zarei, Emma Barroso, Xavier Palomer, Jianli Dai, Patricia Rada, Tania Quesada-López, Joan Carles Escolà-Gil, Lidia Cedó, Mohammad Reza Zali, Mahsa Molaei, Reza Dabiri, Santiago Vázquez, Eugènia Pujol, Ángela M Valverde, Francesc Villarroya, Yong Liu, Walter Wahli, Manuel Vázquez-Carrera
OBJECTIVE: The very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) plays an important role in the development of hepatic steatosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)β/δ and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in hepatic VLDLR regulation. METHODS: Studies were conducted in wild-type and Pparβ/δ-null mice, primary mouse hepatocytes, human Huh-7 hepatocytes, and liver biopsies from control subjects and patients with moderate and severe hepatic steatosis...
December 19, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288054/mitochondria-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Inês C M Simões, Adriana Fontes, Paolo Pinton, Hans Zischka, Mariusz R Wieckowski
NAFLD is a common disease in Western society and ranges from steatosis to steatohepatitis and to end-stage liver disease. The molecular mechanisms that cause the progression of steatosis to severe liver damage are not fully understood. One suggested mechanism involves the oxidation of biomolecules by mitochondrial ROS which initiates a vicious cycle of exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction and increased hepatocellular oxidative damage. This may ultimately pave the way for hepatic inflammation and liver failure...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287676/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-sarcopenia-in-a-western-population-nhanes-iii-the-importance-of-sarcopenia-definition
#15
Tao-Chun Peng, Li-Wei Wu, Wei-Liang Chen, Fang-Yih Liaw, Yaw-Wen Chang, Tung-Wei Kao
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that sarcopenia is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and advanced fibrosis in an Asian population. We investigated whether NAFLD is associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia using a different definition in elderly patients. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of US patients was conducted, involving 2551 participants aged 60-75 years. NAFLD was measured by ultrasound. Sarcopenia was defined by both a low muscle mass and poor muscle function...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286303/disturbed-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#16
REVIEW
Ali Saeed, Robin P F Dullaart, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
December 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286155/mesenchymal-stem-cells-reverse-high%C3%A2-fat-diet%C3%A2-induced-non%C3%A2-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-suppression-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-mice
#17
Huafeng Wang, Huan Zhang, Biao Huang, Guolin Miao, Xiaoyan Yan, Gang Gao, Yongping Luo, Huize Chen, Wei Chen, Luhong Yang
Although the multipotency of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) makes them an attractive choice for clinical applications, immune modulation is an important factor affecting MSC transplantation. At present, the effect of treatment with MSCs on non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has received little attention. In the present study, a compact bone‑derived method was used to isolate mouse MSCs (mMSCs) and a high‑fat diet was used to establish a mouse model of NAFLD. Immunophenotypic features of mMSCs were analyzed using flow cytometry...
December 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281143/the-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulator-iw-1973-prevents-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-experimental-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
Roger Flores-Costa, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Esther Titos, Cristina López-Vicario, Mireia Casulleras, Marta Duran-Güell, Bibiana Rius, Alba Diaz, Katherine Hall, Courtney Shea, Renee Sarno, Mark Currie, Jaime L Masferrer, Joan Clària
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and is characterized by steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) stimulation reduces inflammation and fibrosis in experimental models of lung, kidney and heart disease. Here, we tested whether sGC stimulation is also effective in experimental NASH. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Mice (n=35) were induced to NASH by a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat (CDAAH) diet and received either placebo or the sGC stimulator IW-1973 at two different doses (1 and 3 mg/kg/day) for 9 weeks...
December 27, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274591/extract-of-citrus-maxima-pummelo-leaves-improve-hepatoprotective-activity-in-wistar-rats-submitted-to-the-induction-of-non-alcoholic-hepatic-steatosis
#19
Denise Lima Feksa, Ritiéle Pinto Coelho, Angélica Aparecida da Costa Güllich, Emanuelle S Dal Ponte, Jacqueline da Costa Escobar Piccoli, Vanusa Manfredini
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of liver changes, ranging from hepatic steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. The Citrus maxima (CM) has been shown to be beneficial to the organism, and these activities are attributed to the presence of phytochemical compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the n vitro antioxidant potential of the CM leaves extract and on Wistar rats submitted to hepatic steatosis induction by fructose-associated hyperlipid diet (FHD). For the evaluation of in vivo effects, the animals were distributed in G1 (normal diet - ND), G2 (FHD), G3 (ND + extract 50mg/kg) and G4 (FHD + extract 50 mg/kg)...
December 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273476/gasdermin-d-plays-a-key-role-as-a-pyroptosis-executor-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-humans-and-mice
#20
Bing Xu, Mingzuo Jiang, Yi Chu, Weijie Wang, Di Chen, Xiaowei Li, Zhao Zhang, Di Zhang, Daiming Fan, Yongzhan Nie, Feng Shao, Kaichun Wu, Jie Liang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-executed programmed necrosis is involved in inflammation and controls interleukin (IL)-1β release. However, the role of GSDMD in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. We investigated the role of GSDMD in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. METHODS: Human liver tissues of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients and control subjects were obtained to evaluate GSDMD expression. GSDMD knockout (GSDMD-/-) mice, obese db/db mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fed with methionine-and-choline-deficient (MCD) or control diet to induce steatohepatitis...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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