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Cortical visual impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650994/abnormal-global-functional-network-connectivity-and-its-relationship-to-medial-temporal-atrophy-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#1
Can Sheng, Mingrui Xia, Haikuo Yu, Yue Huang, Yan Lu, Fang Liu, Yong He, Ying Han
BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which is recently considered as a high risk status for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), manifests with gray matter atrophy and increased focal functional activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). However, the abnormalities of whole-brain functional network connectivity in aMCI and its relationship to medial temporal atrophy (MTA) remain unknown. METHODS: In this study, thirty-six aMCI patients and thirty-five healthy controls (HCs) were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647439/testing-the-effects-of-expression-intensity-and-age-on-emotional-face-processing-in-asd
#2
Rhiannon J Luyster, Johanna Bick, Alissa Westerlund, Charles A Nelson
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly show global deficits in the processing of facial emotion, including impairments in emotion recognition and slowed processing of emotional faces. Growing evidence has suggested that these challenges may increase with age, perhaps due to minimal improvement with age in individuals with ASD. In the present study, we explored the role of age, emotion type and emotion intensity in face processing for individuals with and without ASD. Twelve- and 18 to 22- year-old children with and without ASD participated...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637840/promoting-sleep-oscillations-and-their-functional-coupling-by-transcranial-stimulation-enhances-memory-consolidation-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Julia Ladenbauer, Josef Ladenbauer, Nadine Külzow, Rebecca de Boor, Elena Avramova, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) not only involves loss of memory functions but also prominent deterioration of sleep physiology, already evident in the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cortical slow oscillations (SO, 0.5-1 Hz) and thalamo-cortical spindle activity (12-15 Hz) during sleep, and their temporal coordination, are considered critical for memory formation. We investigated the potential of slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (so-tDCS), applied during a daytime nap in a sleep state-dependent manner, to modulate these activity patterns and sleep-related memory consolidation in 9 male and 7 female human patients with MCI...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635423/inner-retinal-dystrophy-in-a-patient-with-biallelic-sequence-variants-in-brat1
#4
Julius T Oatts, Jacque L Duncan, Creig S Hoyt, Anne M Slavotinek, Anthony T Moore
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the BRCA1-associated protein required for the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) activation-1 (BRAT1) gene cause lethal neonatal rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome characterized by rigidity and intractable seizures and a milder phenotype with intellectual disability, seizures, nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia or dyspraxia, and cerebellar atrophy. To date, nystagmus, cortical visual impairment, impairment of central vision, optic nerve hypoplasia, and optic atrophy have been described in this condition...
March 2, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625940/prodromal-stage-of-disease-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-how-to-diagnose-in-practice
#5
Frédéric Blanc, Marc Verny
Disease with Lewy bodies or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), particularly at the prodromal stage, is a complex disease to diagnose because of different clinical beginnings and variable paths in terms of clinical expression. Thus DLB can be entcountered in different input modes: mild cognitive impairment, depression, acute behavioral disorders, confusion and delirium, or sleep disorders. In the aim to better diagnose the disease, should be sought obviously to search for the key symptoms: fluctuations, hallucinations, extra-pyramidal syndrome, and REM sleep behavior disorder...
June 1, 2017: Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600679/resting-state-bold-oscillation-frequency-predicts-vigilance-task-performance-at-both-normal-and-high-environmental-temperatures
#6
Xiaopeng Song, Shaowen Qian, Kai Liu, Shuqin Zhou, Huaiqiu Zhu, Qihong Zou, Yijun Liu, Gang Sun, Jia-Hong Gao
Hyperthermia may impair vigilance functions and lead to slower reaction times (RTs) in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and possibly disturbing cerebral hemodynamic rhythms. To test these hypotheses, we acquired the resting-state BOLD and cerebral blood flow (CBF) data, as well as PVTRTs from 15 participants in two simulated environmental thermal conditions (50 °C/25 °C). We adopted a data-driven method, frequency component analysis, to quantify the mean frequency of the BOLD series of each voxel. Across-subject correlation analysis was employed to detect the brain areas whose BOLD oscillation frequency was correlated with the RTs...
June 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600444/deconstructing-psychosis-and-misperception-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Yoshiyuki Nishio, Kayoko Yokoi, Makoto Uchiyama, Yasuyuki Mamiya, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Miyeong Gang, Toru Baba, Atsushi Takeda, Kazumi Hirayama, Etsuro Mori
OBJECTIVE: Patients with Lewy body disease develop a variety of psychotic and misperception symptoms, including visual hallucinations and delusions, as well as 'minor hallucinations', that is, a sense of presence, passage hallucinations and visual illusions. Although these symptoms have been suggested to have common underlying mechanisms, the commonalities and differences among them have not been systematically investigated at the neural level. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with Parkinson's disease underwent neuropsychological and behavioural assessments, volumetric MRI and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591477/reduced-glucose-metabolism-in-neocortical-network-nodes-remote-from-hypothalamic-hamartomas-reflects-cognitive-impairment
#8
Kathrin Wagner, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Horst Urbach, Michael Trippel, Timo S Spehl, Franziska Buschmann, Birgitta Metternich, Isabell Ofer, Philipp T Meyer, Lars Frings
The clinical appearance of patients with hypothalamic hamartomas is very heterogeneous, and interindividual variability of intellectual abilities is not completely understood. We retrospectively investigated cerebral dysfunction as indicated by reduced regional glucose metabolism in 29 patients (age range 7-49 years) with epilepsy due to hypothalamic hamartomas. Brain metabolism assessed by [(18) F]FDG-PET was compared between patients with and without cognitive impairment controlled for unevenly distributed hamartoma lateralization seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582479/restless-rest-intrinsic-sensory-hyperactivity-and-disinhibition-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Kevin Clancy, Mingzhou Ding, Edward Bernat, Norman B Schmidt, Wen Li
Post-traumatic stress disorder is characterized by exaggerated threat response, and theoretical accounts to date have focused on impaired threat processing and dysregulated prefrontal-cortex-amygdala circuitry. Nevertheless, evidence is accruing for broad, threat-neutral sensory hyperactivity in post-traumatic stress disorder. As low-level, sensory processing impacts higher-order operations, such sensory anomalies can contribute to widespread dysfunctions, presenting an additional aetiological mechanism for post-traumatic stress disorder...
June 3, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566609/progressive-b%C3%A3-lint-s-syndrome-in-a-patient-demonstrating-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#10
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Yoshifumi Nakashima
We herein report a 65-year-old man demonstrating dementia with Lewy bodies who first presented with Bálint's syndrome. Two years later, a mild cognitive impairment was noted. From three years after onset, he developed progressive parkinsonism, visual hallucination, and autonomic dysfunction, in line with the deterioration of the cognitive function. Single photon emission computed tomography with a (99m)Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer performed two years after onset revealed hypoperfusion in the restricted area of the bilateral superior parietal lobule, which extended to the lateral occipital cortices within two years...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557398/-characteristic-of-the-cognitive-evoked-potentials-at-elderly-people-with-cognitive-decline
#11
I N Deryabina, Yu S Dzhos
Results of research of cognitive visual evoked potentials at elderly women with various level of cognitive decline are shown in article. Both relevance of the early diagnostics of cognitive disorders and expedience of using of methods of functional neurovisualization to reveal higher cortical dysfunctions are shown also. To appraise cognitive functions we applied express-method of evaluating of cognitive functions during normal aging. According to results of this test two groups were created: the 1st - women without cognitive disorders, the 2nd - with mild cognitive impairment...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542002/assessment-of-behavioral-disruption-in-rats-with-abdominal-inflammation-using-visual-cue-titration-and-the-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#12
Thomas J Martin, Tracy J Strassburg, Amanda L Grigg, Susy A Kim, Douglas G Ririe, James C Eisenach
BACKGROUND: Both acute and chronic pain result in a number of behavioral symptoms in patients, including cognitive effects such as decreased attention and working memory. Intraperitoneal administration of dilute lactic acid in rodents has been used to induce abdominal inflammation and produce effects in behavioral assays of both sensory-discriminative and affective pain modalities. METHODS: Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid was used to study the impact of abdominal inflammation on an operant task requiring sustained visual attention in rats (N = 7 to 15/group) that adapts dynamically to performance ability...
May 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536518/mri-visual-ratings-of-brain-atrophy-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-across-the-spectrum-of-cognitive-decline-are-differently-affected-by-age-and-diagnosis
#13
Hanneke F M Rhodius-Meester, Marije R Benedictus, Mike P Wattjes, Frederik Barkhof, Philip Scheltens, Majon Muller, Wiesje M van der Flier
Aim: To assess the associations of age and diagnosis with visual ratings of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), parietal atrophy (PA), global cortical atrophy (GCA), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and to investigate their clinical value in a large memory clinic cohort. Methods: We included 2,934 patients (age 67 ± 9 years; 1,391 [47%] female; MMSE 24 ± 5) from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (1,347 dementia due to Alzheimer's disease [AD]; 681 mild cognitive impairment [MCI]; 906 controls with subjective cognitive decline)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536269/a-cognition-related-neural-oscillation-pattern-generated-in-the-prelimbic-cortex-can-control-operant-learning-in-rats
#14
Samuel Hernández-González, Celia Andreu-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel Martín-Pascual, Agnès Gruart, José María Delgado-García
The prelimbic (PrL) cortex constitutes one of the highest levels of cortical hierarchy dedicated to the execution of adaptive behaviors. We have identified a specific local field potential (LFP) pattern generated in the PrL cortex and associated with cognition-related behaviors. We used this pattern to trigger the activation of a visual display on a touch screen as part of an operant conditioning task. Rats learned to increase the presentation rate of the selected θ to β-γ (θ/β-γ) transition pattern across training sessions...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536070/cotinine-improves-visual-recognition-memory-and-decreases-cortical-tau-phosphorylation-in-the-tg6799-mice
#15
J Alex Grizzell, Sagar Patel, George E Barreto, Valentina Echeverria
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the progressive aggregation of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule associated protein Tau in the central nervous system. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, reduced working memory deficits, synaptic loss, and amyloid β peptide aggregation into oligomers and plaques as well as inhibited the cerebral Tau kinase, glycogen synthase 3β (GSK3β) in the transgenic (Tg)6799 (5XFAD) mice. In this study, the effect of cotinine on visual recognition memory and cortical Tau phosphorylation at the GSK3β sites Serine (Ser)-396/Ser-404 and phospho-CREB were investigated in the Tg6799 and non-transgenic (NT) littermate mice...
May 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534484/mir-132-212-is-required-for-maturation-of-binocular-matching-of-orientation-preference-and-depth-perception
#16
Raffaele Mazziotti, Laura Baroncelli, Nicholas Ceglia, Gabriele Chelini, Grazia Della Sala, Christophe Magnan, Debora Napoli, Elena Putignano, Davide Silingardi, Jonida Tola, Paola Tognini, J Simon C Arthur, Pierre Baldi, Tommaso Pizzorusso
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to mediate post-transcriptional gene regulation, but their role in postnatal brain development is still poorly explored. We show that the expression of many miRNAs is dramatically regulated during functional maturation of the mouse visual cortex with miR-132/212 family being one of the top upregulated miRNAs. Age-downregulated transcripts are significantly enriched in miR-132/miR-212 putative targets and in genes upregulated in miR-132/212 null mice. At a functional level, miR-132/212 deletion affects development of receptive fields of cortical neurons determining a specific impairment of binocular matching of orientation preference, but leaving orientation and direction selectivity unaltered...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511918/molecular-imaging-of-serotonin-degeneration-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
Gwenn S Smith, Frederick S Barrett, Jin Hui Joo, Najlla Nassery, Alena Savonenko, Devin J Sodums, Christopher M Marano, Cynthia A Munro, Jason Brandt, Michael A Kraut, Yun Zhou, Dean F Wong, Clifford I Workman
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei)...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499557/the-effect-of-focal-cortical-frontal-and-posterior-lesions-on-recollection-and-familiarity-in-recognition-memory
#18
Vessela Stamenova, Fuqiang Gao, Sandra E Black, Michael L Schwartz, Natasha Kovacevic, Michael P Alexander, Brian Levine
Recognition memory can be subdivided into two processes: recollection (a contextually rich memory) and familiarity (a sense that an item is old). The brain network supporting recognition encompasses frontal, parietal and medial temporal regions. Which specific regions within the frontal lobe are critical for recollection vs. familiarity, however, are unknown; past studies of focal lesion patients have yielded conflicting results. We examined patients with focal lesions confined to medial polar (MP), right dorsal frontal (RDF), right frontotemporal (RFT), left dorsal frontal (LDF), temporal, and parietal regions and matched controls...
April 15, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494496/sensitivity-to-binocular-disparity-is-reduced-by-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Gunnar Schmidtmann, Tatiana Ruiz, Alexandre Reynaud, Daniel P Spiegel, Maude Laguë-Beauvais, Robert F Hess, Reza Farivar
Purpose: The impairment of visual functions is one of the most common complaints following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Traumatic brain injury-associated visual deficits include blurred vision, reading problems, and eye strain. In addition, previous studies have found evidence that TBI can diminish early cortical visual processing, particularly for second-order stimuli. We investigated whether cortical processing of binocular disparity is also affected by mTBI. Methods: In order to investigate the influence of mTBI on global stereopsis, we measured the quick Disparity Sensitivity Function (qDSF) in 22 patients with mTBI...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485725/sensory-integration-deficits-support-a-dimensional-view-of-psychosis-and-are-not-limited-to-schizophrenia
#20
O Carter, D Bennett, T Nash, S Arnold, L Brown, R Y Cai, Z Allan, A Dluzniak, K McAnally, D Burr, S Sundram
Visual dysfunction is commonplace in schizophrenia and occurs alongside cognitive, psychotic and affective symptoms of the disorder. Psychophysical evidence suggests that this dysfunction results from impairments in the integration of low-level neural signals into complex cortical representations, which may also be associated with symptom formation. Despite the symptoms of schizophrenia occurring in a range of disorders, the integration deficit has not been tested in broader patient populations. Moreover, it remains unclear whether such deficits generalize across other sensory modalities...
May 9, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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