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pneumonia in adults

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345309/a-survey-of-clinicians-regarding-respiratory-physiotherapy-intervention-for-intubated-and-mechanically-ventilated-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-what-is-current-practice-in-australian-icus
#1
Lisa van der Lee, Anne-Marie Hill, Shane Patman
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause for intensive care unit (ICU) admission resulting in high morbidity and mortality. There is a paucity of evidence regarding respiratory physiotherapy for intubated and mechanically ventilated patients with CAP, and anecdotally clinical practice is variable in this cohort. The aims of this study were to identify the degree of variability in physiotherapy practice for intubated adult patients with CAP and to explore ICU physiotherapist perceptions of current practice for this cohort and factors that influence physiotherapy treatment mode, duration, and frequency...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344805/utilization-of-cholera-toxin-b-as-a-mucosal-adjuvant-elicits-antibody-mediated-protection-against-s-pneumoniae-infection-in-mice
#2
Kari Wiedinger, Daniel Pinho, Constantine Bitsaktsis
BACKGOUND: The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines have been valuable tools for combating invasive pneumococcal infection in children and healthy adults. Despite the available vaccination strategies, pneumococcal pneumonia and associated diseases continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in individuals with chronic disease and ageing populations. Next-generation pneumococcal vaccines will need to be highly immunogenic across patient populations providing both mucosal and systemic protective immunity...
February 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343905/the-dana-farber-consortium-protocol-for-the-treatment-of-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-single-institution-experience-in-saudi-arabia
#3
Amal S Alabdulwahab, Hussein G Elsayed, Mohamed A Sherisher, Wafa M Elbjeirami, Nelly Alieldin
BACKGROUND: Recent retrospective analyses and phase II trials have shown differential outcomes in adolescents and young adults when treated with pediatric compared with adult protocols. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the Dana Farber Consortium Protocol (DFCP) in Saudi young adults diagnosed with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study we included 38 patients with de novo ALL who presented to King Abdulla Medical City in the period from June 2010 to March 2015 and received the DFCP (Princess Margret modified version)...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342028/disparities-in-knee-and-hip-arthroplasty-outcomes-an-observational-analysis-of-the-acs-nsqip-clinical-registry
#4
Peter Cram, Gillian Hawker, John Matelski, Bheeshma Ravi, Andrew Pugely, Rajiv Gandhi, Timothy Jackson
BACKGROUND: Disparities in total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have largely been studied in single center studies and using administrative data. Our objective was to investigate differences in TJA outcomes in white men, black men, white women, and black women using a large international registry. METHODS: We used 2010-2013 data from the ACS-NSQIP to identify four groups of adults (white men, black men, white women, black women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341980/implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-paediatric-nurse-driven-sedation-protocol-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#5
Lélia Dreyfus, Etienne Javouhey, Angélique Denis, Sandrine Touzet, Fabienne Bordet
BACKGROUND: Optimal sedation and analgesia is a challenge in paediatric intensive care units (PICU) because of difficulties in scoring systems and specific metabolism inducing tolerance and withdrawal. Excessive sedation is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospitalisation. Adult and paediatric data suggest that goal-directed sedation algorithms reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation. We implemented a nurse-driven sedation protocol in a PICU and evaluated its impact...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341979/are-third-generation-cephalosporins-unavoidable-for-empirical-therapy-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adult-patients-who-require-icu-admission-a-retrospective-study
#6
Geoffroy Hariri, Jacques Tankovic, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Vincent Dubée, Guillaume Leblanc, Claire Pichereau, Simon Bourcier, Naike Bigé, Jean-Luc Baudel, Arnaud Galbois, Hafid Ait-Oufella, Eric Maury
BACKGROUND: Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) are recommended for empirical antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients requiring ICU admission. However, their extensive use could promote the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Our aim was to assess whether the use of 3GCs in patients with CAP requiring ICU admission was justified. METHODS: We assessed all patients with CAP who required ICU admission during a 7-year period...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341473/pneumonia-after-cardiac-surgery-experience-of-the-national-institutes-of-health-canadian-institutes-of-health-research-cardiothoracic-surgical-trials-network
#7
Gorav Ailawadi, Helena L Chang, Patrick T O'Gara, Karen O'Sullivan, Y Joseph Woo, Joseph J DeRose, Michael K Parides, Vinod H Thourani, Sophie Robichaud, A Marc Gillinov, Wendy C Taddei-Peters, Marissa A Miller, Louis P Perrault, Robert L Smith, Lyn Goldsmith, Keith A Horvath, Kristen Doud, Kim Baio, Annetine C Gelijns, Alan J Moskowitz, Emilia Bagiella, John H Alexander, Alexander Iribarne
RATIONALE: Pneumonia remains the most common major infection after cardiac surgery despite numerous preventive measures. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively examine the timing, pathogens, and risk factors, including modifiable management practices, for postoperative pneumonia and estimate its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: A total of 5158 adult cardiac surgery patients were enrolled prospectively in a cohort study across 10 centers. All infections were adjudicated by an independent committee...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341071/comparative-study-of-2-oral-care-protocols-in-intensive-care-units
#8
Jérôme Ory, Evelyne Raybaud, Russell Chabanne, Bernard Cosserant, Jean Sébastien Faure, Renaud Guérin, Laure Calvet, Bruno Pereira, Charline Mourgues, Dominique Guelon, Ousmane Traore
BACKGROUND: The quality of oral care is important in limiting the emergence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intubated patients. Our main objective was to measure the quality improvement in oral care following the implementation of a new oral care protocol. We also monitored VAP rates. MATERIAL/METHODS: This was a cohort study of patients in 5 adult ICUs covering different specialties. During period 1, caregivers used a foam stick for oral care and during period 2 a stick and tooth brushing with aspiration...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336384/predictors-for-individual-patient-antibiotic-treatment-effect-in-hospitalised-community-acquired-pneumonia-patients
#9
Antonella F Simonetti, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Valentijn A Schweitzer, Diego Viasus, Jordi Carratalà, Douwe F Postma, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert, Marc J M Bonten
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify clinical predictors of antibiotic treatment effects in non-ICU hospitalised CAP patients. METHODS: Post-hoc analysis of three prospective cohorts (from the Netherlands and Spain) of CAP adult patients admitted to a non-ICU having received either beta-lactam monotherapy (BL), beta-lactam + macrolide (BLM), or fluoroquinolone-based therapy (FQL) as empiric antibiotic treatment. We evaluated candidate clinical predictors of treatment effects in multiple mixed-effects models by including interactions of the predictors with empiric antibiotic choice and using 30-day mortality, ICU admission, and length of hospital stay (LOS) as outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335198/gold-nanoparticles-an-efficient-antimicrobial-agent-against-enteric-bacterial-human-pathogen
#10
Shahzadi Shamaila, Noshin Zafar, Saira Riaz, Rehana Sharif, Jawad Nazir, Shahzad Naseem
Enteric bacterial human pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae, are the major cause of diarrheal infections in children and adults. Their structure badly affects the human immune system. It is important to explore new antibacterial agents instead of antibiotics for treatment. This project is an attempt to explain how gold nanoparticles affect these bacteria. We investigated the important role of the mean particle size, and the inhibition of a bacterium is dose-dependent...
April 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333320/cross-resistance-to-lincosamides-streptogramins-a-and-pleuromutilins-in-streptococcus-agalactiae-isolates-from-the-usa
#11
Paulina A Hawkins, Caitlin S Law, Benjamin J Metcalf, Sopio Chochua, Delois M Jackson, Lars F Westblade, Robert Jerris, Bernard W Beall, Lesley McGee
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of meningitis, sepsis and pneumonia in neonates in the United States. GBS also causes invasive disease in older infants, pregnant women, children and young adults with underlying medical conditions, and older adults. Resistance to lincosamides in the absence of erythromycin resistance is rare in GBS, but has been previously reported in clinical isolates, both on its own or in combination with resistance to streptogramins A and pleuromutilins (L/LSA/LSAP phenotypes)...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329668/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-us-adults
#12
Derek Y Hsu
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening disorders. The incidences, mortality and cost of SJS and TEN in US adults are not well-characterized. We analyzed data from the 2009-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the US. SJS, SJS/TEN and TEN were identified by a validated algorithm using ICD-9- CM codes. The mean incidences of SJS, SJS/TEN and TEN were 9.3, 1.6, and 1.9 per million people per year, respectively...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329459/nineteen-years-of-adult-congenital-heart-surgery-in-a-single-center
#13
Madurra Perinpanayagam, Signe H Larsen, Kristian Emmertsen, Marianne B Møller, Vibeke E Hjortdal
BACKGROUND: Adults with congenital heart disease are a growing population. We describe surgical interventions, short- and long-term mortality and morbidity, and risk factors for adverse events in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Patients over or equal to 18 years with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac surgery at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, from 1994 to 2012 were included in the study. Diagnoses, surgical procedures, postoperative complications, and survival were identified in hospital databases, medical records, and the Danish Civil Registration System...
March 2017: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326311/increased-incidence-of-adult-pneumococcal-pneumonia-during-school-holiday-periods
#14
Priya Daniel, Chamira Rodrigo, Thomas Bewick, Carmen Sheppard, Sonia Greenwood, Tricia M McKeever, Mary Slack, Wei Shen Lim
Child contact is a recognised risk factor for adult pneumococcal disease. Peaks in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence observed during winter holidays may be related to changes in social dynamics. This analysis was conducted to examine adult pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) incidence during school holiday periods. Between September 2008 and 2013, consecutive adults admitted to hospitals covering the Greater Nottingham area with a diagnosis of CAP were studied. Pneumococcal pneumonia was detected using culture and antigen detection methods...
January 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325626/group-b-streptococcal-necrotizing-pneumonia-in-a-diabetic-adult-patient
#15
Andrea Pacha, Ramiro Luna Cian, Laura Bonofiglio, Melisa Solari, Virginia Strada, Mariana Suárez, Laura Vigliarolo, Carina Tersigni, Marta Mollerach, Horacio Lopardo
The aim of this report is to describe a rare case of necrotizing pneumonia due to group B Streptococcus serotype III in a relatively young male adult (48 years old) suffering from diabetes. The organism was isolated from his pleural fluid and was only resistant to tetracycline. The patient first received ceftazidime (2g/8h i.v.)+clindamycin (300mg/8h) for 18 days and then he was discharged home and orally treated with amoxicillin clavulanic acid (1g/12h) for 23 days with an uneventful evolution. As in the cases of invasive infection by Streptococcus pyogenes, clindamycin could prevent streptococcal toxic shock syndrome...
March 18, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324748/influenza-vaccination-in-adult-patients-with-solid-tumours-treated-with-chemotherapy
#16
REVIEW
Albert Vollaard, Imke Schreuder, Lizzy Slok-Raijmakers, Wim Opstelten, Guus Rimmelzwaan, Hans Gelderblom
Patients with solid tumours receiving chemotherapy are at risk for influenza complications. Yearly influenza vaccination is recommended to patients treated with chemotherapy. However, adherence to vaccination is low, most likely due to lack of data on efficacy, optimal timing and safety of vaccination. There is scarce evidence for the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in adult patients with solid tumours and chemotherapy on reduction of pneumonia, decreased mortality and fewer interruptions of oncological treatment...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324273/acute-pancreatitis-caused-by-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-an-unusual-etiology
#17
Teresa Valdés Lacasa, María Alejandra Duarte Borges, Alicia García Marín, Covadonga Gómez Cuervo
It is well known that the most important etiologies of acute pancreatitis are gallstones and alcohol consumption. Once these causes have been ruled out, especially in young adults, it is important to consider less frequent etiologic factors such as drugs, trauma, malformations, autoimmunity or systemic diseases. Other rare and less well studied causes of this pathology are infections, among which Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been reported to cause acute pancreatitis as an unusual extrapulmonary manifestation. Here, we report the case of a 21-year-old patient who had acute idiopathic pancreatitis associated with an upper respiratory tract infection...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324171/risk-factors-for-delayed-gastric-emptying-after-esophagectomy
#18
Frank Benedix, Tobias Willems, Siegfried Kropf, Daniel Schubert, Patrick Stübs, Stephanie Wolff
PURPOSE: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is a common functional disorder after esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction. Little is known about risk factors that can predict this debilitating complication. METHODS: Patients who underwent elective esophagectomy from 2008 to 2016 in a single center were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis of DGE was based on clinical, radiological, and endoscopic findings. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to identify patient-, tumor-, and procedure-related factors that increase the risk of DGE...
March 21, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323917/gh-treatment-in-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome-3-years-longitudinal-data-in-prepubertal-children-and-adult-height-data-from-kigs-database
#19
N E Bakker, A Lindberg, J Heissler, H A Wollmann, C Camacho-Hübner, A C Hokken-Koelega
Context: Longitudinal data of children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) treated with Genotropin were registered in Pfizer-International-Growth-Database (KIGS). Objective: Evaluate efficacy and safety of GH-treatment in a unique large group of children with PWS. Design: Longitudinal data registered in KIGS, from 1987-2012. Setting: Worldwide retrospective cohort study. Patients: 522 prepubertal children treated with GH for 3 years and 173 children who had reached adult height...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323788/traumatic-colon-injury-in-damage-control-laparotomy-a-multicenter-trial-is-it-safe-to-do-a-delayed-anastomosis
#20
Leah Carey Tatebe, Andrew Jennings, Ken Tatebe, Alexandra Handy, Purvi Prajapati, Michael Smith, Tai Do, Gerald O Ogola, Rajesh R Gandhi, Therese M Duane, Stephen Luk, Laura Bruce Petrey
BACKGROUND: Delayed colonic anastomosis after damage control laparotomy (DCL) is an alternative to colostomies during a single laparotomy (SL) in high-risk patients. However, literature suggests increased colonic leak rates up to 27% with DCL, and various reported risk factors. We evaluated our regional experience to determine if delayed colonic anastomosis was associated with worse outcomes. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed across three Level I trauma centers encompassing traumatic colon injuries from January 2006 through June 2014...
April 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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