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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634254/widespread-paleopolyploidy-gene-tree-conflict-and-recalcitrant-relationships-among-the-carnivorous-caryophyllales
#1
Joseph F Walker, Ya Yang, Michael J Moore, Jessica Mikenas, Alfonso Timoneda, Samuel F Brockington, Stephen A Smith
PREMISE OF STUDY: The carnivorous members of the large, hyperdiverse Caryophyllales (e.g., Venus flytrap, sundews, and Nepenthes pitcher plants) represent perhaps the oldest and most diverse lineage of carnivorous plants. However, despite numerous studies seeking to elucidate their evolutionary relationships, the early-diverging relationships remain unresolved. METHODS: To explore the utility of phylogenomic data sets for resolving relationships among the carnivorous Caryophyllales, we sequenced 10 transcriptomes, including all the carnivorous genera except those in the rare West African liana family Dioncophyllaceae...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633402/pitcher-perfect-arrhythmia-monitoring-at-the-munich-oktoberfest
#2
Jorge A Wong, David Conen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632054/middle-finger-and-ball-movements-around-ball-release-during-baseball-fastball-pitching
#3
Tomoyuki Matsuo, Tsutomu Jinji, Daisaku Hirayama, Daiki Nasu, Hiroki Ozaki, Daisuke Kumagawa
The objectives of this study were to investigate middle finger movements and dynamics of ball movements around the instant of ball release during baseball pitching. Baseball pitching from an indoor mound among 14 semi-professional pitchers was captured using a motion capture system with 16 high-speed cameras (1,000 Hz). Kinematics of middle finger joints, ball rotation, and force applied to the ball were calculated. The proximal and distal interphalangeal joints continued to extend until the instant of ball release, then abruptly flexed...
February 28, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631593/a-denv-2-type-specific-monoclonal-antibody-binds-to-the-denv-complex-reactive-antigenic-site-on-envelope-protein-domain-3
#4
Vanessa V Sarathy, Trevor J Pitcher, Gregory D Gromowski, John T Roehrig, Alan D T Barrett
The Dengue virus (DENV) envelope (E) protein is the major component of the viral surface and is structurally subdivided into three domains, ED1, ED2 and ED3. ED3 elicits potent neutralizing antibodies and contains two major antigenic sites: the DENV-type-specific and DENV-complex-reactive antigenic sites. Each site is composed of a limited subset of residues that are required for monoclonal antibody (mAb) binding. Here we show that DENV-2-type-specific mAb 9A3D-8 utilizes the functionally critical residues K307, V308, K310, I312, P332, L387, L389 and N390 for ED3 binding...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630920/bioinspired-shape-memory-graphene-film-with-tunable-wettability
#5
Jie Wang, Lingyu Sun, Minhan Zou, Wei Gao, Cihui Liu, Luoran Shang, Zhongze Gu, Yuanjin Zhao
Functional materials with specific surface wettability play an important role in a wide variety of areas. Inspired by nature's Nepenthes pitcher plant, we present a novel slippery film with tunable wettability based on a shape-memory graphene sponge. The porous graphene sponge coated with shape-memory polymer was used to lock in inert lubricants and construct slippery surfaces to repel different liquids. The superelasticity and high strength, together with good electrical conductivity, of the graphene sponge imparted the graphene/polymer hybrid films with fast recoverable shape-memory properties...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615489/ovarian-fluid-impacts-flagellar-beating-and-biomechanical-metrics-of-sperm-between-alternative-reproductive-tactics
#6
Ian A E Butts, Galina Prokopchuk, Vojtěch Kašpar, Jacky Cosson, Trevor E Pitcher
Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are prevalent in nature, where smaller parasitic males typically have better sperm quality than larger territorial guard males. At present, it is unclear what is causing this phenomenon. Our objective was to gain insights into sperm form and function by examining flagellar beating patterns (beat frequency, wave amplitude, bend length, bend angle, wave velocity) and biomechanical sperm metrics (velocity, hydrodynamic power output, propulsive efficiency) of wild spawning Chinook salmon ARTs...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593963/accelerated-discovery-of-two-crystal-structure-types-in-a-complex-inorganic-phase-field
#7
C Collins, M S Dyer, M J Pitcher, G F S Whitehead, M Zanella, P Mandal, J B Claridge, G R Darling, M J Rosseinsky
The discovery of new materials is hampered by the lack of efficient approaches to the exploration of both the large number of possible elemental compositions for such materials, and of the candidate structures at each composition. For example, the discovery of inorganic extended solid structures has relied on knowledge of crystal chemistry coupled with time-consuming materials synthesis with systematically varied elemental ratios. Computational methods have been developed to guide synthesis by predicting structures at specific compositions and predicting compositions for known crystal structures, with notable successes...
June 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591130/natal-and-breeding-philopatry-of-female-steller-sea-lions-in-southeastern-alaska
#8
Kelly K Hastings, Lauri A Jemison, Grey W Pendleton, Kimberly L Raum-Suryan, Kenneth W Pitcher
Information on drivers of dispersal is critical for wildlife conservation but is rare for long-lived marine mammal species with large geographic ranges. We fit multi-state mark-recapture models to resighting data of 369 known-aged Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) females marked as pups on their natal rookeries in southeastern Alaska from 1994-2005 and monitored from 2001-15. We estimated probabilities of females being first observed parous at their natal site (natal philopatry), and of not moving breeding sites among years (breeding philopatry) at large (> 400 km, all five rookeries in southeastern Alaska) and small (< 4 km, all islands within the largest rookery, Forrester Island Complex, F) spatial scales...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575638/elbow-injuries-in-professional-baseball-epidemiological-findings-from-the-major-league-baseball-injury-surveillance-system
#9
Michael G Ciccotti, Keisha M Pollack, Michael C Ciccotti, John D'Angelo, Christopher S Ahmad, David Altchek, James Andrews, Frank C Curriero
BACKGROUND: Elbow injuries cause significant disability for the throwing athlete. Scant data are available on the distribution and characteristics of these injuries in elite baseball players. No study exists that focuses solely on the epidemiological characteristics of elbow injuries in professional baseball players using a comprehensive injury surveillance system. HYPOTHESIS: Professional baseball players have a high occurrence of elbow injuries influenced by factors including length of time playing, time period within the annual baseball season, and specific position played...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567429/are-the-current-little-league-pitching-guidelines-adequate-a-single-season-prospective-mri-study
#10
Andrew V Pytiak, Phillip Stearns, Tracey P Bastrom, Jerry Dwek, Peter Kruk, Joanna H Roocroft, Andrew T Pennock
BACKGROUND: Little League throwing guidelines have recently been implemented in an attempt to lessen the growing number of elbow injuries occurring in youth baseball players. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine pre- and postseason changes seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in youth baseball players' elbows in an attempt to identify risk factors for pain and MRI abnormalities, with a particular focus on the current Little League guidelines...
May 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545717/preseason-screening-of-shoulder-range-of-motion-and-humeral-retrotorsion-does-not-predict-injury-in-high-school-baseball-players
#11
Sakiko Oyama, Elizabeth E Hibberd, Joseph B Myers
BACKGROUND: Shoulder and elbow injuries are commonplace in high school baseball. Although altered shoulder range of motion (ROM) and humeral retrotorsion angles have been associated with injuries, the efficacy of preseason screening of these characteristics remains controversial. METHODS: We conducted preseason screenings for shoulder internal and external rotation ROM and humeral retrotorsion on 832 high school baseball players and tracked their exposure and incidence on throwing-related shoulder and elbow injuries during a subsequent season...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533452/fluorescence-as-a-means-of-colour-signal-enhancement
#12
REVIEW
Justin Marshall, Sonke Johnsen
Fluorescence is a physico-chemical energy exchange where shorter-wavelength photons are absorbed by a molecule and are re-emitted as longer-wavelength photons. It has been suggested a means of communication in several taxa including flowers, pitcher plants, corals, algae, worms, squid, spiders, stomatopods, fish, reptiles, parrots and humans. The surface or object that the pigment molecule is part of appears to glow due to its setting rather than an actual production of light, and this may enhance both signals and, in some cases, camouflage...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532867/ultrasound-study-of-elbow-ulnar-collateral-ligament-changes-in-collegiate-baseball-players-a-pilot-study
#13
Johnathan Erb, Heather Sherman, Sydney Williard, Julien Bui, Aimie Kachingwe
OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in elbow ulnar collateral ligament length in college baseball pitchers over the course of a single season. DESIGN: Cohort Feasibility Study. METHODS: Diagnostic ultrasound was used to assess both the dominant and non-dominant medial elbow joint space in four pitchers and five fielders and compared to in-game pitching data. Shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle range of motion measurements were also taken...
April 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530502/the-effect-of-stride-length-and-lateral-pelvic-tilt-on-elbow-torque-in-youth-baseball-pitchers
#14
Noah X Tocci, David R Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Corey Dawkins, Amy Whited, Donald Bae
High elbow torque during a pitch may contribute to injury risk. Our objective was to determine the pitch mechanics associated with elbow varus torque in youth baseball pitchers. Eighteen male youth pitchers (age=15.5±1.6 years) threw three fastballs and three change-ups from a windup position while undergoing three-dimensional kinematic analysis. Independent variables included ball release point distance, stride length, lateral pelvic tilt, and ball velocity. Two multiple regression models, separated by pitch type (fastball, change-up) were used to determine the association of independent variables with peak varus torque at the elbow...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529881/iso-seq-analysis-of-nepenthes-ampullaria-nepenthes-rafflesiana-and-nepenthes%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-hookeriana-for-hybridisation-study-in-pitcher-plants
#15
Muhammad Mu'izzuddin Zulkapli, Muhammad Aqil Fitri Rosli, Faris Imadi Mohd Salleh, Normah Mohd Noor, Wan Mohd Aizat, Hoe-Han Goh
Tropical pitcher plants in the species-rich Nepenthaceae family of carnivorous plants possess unique pitcher organs. Hybridisation, natural or artificial, in this family is extensive resulting in pitchers with diverse features. The pitcher functions as a passive insect trap with digestive fluid for nutrient acquisition in nitrogen-poor habitats. This organ shows specialisation according to the dietary habit of different Nepenthes species. In this study, we performed the first single-molecule real-time isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) analysis of full-length cDNA from Nepenthes ampullaria which can feed on leaf litter, compared to carnivorous Nepenthes rafflesiana, and their carnivorous hybrid Nepenthes × hookeriana...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515886/aquatic-microfauna-alter-larval-food-resources-and-affect-development-and-biomass-of-west-nile-and-saint-louis-encephalitis-vector-culex-nigripalpus-diptera-culicidae
#16
Dagne Duguma, Michael G Kaufman, Arthur B Simas Domingos
Ciliate protists and rotifers are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and can comprise a significant portion of the microbial food resources available to larval mosquitoes, often showing substantial declines in abundance in the presence of mosquito larvae. This top-down regulation of protists is reported to be strong for mosquitoes inhabiting small aquatic containers such as pitcher plants or tree holes, but the nature of these interactions with larval mosquitoes developing in other aquatic habitats is poorly understood...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513271/college-pitchers-demonstrate-directional-differences-in-shoulder-joint-position-sense-compared-to-controls
#17
John Andrew Badagliacco, Andrew Karduna
CONTEXT: The relationship between overhead throwing and its effect on proprioception is not well understood. It is important to gain a better understanding of how these are related to protect overhead athletes from an increased risk of injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate proprioceptive alterations in the overhead thrower's shoulder. DESIGN: Cross-Sectional Study. Independent variables are: limb (dominant and non-dominant), group (thrower or control), and target angle...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504915/prevalence-of-os-styloideum-in-national-hockey-league-players
#18
Harry G Greditzer, Ian D Hutchinson, Christian S Geannette, Robert N Hotchkiss, Bryan T Kelly, Hollis G Potter
BACKGROUND: Os styloideum describes an accessory carpal ossicle between the trapezoid, the capitate, and the second and third metacarpals. Injuries to this tissue have been described as part of the carpal boss syndrome. While the etiology of os styloideum remains uncertain, it may represent a physiologic response to altered loading forces in the wrist, similar to the development of cam-type deformity in the hips of ice hockey players or the Bennett lesion in the shoulders of baseball pitchers...
May 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500954/finger-forces-in-fastball-baseball-pitching
#19
Hiroshi Kinoshita, Satoshi Obata, Daiki Nasu, Koji Kadota, Tomoyuki Matsuo, Glenn S Fleisig
Forces imparted by the fingers onto a baseball are the final, critical aspects for pitching, however these forces have not been quantified previously as no biomechanical technology was available. In this study, an instrumented baseball was developed for direct measurement of ball reaction force by individual fingers and used to provide fundamental information on the forces during a fastball pitch. A tri-axial force transducer with a cable having an easily-detachable connector were installed in an official baseball...
May 10, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486333/the-relationship-between-the-push-off-ground-reaction-force-and-ball-speed-in-high-school-baseball-pitchers
#20
Sakiko Oyama, Joseph B Myers
Baseball pitching is a sequential movement that requires transfer of momentum from the lower extremity to the throwing arm. Therefore, the ground reaction force (GRF) during push off is suggested to play a roll in production of ball speed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between GRF characteristics during push off and ball speed in high school baseball pitchers. A total of 52 pitchers performed fast pitches from an indoor pitching mound. A force plate embedded in an indoor mound was used to capture the push off GRF...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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