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pneumonia in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149338/multiplex-respiratory-virus-testing-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-prospective-assessment-of-antimicrobial-use-and-clinical-outcomes-among-hospitalized-adults
#1
Makeda Semret, Ian Schiller, Barbara Ann Jardin, Charles Frenette, Vivian G Loo, Jesse Papenburg, Shelly A McNeil, Nandini Dendukuri
Background: Respiratory tract infections are frequent causes of hospitalization and initiation of empirical antimicrobial therapy. Testing for a broad panel of respiratory viruses has been advocated as a useful tool for antibiotic stewardship. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess the impact of rapid viral test results on antimicrobial prescriptions and clinical outcomes among hospitalized adults. Methods: Eight hundred patients admitted with respiratory symptoms were tested by a 12-virus respiratory panel (RVP) during 3 consecutive winters in Montreal, Canada...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149242/long-term-carriage-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-the-general-population-in-the-netherlands
#2
Engeline van Duijkeren, Cornelia C H Wielders, Cindy M Dierikx, Angela H A M van Hoek, Paul Hengeveld, Christiaan Veenman, Alice Florijn, Aniek Lotterman, Lidwien A M Smit, Jaap T van Dissel, Catharina B M Maassen, Sabine C de Greeff
Background: This longitudinal study aimed to investigate (risk factors for) persistence of carriage and molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum and pAmpC β-lactamase-producing (ESBL/pAmpC) Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-E/K) in adults in the Dutch community. Methods: Following a cross-sectional study (ESBL-E/K prevalence 4.5%), a subset of ESBL-E/K positive (n=76) and negative (n=249) individuals volunteered to provide five monthly faecal samples and questionnaires...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149019/incidence-and-consequences-of-near-drowning-related-pneumonia-a-descriptive-series-from-martinique-french-west-indies
#3
Laura Cerland, Bruno Mégarbane, Hatem Kallel, Yanick Brouste, Hossein Mehdaoui, Dabor Resiere
Drowning represents one major cause of accidental death. Near-drowning patients are exposed to aspiration that may result in pneumonia with life-threatening consequences. We designed this descriptive study to investigate the frequency, nature, and consequences of post-drowning pneumonia. One hundred and forty-four near-drowning patients (33 children and 111 adults) admitted during four years to the University Hospital of Martinique, French Indies, were included. Patients presented pre-hospital cardiac arrest (41%) and exhibited acute respiratory failure (54%), cardiovascular failure (27%), and lactic acidosis (75%) on admission...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142521/fatal-infections-in-older-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-on-anti-tumor-necrosis-factor-therapy
#4
Way-Seah Lee, Najib Azmi, Ruey-Terng Ng, Sik-Yong Ong, Sasheela Sri La Ponnampalavanar, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Ida Hilmi
Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years). All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140119/ct-features-of-the-usual-interstitial-pneumonia-pattern-differentiating-connective-tissue-disease-associated-interstitial-lung-disease-from-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#5
Jonathan H Chung, Christian W Cox, Steven M Montner, Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Justin M Oldham, Aliya N Husain, Rekha Vij, Imre Noth, David A Lynch, Mary E Strek
OBJECTIVE: A substantial proportion of cases of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) are due to connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether specific CT findings can help differentiate a UIP pattern of CTD-ILD from a UIP pattern of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and whether these signs are associated with survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adults visiting an ILD clinic from 2006 to 2015 enrolled in a research registry with a multidisciplinary diagnosis of CTD-ILD or IPF and a UIP pattern at high-resolution CT were included in the study...
November 15, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139564/incident-diuretic-drug-use-and-adverse-respiratory-events-among-older-adults-with-copd
#6
Nicholas T Vozoris, Xuesong Wang, Peter C Austin, Denis E O'Donnell, Shawn D Aaron, Teresa M To, Andrea S Gershon
AIMS: Diuretic drugs may theoretically improve respiratory health outcomes in COPD through several possible mechanisms, but they might also lead to respiratory harm. We evaluated the association of incident oral diuretic drug use with respiratory-related morbidity and mortality among older adults with COPD. METHODS: This was a population-based, retrospective cohort study using health administrative data from Ontario, Canada, for the period 2008-2013. We identified adults aged 66 years and older with non-palliative COPD using a validated algorithm...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139192/donepezil-is-associated-with-decreased-in-hospital-mortality-as-a-result-of-pneumonia-among-older-patients-with-dementia-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Yasuko Abe, Kentaro Shimokado, Kiyohide Fushimi
AIM: Pneumonia is one of the major causes of mortality in older adults. As the average lifespan has extended and new modalities to prevent or treat pneumonia are developed, the factors that affect the length of hospital stay (LHS) and in-hospital mortality of older patients with pneumonia have changed. The object of the present study was to determine the factors associated with LHS and mortality as a result of pneumonia among older patients with dementia. METHODS: With a retrospective cohort study design, we used the data derived from the Japanese Administrative Database and diagnosis procedure combination/per diem payment system (DPC/PDPS) database...
November 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138886/clinical-predictors-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematologic-malignancy
#8
Si-Ho Kim, Sun Young Cho, Cheol-In Kang, Hyeri Seok, Kyungmin Huh, Young Eun Ha, Doo Ryeon Chung, Nam Yong Lee, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen with high morbidity and mortality. Because of its unique antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, appropriate antimicrobial therapy for SM bacteremia is still challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients. The present study was performed to assess clinical predictors of SM bacteremia in adult patients with hematologic malignancy. From 2006 through 2016, a case-control study was performed at a tertiary-care hospital. Case patients were defined as SM bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancy...
November 14, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134688/neutropenic-fever-during-peripheral-blood-progenitor-cell-mobilization-is-associated-with-decreased-cd34-cell-collection-and-increased-apheresis-collection-days
#9
Jack Khouri, Lisa Rybicki, Navneet Majhail, Matt Kalaycio, Edward Copelan, Brad Pohlman, Brian Hill, Robert Dean, Aleksandr Lazaryan, Betty Hamilton, Steven Andresen, Ronald Sobecks, Brian Bolwell, Hien Liu
BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) mobilization with chemotherapy in addition to Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) improves cell collection compared to G-CSF alone; however, it is associated with increased risk of neutropenic fever (NF). METHODS: We analyzed risk factors for post-priming NF and NF association with autologous stem cell transplant outcomes. Between 1998 and 2008, 593 adult patients with lymphoma underwent PBPC mobilization with etoposide and G-CSF...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132070/sixteen-year-history-of-rituximab-therapy-for-1085-pemphigus-vulgaris-patients-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Soheil Tavakolpour, HamidReza Mahmoudi, Kamran Balighi, Robabeh Abedini, Maryam Daneshpazhooh
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune disease due to the production of pathogenic autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3, usually affecting both skin and mucous membranes. Recently, rituximab, a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the CD20 molecules have been regarded as a promising treatment for PV. In this study, a systematic review was conducted to conclude on how and which PV patients could benefit from rituximab infusion. Search in PubMed results in 114 relevant studies, which met the criteria...
November 10, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131899/a-comparison-of-laboratory-testing-in-teaching-vs-nonteaching-hospitals-for-2-common-medical-conditions
#11
Victoria Valencia, Vineet M Arora, Sumant R Ranji, Carlos Meza, Christopher Moriates
Importance: Robust laboratory use data are lacking to support the general assumption that teaching hospitals with trainees routinely order more laboratory tests for inpatients than do nonteaching hospitals. Objective: To quantify differences in the use of laboratory tests between teaching and nonteaching hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study was performed using a statewide database to identify hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia or cellulitis from January 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015, at teaching and nonteaching hospitals with 100 or more hospitalizations of each condition...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129117/calls-to-poison-centers-for-hookah-smoking-exposures
#12
Sandra S Retzky, Henry A Spiller, Priscilla Callahan-Lyon
Over the past decade, smoking behaviors have changed in the US. Hookah or waterpipe smoking is increasing, especially among youth and young adults. Social media sites describe the "hookah high" or "buzz", which may be related to nicotine, carbon monoxide, or other inhalants in hookah smoke. Most important is the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case reports include a high number of victims presenting with loss of consciousness from either syncope or seizures. Anaphylaxis and a very rare respiratory hypersensitivity reaction, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, have also been reported from hookah smoking in previously healthy young adults...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126268/duration-of-antibiotic-use-among-adults-with-uncomplicated-community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-in-the-united-states
#13
Sarah H Yi, Kelly M Hatfield, James Baggs, Lauri A Hicks, Arjun Srinivasan, Sujan Reddy, John A Jernigan
Background: Previous studies suggest duration of antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) often exceeds national recommendations and might represent an important opportunity to improve antibiotic stewardship nationally. The objective of this study was to determine average length of antibiotic therapy (LOT) for patients treated for uncomplicated CAP in US hospitals and proportion of patients with excessive durations. Methods: Records of retrospective cohorts of patients 18-64 years with private insurance and ≥65 years with Medicare hospitalized for CAP in 2012-13 were utilized...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120096/the-association-between-oral-health-status-and-respiratory-pathogen-colonization-with-pneumonia-risk-in-institutionalized-adults
#14
Chl Hong, M M Aung, K Kanagasabai, C A Lim, S Liang, K S Tan
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the oral health and the prevalence of pre-existing oral colonization with respiratory pathogens in dependent elderly, and whether these factors influence pneumonia development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants residing in a long-term care facility received bedside oral examinations, and information on their oral health (caries status, calculus index and debris index) was obtained. Samples from the tongue and teeth were collected at baseline and at time of pneumonia development...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119848/management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-immunocompetent-adults-updated-swedish-guidelines-2017
#15
Simon Athlin, Christer Lidman, Anders Lundqvist, Pontus Naucler, Anna C Nilsson, Carl Spindler, Kristoffer Strålin, Jonas Hedlund
Based on expert group work, Swedish recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults are here updated. The management of sepsis-induced hypotension is addressed in detail, including monitoring and parenteral therapy. The importance of respiratory support in cases of acute respiratory failure is emphasized. Treatment with high-flow oxygen and non-invasive ventilation is recommended. The use of statins or steroids in general therapy is not found to be fully supported by evidence. In the management of pleural infection, new data show favourable effects of tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease installation...
November 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119074/case-report-on-a-defective-antibody-response-against-pneumococcal-serotype-9v-in-a-patient-with-a-single-episode-of-pneumonia
#16
Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters, Ger Rijkers
Background: Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal pneumonia an impaired antibody response to the infecting pneumococcal serotype can sometimes be found. It is unknown whether these patients are unable to produce an adequate anti-polysaccharide antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination after recovery. Case presentation: The authors describe a case of invasive pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9V in a previously healthy 35-year-old female...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118045/measurement-of-selected-preventable-adverse-drug-events-in-electronic-health-records-toward-developing-a-complexity-score
#17
Nakyung Jeon, Magarita Sorokina, Carl Henriksen, Ben Staley, Gloria Pflugfelder Lipori, Almut G Winterstein
PURPOSE: The defining of a select number of high-priority preventable adverse drug events (pADEs) for measurement in the electronic health record (EHR) and the estimation of pADE incidences in two tertiary care facilities are described. METHODS: This study was part of a larger effort aimed at developing an automated electronic health record (EHR)-based complexity-score (C-score) that ranks hospitalized patients according to their risk for pADEs for clinical intervention...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117669/late-diagnosis-of-influenza-in-adult-patients-during-a-seasonal-outbreak
#18
Seong-Ho Choi, Jin-Won Chung, Tark Kim, Ki-Ho Park, Mi Suk Lee, Yee Gyung Kwak
Background/Aims: Due to advances in diagnostic techniques, clinicians are more frequently performing influenza diagnostic tests and referring to their test results ahead of the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). To investigate the clinical significance of the time from symptom onset to laboratory diagnosis, we reviewed the clinical characteristics of adult patients with influenza who had an early laboratory diagnosis (ED) or a late laboratory diagnosis (LD) at one of four tertiary care centers during a seasonal outbreak of influenza...
November 10, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114398/multi-system-manifestations-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-young-patient
#19
Ibrahim Al Busaidi, Mohammed Al-Amin, Shadin Ibrahim, Abdullah Balkhair, Zied Gaifer
Introduction.Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a small cell-wall-lacking bacterium that belongs to the mycoplasma (Mollicutes) prokaryote micro-organisms. It is a common cause of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections in all age groups. Respiratory illness is the most common manifestation of M. pneumoniae infection; however, extrapulmonary involvement may be present or predominant. The skin, mucus membranes, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, haematopoietic system, kidneys and musculoskeletal system are the most commonly involved extrapulmonary sites...
September 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112181/vitamin-d-supplementation-in-respiratory-diseases-evidence-from-rct
#20
Carolien Mathyssen, Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez, Roger Bouillon, Wim Janssens
Pulmonary diseases are one of the most important causes for morbidity and mortality. Although vitamin D is best known for its role in calcium, phosphorus and bone homeostasis, in the recent years vitamin D has gained attention because of a wide range of extra-skeletal effects including its immunomodulatory and antibacterial potential. Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in chronic pulmonary diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis and asthma and several clinical studies have been conducted investigating the effect of vitamin D supplementation on disease outcomes...
November 2, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
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