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Cortical visual impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930898/changed-crossmodal-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults-with-hearing-loss
#1
Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Previous work compellingly demonstrates a crossmodal plastic reorganization of auditory cortex in deaf individuals, leading to increased neural responses to non-auditory sensory input. Recent data indicate that crossmodal adaptive plasticity is not restricted to severe hearing impairments, but may also occur as a result of high-frequency hearing loss in older adults and affect audiovisual processing in these subjects. We here used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the effect of hearing loss in older adults on auditory cortex response patterns as well as on functional connectivity between auditory and visual cortex during audiovisual processing...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928411/visual-impairment-due-to-lissencephaly
#2
V E Marqués-Fernández, H Sánchez-Tocino, M T Escudero-Caro, R Cancho-Candela, M García-Zamora
Lissencephaly is a rare disorder due to abnormal neural migration, causing neurological impairment and clinically characterised by mental retardation and epilepsy. Any disturbance of the visual pathway can cause loss of vision. The authors describe a case of a 6-year-old boy referred to the ophthalmologist presenting poor bilateral vision. This child had no other known medical conditions, and neurological examination was completely normal. Only when a magnetic resonance imaging was made that a lissencephaly-pachygyria with band heterotopia mostly occipital was noted...
October 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919482/the-association-of-cognitive-impairment-with-gray-matter-atrophy-and-cortical-lesion-load-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#3
Sevda Diker, Arzu Ceylan Has, Aslı Kurne, Rahşan Göçmen, Kader Karlı Oğuz, Rana Karabudak
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis can impair cognition from the early stages and has been shown to be associated with gray matter damage in addition to white matter pathology. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the profile of cognitive impairment in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and the contribution of cortical inflammation, cortical and deep gray matter atrophy, and white matter lesions to cognitive decline. METHODS: Thirty patients with clinically isolated syndrome and twenty demographically- matched healthy controls underwent neuropsychologic assessment through the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery, and brain magnetic resonance imaging with double inversion recovery using a 3T scanner...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905355/-cerebral-microbleeds-in-cerebrovascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-cognitive-impairment
#4
T A Polyakova, O S Levin
AIM: To study a role of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in the diagnosis of main cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CMB were studied in 120 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and vascular dementia using 1.5T MRI in T2 * gradient echo. An impact of CMB on cognitive functions and the relationship with signs of vascular and neurodegenerative lesions of the brain were studied as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902677/perception-of-fechner-illusory-colors-in-alzheimer-disease-patients
#5
Gintaras Kaubrys, Vera Bukina, Ieva Bingelytė, Vladas Taluntis
BACKGROUND Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects cognition. A variety of visual disorders was established in AD. Fechner illusory colors are produced by a rotating disk with a black and white pattern. The purpose of our research was to explore the perception of illusory colors in AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS W recruited 40 AD patients (MMSE ≥14) and 40 normal controls (CG group) matched by age, education, gender in this prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. An achromatic Benham's disk attached to a device to control the speed and direction of rotation was used to produce illusory colors...
November 30, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877116/are-supramodality-and-cross-modal-plasticity-the-yin-and-yang-of-brain-development-from-blindness-to-rehabilitation
#6
Luca Cecchetti, Ron Kupers, Maurice Ptito, Pietro Pietrini, Emiliano Ricciardi
Research in blind individuals has primarily focused for a long time on the brain plastic reorganization that occurs in early visual areas. Only more recently, scientists have developed innovative strategies to understand to what extent vision is truly a mandatory prerequisite for the brain's fine morphological architecture to develop and function. As a whole, the studies conducted to date in sighted and congenitally blind individuals have provided ample evidence that several "visual" cortical areas develop independently from visual experience and do process information content regardless of the sensory modality through which a particular stimulus is conveyed: a property named supramodality...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857034/superficial-temporal-artery-to-middle-cerebral-artery-bypass-with-interposed-saphenous-vein-graft-in-patients-with-atherosclerotic-internal-carotid-artery-occlusive-disease-and-impaired-cerebral-hemodynamics
#7
Petr Galkin, Artem Gushcha, Andrey Chechetkin, Irina Krotenkova
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of interposed saphenous vein graft (SVG) usage during extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery in patients with cerebral ischemia and appropriate donor artery absence. METHODS: Since October 2010 till January 2014, 62 EC-IC bypass surgeries were applied in 60 patients. In nineteen patients SVG was used to create low-flow bypasses between superficial temporal artery trunk and cortical segment of middle cerebral artery...
February 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856748/rapid-recovery-from-the-effects-of-early-monocular-deprivation-is-enabled-by-temporary-inactivation-of-the-retinas
#8
Ming-Fai Fong, Donald E Mitchell, Kevin R Duffy, Mark F Bear
A half-century of research on the consequences of monocular deprivation (MD) in animals has revealed a great deal about the pathophysiology of amblyopia. MD initiates synaptic changes in the visual cortex that reduce acuity and binocular vision by causing neurons to lose responsiveness to the deprived eye. However, much less is known about how deprivation-induced synaptic modifications can be reversed to restore normal visual function. One theoretically motivated hypothesis is that a period of inactivity can reduce the threshold for synaptic potentiation such that subsequent visual experience promotes synaptic strengthening and increased responsiveness in the visual cortex...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852785/dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-gaba-concentration-in-humans-predicts-working-memory-load-processing-capacity
#9
Jong H Yoon, Anthony Grandelis, Richard J Maddock
: The discovery of neural mechanisms of working memory (WM) would significantly enhance our understanding of complex human behaviors and guide treatment development for WM-related impairments found in neuropsychiatric conditions and aging. Although the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has long been considered critical for WM, we still know little about the neural elements and pathways within the DLPFC that support WM in humans. In this study, we tested whether an individual's DLPFC gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) content predicts individual differences in WM task performance using a novel behavioral approach...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851900/residual-perception-of-biological-motion-in-cortical-blindness
#10
Ruffieux Nicolas, Ramon Meike, Lao Junpeng, Colombo Françoise, Stacchi Lisa, Borruat François-Xavier, Accolla Ettore, Annoni Jean-Marie, Caldara Roberto
From birth, the human visual system shows a remarkable sensitivity for perceiving biological motion. This visual ability relies on a distributed network of brain regions and can be preserved even after damage of high-level ventral visual areas. However, it remains unknown whether this critical biological skill can withstand the loss of vision following bilateral striate damage. To address this question, we tested the categorization of human and animal biological motion in BC, a rare case of cortical blindness after anoxia-induced bilateral striate damage...
November 13, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836108/post-stroke-cognitive-impairment-a-cross-sectional-comparison-study-between-mild-cognitive-impairment-of-vascular-and-non-vascular-etiology
#11
K P Divya, Ramshekhar N Menon, Ravi Prasad Varma, P N Sylaja, Bejoy Thomas, C Kesavadas, J Sunitha, V S Lekha, S Deepak
PURPOSE: To elucidate the cognitive profiles of post-stroke vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) in comparison to MCI of non-vascular etiology and cognitively normal healthy controls at a tertiary-care hospital in southern India. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and sex comparing VaMCI [N=50] with controls [N=27] revealed significant impairment in visual, verbal learning-recall and executive function scores. As compared to the MCI group [N=36], VaMCI had significantly higher scores on Weschler's Memory Scale (WMS) verbal subset delayed recall scores (p=0...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833789/impaired-visual-cortical-processing-of-affective-facial-information-in-schizophrenia
#12
S Maher, T Ekstrom, Y Chen
Facial emotion perception impairment in schizophrenia is currently viewed as abnormal affective processing. Facial emotion perception also relies on visual processing. Yet, visual cortical processing of facial emotion is not well understood in this disorder. We measured perceptual thresholds for detecting facial fear and happiness in patients (n=23) and controls (n=23), and adjusted emotion intensity of facial stimuli (via morphing between images of neutral and emotive expressions) for each subject. We then evaluated activations of the visual cortex and amygdala during the performance of perceptually-equated facial emotion detection tasks...
July 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821110/ocular-findings-in-patients-with-spastic-type-cerebral-palsy
#13
Myung Jin Park, Yung Ju Yoo, Chin Youb Chung, Jeong-Min Hwang
BACKGROUND: Refractive errors, strabismus, nystagmus, amblyopia, and cortical visual impairment are observed in 50 to 90 % of patients with cerebral palsy. Ocular abnormalities are known to differ according to cerebral palsy type, and spastic type has been reported to be more likely to be associated with ocular defects than the athetoid and ataxic types. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was performed on 105 consecutive children with spastic type of cerebral palsy who underwent ophthalmologic examination between July 2003 and March 2006...
November 8, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807412/fluoxetine-does-not-enhance-visual-perceptual-learning-and-triazolam-specifically-impairs-learning-transfer
#14
Alice K Lagas, Joanna M Black, Winston D Byblow, Melanie K Fleming, Lucy K Goodman, Robert R Kydd, Bruce R Russell, Cathy M Stinear, Benjamin Thompson
The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine significantly enhances adult visual cortex plasticity within the rat. This effect is related to decreased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated inhibition and identifies fluoxetine as a potential agent for enhancing plasticity in the adult human brain. We tested the hypothesis that fluoxetine would enhance visual perceptual learning of a motion direction discrimination (MDD) task in humans. We also investigated (1) the effect of fluoxetine on visual and motor cortex excitability and (2) the impact of increased GABA mediated inhibition following a single dose of triazolam on post-training MDD task performance...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800263/clinical-characteristics-and-low-vision-rehabilitation-methods-for-partially-sighted-school-age-children
#15
Zuhal Özen Tunay, Deniz Çalışkan, Aysun İdil, Derya Öztuna
OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined...
April 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773904/frontal-cortical-dysfunction-in-parkinson-s-disease-pd-comparison-of-memory-based-smooth-pursuit-and-anti-saccade-tasks-and-neuropsychological-and-motor-symptom-evaluations
#16
Norie Ito, Hidetoshi Takei, Susumu Chiba, Kikuro Fukushima
We reported recently that during a memory-based smooth-pursuit task, most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibited normal cue-information memory but impaired smooth-pursuit preparation and execution. A minority of PD patients had abnormal cue-information memory or difficulty in understanding the task. To further examine differences between these two groups, we assigned an anti-saccade task and compared correct rates with various neuropsychological and motor symptom evaluations. The anti-saccade task requires voluntary saccades in the opposite direction to a visual stimulus, and patients with frontal cortical impairments are known to exhibit reflexive saccades (errors)...
November 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743250/multimodal-analysis-to-predict-shunt-surgery-outcome-of-284-patients-with-suspected-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#17
Antti J Luikku, Anette Hall, Ossi Nerg, Anne M Koivisto, Mikko Hiltunen, Seppo Helisalmi, Sanna-Kaisa Herukka, Anna Sutela, Maria Kojoukhova, Jussi Mattila, Jyrki Lötjönen, Jaana Rummukainen, Irina Alafuzoff, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Anne M Remes, Hilkka Soininen, Ville Leinonen
OBJECTIVES: Optimal selection of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients for shunt surgery is challenging. Disease State Index (DSI) is a statistical method that merges multimodal data to assist clinical decision-making. It has previously been shown to be useful in predicting progression in mild cognitive impairment and differentiating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia. In this study, we use the DSI method to predict shunt surgery response for patients with iNPH...
October 14, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732573/cortico-fugal-output-from-visual-cortex-promotes-plasticity-of-innate-motor-behaviour
#18
Bao-Hua Liu, Andrew D Huberman, Massimo Scanziani
The mammalian visual cortex massively innervates the brainstem, a phylogenetically older structure, via cortico-fugal axonal projections. Many cortico-fugal projections target brainstem nuclei that mediate innate motor behaviours, but the function of these projections remains poorly understood. A prime example of such behaviours is the optokinetic reflex (OKR), an innate eye movement mediated by the brainstem accessory optic system, that stabilizes images on the retina as the animal moves through the environment and is thus crucial for vision...
October 12, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723706/-cerebral-microbleeds-in-cerebrovascular-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-with-cognitive-impairment
#19
T A Polyakova, O S Levin
AIM: To study a role of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in the diagnosis of main cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases with cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CMB were studied in 120 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and vascular dementia using 1.5T MRI in T2 * gradient echo. An impact of CMB on cognitive functions and the relationship with signs of vascular and neurodegenerative lesions of the brain were studied as well...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711139/dichoptic-metacontrast-masking-functions-to-infer-transmission-delay-in-optic-neuritis
#20
Maximilian Bruchmann, Catharina Korsukewitz, Julia Krämer, Heinz Wiendl, Sven G Meuth
Optic neuritis (ON) has detrimental effects on the transmission of neuronal signals generated at the earliest stages of visual information processing. The amount, as well as the speed of transmitted visual signals is impaired. Measurements of visual evoked potentials (VEP) are often implemented in clinical routine. However, the specificity of VEPs is limited because multiple cortical areas are involved in the generation of P1 potentials, including feedback signals from higher cortical areas. Here, we show that dichoptic metacontrast masking can be used to estimate the temporal delay caused by ON...
2016: PloS One
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