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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665612/differences-in-segmental-speeds-as-a-function-of-maturation-in-youth-baseball-pitchers
#1
Jessica K Washington, Gabrielle G Gilmer, Jeff W Barfield, Sarah S Gascon, Michael G Saper, Jeffrey R Dugas, James R Andrews, Gretchen D Oliver
The purpose of this study was to determine how stride length, segmental sequencing of the pelvis, trunk, humerus, and forearm velocities and accelerations, and the timing of these values change as youth mature. Thirteen youth baseball pitchers participated at three consecutive time points: visit 1 (10.7±1.3 years; 151.8±10.7 cm; 45.0±9.65 kg), visit 2 (11.5±1.6 years; 155.5±11.1 cm; 50.4±10.0 kg), and visit 3 (12.4±1.7 years; 161.5±11.7 cm; 56.4±10.8 kg). Participants executed three pitches for a strike to a catcher...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662911/unaccounted-workload-factor-game-day-pitch-counts-in-high-school-baseball-pitchers-an-observational-study
#2
Jason L Zaremski, Giorgio Zeppieri, Deborah L Jones, Brady L Tripp, Michelle Bruner, Heather K Vincent, MaryBeth Horodyski
Background: Throwing injuries are common in high school baseball. Known risk factors include excessive pitch counts, year-round pitching, and pitching with arm pain and fatigue. Despite the evidence, the prevalence of pitching injuries among high school players has not decreased. One possibility to explain this pattern is that players accumulate unaccounted pitch volume during warm-up and bullpen activity, but this has not yet been examined. Hypotheses: Our primary hypothesis was that approximately 30% to 40% of pitches thrown off a mound by high school pitchers during a game-day outing are unaccounted for in current data but will be revealed when bullpen sessions and warm-up pitches are included...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659878/retail-stability-of-three-beef-muscles-from-grass-legume-and-feedlot-finished-cattle
#3
J F Legako, T Cramer, K Yardley, T J Murphy, T Gardner, A Chail, L R Pitcher, J W MacAdam
This study aimed to determine the influence of finishing diet on beef appearance and lipid oxidation of three beef muscles. A total of 18 Angus steers were selected from three diet treatments: grass-finished (USUGrass), legume-finished (USUBFT), and grain-finished (USUGrain). After processing, longissimus thoracis (LT), triceps brachii (TB), and gluteus medius (GM) steaks were evaluated over a 7 d display period. A muscle × diet interaction was observed for instrumental lightness (L*) and redness (a*) (P ≤ 0...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651893/differences-among-overhand-three-quarter-and-sidearm-pitching-biomechanics-in-professional-baseball-players
#4
Rafael F Escamilla, Jonathan S Slowik, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig
The purpose of this study was to assess biomechanical differences among overhand, three-quarter, and sidearm arm-slot professional baseball pitchers. It was hypothesized that kinematic-and-kinetic differences would be found among the three groups, with sidearm pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the transverse plane, and overhead pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the sagittal plane. Based upon arm-slot-angle at ball-release, 30-overhand, 156-three-quarter, and 21-sidearm pitchers were tested using a 240-Hz-motion-analysis-system, and 37 kinematic-and-kinetic parameters were calculated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629813/summative-report-on-time-out-of-play-for-major-and-minor-league-baseball-an-analysis-of-49-955-injuries-from-2011-through-2016
#5
Christopher L Camp, Joshua S Dines, Jelle P van der List, Stan Conte, Justin Conway, David W Altchek, Struan H Coleman, Andrew D Pearle
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemiologic reports have demonstrated rising injury rates in Major League Baseball (MLB) and Minor League Baseball (MiLB). Although several studies have recently been published on specific injuries, the majority of injuries have not yet been formally studied. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to (1) generate a summative analysis of all injuries that occur in MLB and MiLB, (2) identify the 50 most common injuries, and (3) generate focused reports and fact sheets on the characteristics of each of those diagnoses...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623282/relationship-between-pitching-a-complete-game-and-spending-time-on-the-disabled-list-for-major-league-baseball-pitchers
#6
Brandon J Erickson, Peter N Chalmers, Anthony A Romeo, Christopher S Ahmad
Background: Injury rates among Major League Baseball pitchers have been increasing over the past several years. It is currently unknown whether pitching a complete game (CG) is a risk factor for spending time on the disabled list (DL). Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between pitching a CG and time on the DL. We hypothesized that pitchers who threw a CG (1) would be at increased risk for spending time on the DL, which would be earlier in the season and for a longer period, than those who did not and (2) would be at further increased risk for spending time on the DL during subsequent seasons than matched controls...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601208/performance-and-return-to-sport-after-tommy-john-surgery-among-major-league-baseball-position-players
#7
Robert A Jack, Matthew B Burn, Kyle R Sochacki, Patrick C McCulloch, David M Lintner, Joshua D Harris
BACKGROUND: The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary restraint to valgus stress at the elbow and is often injured among overhead throwing athletes. Despite prevention strategies, injuries to the elbow UCL are on the rise. PURPOSE: To determine (1) the return-to-sport (RTS) rate of Major League Baseball (MLB) position players after elbow medial UCL reconstruction, (2) postoperative career length and games per season, (3) pre- and postoperative performance, (4) postoperative performance versus matched control players, and (5) whether position players changed positions after UCL reconstruction...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593194/unilateral-rotation-in-baseball-fielder-causes-low-back-pain-contralateral-to-the-hitting-side
#8
Tomoki Oshikawa, Yasuhiro Morimoto, Koji Kaneoka
Low back pain (LBP) often occurs in baseball players;however, the characteristics of the location of their LBP with respect to their throwing and hitting sides have not been clarified. In order to clarify the left-right asymmetry of LBP that occurs in baseball players, we surveyed 247 university baseball players using an LBP questionnaire. The main investigational items were:throwing and hitting side, position at the time of LBP experience, and LBP location. Based upon the indication of their throwing and hitting side, subjects were classified into unilateral rotational (UR) or bilateral rotational (BR) types...
2018: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581995/role-of-rotational-kinematics-in-minimizing-elbow-varus-torques-for-professional-versus-high-school-pitchers
#9
Micheal J Luera, Brittany Dowling, Mitchel A Magrini, Tyler W D Muddle, Ryan J Colquhoun, Nathaniel D M Jenkins
Background: Elbow injury rates among baseball pitchers are rapidly rising. However, this increase has been most dramatic among high school (HS) pitchers. Purpose: To examine pitch velocity and the kinetic and kinematic characteristics of HS versus professional (PRO) pitchers to identify potential differences that may play a role in the increased risk of ulnar collateral ligament injury in youth pitchers. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study...
March 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578381/stride-length-the-impact-on-propulsion-and-bracing-ground-reaction-force-in-overhand-throwing
#10
Dan K Ramsey, Ryan L Crotin
Propulsion and bracing ground reaction force (GRF) in overhand throwing are integral in propagating joint reaction kinetics and ball velocity, yet how stride length effects drive (hind) and stride (lead) leg GRF profiles remain unknown. Using a randomised crossover design, 19 pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to throw 2 simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An integrated motion capture system with two force plates and radar gun tracked each throw. Vertical and anterior-posterior GRF was normalised then impulse was derived...
March 26, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576962/chloropid-flies-diptera-chloropidae-associated-with-pitcher-plants-in-north-america
#11
Julia J Mlynarek, Terry A Wheeler
We review the taxonomy and ecology of Chloropidae (Diptera) associated with pitcher plants (Sarraceniaceae) in North America. Tricimba wheeleri Mlynarek sp.n. is described from the pitchers of Sarracenia alata Alph.Wood and S. leucophylla Raf. in the southeastern United States (Alabama, Mississippi). Aphanotrigonum darlingtoniae (Jones) associated with Darlingtonia californica Torr. in northern California is redescribed, including the first description of male genitalic characters. A lectotype is designated for A...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576338/following-ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction-professional-baseball-position-players-return-to-play-faster-than-pitchers-but-catchers-return-less-frequently
#12
Christopher L Camp, Stan Conte, John D'Angelo, Stephen A Fealy
BACKGROUND: Although much as been done to characterize trends of medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction in pitchers, outcomes in position players (PPs) (non-pitchers) remain undefined in the current literature. METHODS: Three resources were combined to identify all known Major League Baseball and Minor League Baseball (MiLB) PPs who have ever undergone UCL reconstruction. A multitude of player and surgical variables were included. Trends over time were analyzed collectively, based on level of play, revision status (primary vs revision), and position...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570160/descriptive-profile-of-lumbopelvic-control-in-collegiate-baseball-pitchers
#13
Kevin G Laudner, Regan H Wong, James R Latal, Keith Meister
Laudner, K, Wong, R, Latal, J, and Meister, K. Descriptive profile of lumbopelvic control in collegiate baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1150-1154, 2018-Throwing a baseball requires the transmission of forces generated in the lower extremity, through the trunk, then to the upper extremity, and ultimately out through the ball. Disruptions in this kinetic chain, specifically in lumbopelvic control, have been associated with decreased pitching performance and increased risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to establish normative data of lumbopelvic control among collegiate baseball pitchers...
April 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562832/kinematic-and-kinetic-differences-between-left-and-right-handed-professional-baseball-pitchers
#14
Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune
While 10% of the general population is left-handed, 27% of professional baseball pitchers are left-handed. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed college pitchers have been previously reported, but these differences have yet to be examined at the professional level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare pitching biomechanics between left- and right-handed professional pitchers. It was hypothesised that there would be significant kinematic and kinetic differences between these two groups...
March 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545682/correlation-of-upper-limb-joint-load-withsimultaneous-throwing-mechanics-including-acceleration-parameters-in-amateur-baseball-pitchers
#15
Yoichi Kaizu, Hideomi Watanabe, Takehiko Yamaji
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide information regarding the knowledge of mechanical principles related to the load applied to the shoulder and elbow during the pitching motion. [Subjects and Methods] The three-dimensional kinematics of body segments were measured in 19 amateur baseball players with a VICON motion capture system. The correlation between maximum shoulder internal torque, maximum elbow varus torque, and simultaneous kinematic parameters including joint angular acceleration and ball acceleration was investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543598/decreased-hip-internal-rotation-increases-the-risk-of-back-and-abdominal-muscle-injuries-in-professional-baseball-players-analysis-of-258-player-seasons
#16
Christopher L Camp, Andrea M Spiker, John M Zajac, Dave Pearson, Alec M Sinatro, Joshua S Dines, Anil S Ranawat, Struan H Coleman
INTRODUCTION: The relationship of hip range of motion (ROM) to shoulder, elbow, abdominal, and back injuries remains undefined. METHODS: We assessed hip ROM on players reporting to Major League Spring Training for an organization over six seasons (2010 to 2015). Hip ROM was correlated with player abdominal, back, shoulder, and elbow injury status for those seasons using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 258 player-seasons (129 pitchers and 129 position players) resulted in 20 back and 35 abdominal injuries across all players and 28 elbow and 25 shoulder injuries in pitchers...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543498/effect-of-predraft-ulnar-collateral-ligament-reconstruction-on-future-performance-in-professional-baseball-a-matched-cohort-comparison
#17
Christopher L Camp, Stan Conte, John D'Angelo, Stephen A Fealy, Christopher S Ahmad
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in the annual number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstructions performed in amateur baseball pitchers. Accordingly, increasing numbers of players are entering professional baseball having already undergone the procedure; however, the effect of prior UCL reconstruction on future success remains unknown. PURPOSE: (1) To provide an epidemiologic report on baseball players who undergo UCL reconstruction before being selected in the Major League Baseball (MLB) Draft, (2) to define the outcomes in terms of statistical performance, and (3) to compare these results with those of matched controls (ie, non-UCL reconstruction)...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519119/quality-of-drinking-water-from-the-agricultural-area-treated-with-pitcher-water-filters
#18
Elżbieta Królak, Jolanta Raczuk, Danuta Sakowicz, Elżbieta Biardzka
Background: Home methods of drinking water treatment through filtration have recently become quite popular. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare chemical composition of unfiltered water with water filtered in households with pitcher water filters. Obtained results were discussed in view of the effect of analysed chemical components of water on human health. Material and methods: Water samples were taken from water works supplies and from home dug wells from the agricultural area...
2018: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518208/1-2-4-oxadiazole-antimicrobials-act-synergistically-with-daptomycin-and-display-rapid-kill-kinetics-against-mdr-enterococcus-faecium
#19
Glen P Carter, Jitendra R Harjani, Lucy Li, Noel P Pitcher, Yi Nong, Thomas V Riley, Deborah A Williamson, Timothy P Stinear, Jonathan B Baell, Benjamin P Howden
Background: Enterococcus faecium is an important nosocomial pathogen. It has a high propensity for horizontal gene transfer, which has resulted in the emergence of MDR strains that are difficult to treat. The most notorious of these, vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, are usually treated with linezolid or daptomycin. Resistance has, however, been reported, meaning that new therapeutics are urgently needed. The 1,2,4-oxadiazoles are a recently discovered family of antimicrobials that are active against Gram-positive pathogens and therefore have therapeutic potential for treating E...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514991/predatory-dipteran-larva-contributes-to-nutrient-sequestration-in-a-carnivorous-pitcher-plant
#20
Weng Ngai Lam, Robyn Jing Ying Lim, Shi Hong Wong, Hugh Tiang Wah Tan
The fluids of Nepenthes pitcher plants are habitats to many specialized animals known as inquilines, which facilitate the conversion of prey protein into pitcher-absorbable nitrogen forms such as ammonium. Xenoplatyura beaveri (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) is a predatory dipteran inquiline that inhabits the pitchers of Nepenthes ampullaria Larvae of X. beaveri construct sticky webs over the fluid surface of N. ampullaria to ensnare emerging adult dipteran inquilines. However, the interaction between X. beaveri and its host has never been examined before, and it is not known if X...
March 2018: Biology Letters
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