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Cortical visual impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435768/cortical-blindness-as-severe-neuro-ophthalmological-manifestation-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#1
Alvaro I Ortiz Z, Pedro Luis Cárdenas, Luis C Escaf, Marcela Peralta
Patients with retinal lesions related to tuberous sclerous complex (TSC) commonly have no impairment of visual acuity. We present a case of a 1-year-old Hispanic girl with TSC in which bilateral cortical blindness is documented.
2017: GMS Ophthalmology Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417965/distinct-subtypes-of-alzheimer-s-disease-based-on-patterns-of-brain-atrophy-longitudinal-trajectories-and-clinical-applications
#2
Daniel Ferreira, Chloë Verhagen, Juan Andrés Hernández-Cabrera, Lena Cavallin, Chun-Jie Guo, Urban Ekman, J-Sebastian Muehlboeck, Andrew Simmons, José Barroso, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Eric Westman
Atrophy patterns on MRI can reliably predict three neuropathological subtypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD): typical, limbic-predominant, or hippocampal-sparing. A method to enable their investigation in the clinical routine is still lacking. We aimed to (1) validate the combined use of visual rating scales for identification of AD subtypes; (2) characterise these subtypes at baseline and over two years; and (3) investigate how atrophy patterns and non-memory cognitive domains contribute to memory impairment...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409050/correlation-of-mri-visual-scales-with-neuropsychological-profile-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos, João Santos Pereira, Marcelo Adachi, Denise Greca, Manuela Cruz, Ana Lara Malak, Helenice Charchat-Fichman, Mariana Spitz
Few studies have evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visual scales in Parkinson's disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI). We selected 79 PD patients and 92 controls (CO) to perform neurologic and neuropsychological evaluation. Brain MRI was performed to evaluate the following scales: Global Cortical Atrophy (GCA), Fazekas, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA). The analysis revealed that both PD groups (amnestic and nonamnestic) showed worse performance on several tests when compared to CO. Memory, executive function, and attention impairment were more severe in amnestic PD-MCI group...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404802/visual-discrimination-training-improves-humphrey-perimetry-in-chronic-cortically-induced-blindness
#4
Matthew R Cavanaugh, Krystel R Huxlin
OBJECTIVE: To assess if visual discrimination training improves performance on visual perimetry tests in chronic stroke patients with visual cortex involvement. METHODS: 24-2 and 10-2 Humphrey visual fields were analyzed for 17 chronic cortically blind stroke patients prior to and following visual discrimination training, as well as in 5 untrained, cortically blind controls. Trained patients practiced direction discrimination, orientation discrimination, or both, at nonoverlapping, blind field locations...
April 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400089/neural-noise-hypothesis-of-developmental-dyslexia
#5
REVIEW
Roeland Hancock, Kenneth R Pugh, Fumiko Hoeft
Developmental dyslexia (decoding-based reading disorder; RD) is a complex trait with multifactorial origins at the genetic, neural, and cognitive levels. There is evidence that low-level sensory-processing deficits precede and underlie phonological problems, which are one of the best-documented aspects of RD. RD is also associated with impairments in integrating visual symbols with their corresponding speech sounds. Although causal relationships between sensory processing, print-speech integration, and fluent reading, and their neural bases are debated, these processes all require precise timing mechanisms across distributed brain networks...
April 8, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399055/long-term-visual-and-ocular-sequelae-in-patients-with-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#6
Haoxing Jin, Gail J Demmler-Harrison, David K Coats, Evelyn A Paysse, Amit Bhatt, Jane C Edmond, Kimberly G Yen, Paul Steinkuller, Jerry Miller
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common congenital viral infection in the United States. Visual and ocular sequelae in adolescents and adults who are congenitally infected with CMV have not been well studied. Better understanding of the long-term visual and ocular sequelae can help with early detection, intervention, and appropriate educational accommodations. METHODS: This study evaluated 237 (77 symptomatic, 109 asymptomatic, and 51 control) patients who underwent a series of age-appropriate ophthalmologic, audiologic, and neurodevelopmental examinations from 1982 to 2013...
April 10, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397182/evaluation-and-clinical-correlation-of-practical-cut-offs-for-visual-rating-scales-of-atrophy-normal-aging-versus-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Anne-Sophie Vanhoenacker, Bernard Sneyers, Frederik De Keyzer, Sam Heye, Philippe Demaerel
Age-related brain atrophy is a common finding, but neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease are associated with accelerated atrophy of the medial temporal lobe. In current practice for brain atrophy evaluation, several rating scales are being used such as the medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy-frontal subscale (GCA-F) and posterior atrophy (PA) scales. Practical cut-offs to differentiate between normal and advanced brain atrophy are needed, because of their possible usefulness as a biomarker...
April 10, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391035/selective-verbal-recognition-memory-impairments-are-associated-with-atrophy-of-the-language-network-in-non-semantic-variants-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#8
Aneesha S Nilakantan, Joel L Voss, Sandra Weintraub, M-Marsel Mesulam, Emily J Rogalski
Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is clinically defined by an initial loss of language function and preservation of other cognitive abilities, including episodic memory. While PPA primarily affects the left-lateralized perisylvian language network, some clinical neuropsychological tests suggest concurrent initial memory loss. The goal of this study was to test recognition memory of objects and words in the visual and auditory modality to separate language-processing impairments from retentive memory in PPA...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385053/using-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-to-restore-right-occipital-cortex-activity-in-patients-with-left-visuo-spatial-neglect-proof-of-principle-and-preliminary-results
#9
Fabien Robineau, Arnaud Saj, Rémi Neveu, Dimitri Van De Ville, Frank Scharnowski, Patrik Vuilleumier
Hemineglect is common after right parietal stroke, characterised by impaired awareness for stimuli in left visual space, with suppressed neural activity in the right visual cortex due to losses in top-down attention signals. Here we sought to assess whether hemineglect patients are able to up-regulate their right visual cortex activity using auditory real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback. We also examined any effect of this training procedure on neglect severity. Two different neurofeedback methods were used...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377535/grin2b-encephalopathy-novel-findings-on-phenotype-variant-clustering-functional-consequences-and-treatment-aspects
#10
Konrad Platzer, Hongjie Yuan, Hannah Schütz, Alexander Winschel, Wenjuan Chen, Chun Hu, Hirofumi Kusumoto, Henrike O Heyne, Katherine L Helbig, Sha Tang, Marcia C Willing, Brad T Tinkle, Darius J Adams, Christel Depienne, Boris Keren, Cyril Mignot, Eirik Frengen, Petter Strømme, Saskia Biskup, Dennis Döcker, Tim M Strom, Heather C Mefford, Candace T Myers, Alison M Muir, Amy LaCroix, Lynette Sadleir, Ingrid E Scheffer, Eva Brilstra, Mieke M van Haelst, Jasper J van der Smagt, Levinus A Bok, Rikke S Møller, Uffe B Jensen, John J Millichap, Anne T Berg, Ethan M Goldberg, Isabelle De Bie, Stephanie Fox, Philippe Major, Julie R Jones, Elaine H Zackai, Rami Abou Jamra, Arndt Rolfs, Richard J Leventer, John A Lawson, Tony Roscioli, Floor E Jansen, Emmanuelle Ranza, Christian M Korff, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki, Carolina Courage, Tarja Linnankivi, Douglas R Smith, Christine Stanley, Mark Mintz, Dianalee McKnight, Amy Decker, Wen-Hann Tan, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Lauren I Brady, Markus Wolff, Lutz Dondit, Helio F Pedro, Sarah E Parisotto, Kelly L Jones, Anup D Patel, David N Franz, Rena Vanzo, Elysa Marco, Judith D Ranells, Nataliya Di Donato, William B Dobyns, Bodo Laube, Stephen F Traynelis, Johannes R Lemke
BACKGROUND: We aimed for a comprehensive delineation of genetic, functional and phenotypic aspects of GRIN2B encephalopathy and explored potential prospects of personalised medicine. METHODS: Data of 48 individuals with de novo GRIN2B variants were collected from several diagnostic and research cohorts, as well as from 43 patients from the literature. Functional consequences and response to memantine treatment were investigated in vitro and eventually translated into patient care...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369421/searching-for-biomarkers-of-cdkl5-disorder-early-onset-visual-impairment-in-cdkl5-mutant-mice
#11
Raffaele Mazziotti, Leonardo Lupori, Giulia Sagona, Mariangela Gennaro, Grazia Della Sala, Elena Putignano, Tommaso Pizzorusso
CDKL5 disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder still without a cure. Murine models of CDKL5 disorder have been recently generated raising the possibility of preclinical testing of treatments. However, unbiased, quantitative biomarkers of high translational value to monitor brain function are still missing. Moreover, the analysis of treatment is hindered by the challenge of repeatedly and noninvasively testing neuronal function.We analyzed the development of visual responses in a mouse model of CDKL5 disorder to introduce visually evoked responses as a quantitative method to assess cortical circuit function...
March 28, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367282/intraoperative-monitoring-of-flash-visual-evoked-potential-under-general-anesthesia
#12
Hironobu Hayashi, Masahiko Kawaguchi
In neurosurgical procedures that may cause visual impairment in the intraoperative period, the monitoring of flash visual evoked potential (VEP) is clinically used to evaluate visual function. Patients are unconscious during surgery under general anesthesia, making flash VEP monitoring useful as it can objectively evaluate visual function. The flash stimulus input to the retina is transmitted to the optic nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, lateral geniculate body, optic radiation (geniculocalcarine tract), and visual cortical area, and the VEP waveform is recorded from the occipital region...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362900/the-davida-teller-award-lecture-2016-visual-brain-development-a-review-of-dorsal-stream-vulnerability-motion-mathematics-amblyopia-actions-and-attention
#13
Janette Atkinson
Research in the Visual Development Unit on "dorsal stream vulnerability' (DSV) arose from research in two somewhat different areas. In the first, using cortical milestones for local and global processing from our neurobiological model, we identified cerebral visual impairment in infants in the first year of life. In the second, using photo/videorefraction in population refractive screening programs, we showed that infant spectacle wear could reduce the incidence of strabismus and amblyopia, but many preschool children, who had been significantly hyperopic earlier, showed visuo-motor and attentional deficits...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361261/diabetic-brain-or-retina-visual-psychophysical-performance-in-diabetic-patients-in-relation-to-gaba-levels-in-occipital-cortex
#14
Mafalda Sanches, Sulaiman I Abuhaiba, Otília C d'Almeida, Bruno Quendera, Leonor Gomes, Carolina Moreno, Daniela Guelho, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Visual impairment is one of the most feared complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of occipital cortex γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a predictor of visual performance in type 2 diabetes. 18 type 2 diabetes patients were included in a longitudinal prospective one-year study, as well as 22 healthy age-matched controls. We collected demographic data, HbA1C and used a novel set of visual psychophysical tests addressing color, achromatic luminance and speed discrimination in both groups...
March 30, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346588/association-between-childhood-onset-epilepsy-and-amyloid-burden-5-decades-later
#15
Juho Joutsa, Juha O Rinne, Bruce Hermann, Mira Karrasch, Anu Anttinen, Shlomo Shinnar, Matti Sillanpää
Importance: The effect of childhood epilepsy on later-life cognitive and brain health is an unclear and little-explored issue. Objective: To determine whether adults with a history of childhood-onset epilepsy exhibit increased brain amyloid accumulation, possibly predisposing to accelerated cognitive impairment or even frank cognitive disorders in later life. Design, Setting, and Participants: Forty-one adults from a population-based cohort of individuals with childhood-onset epilepsy in southwestern Finland, together with 46 matched population-based controls, underwent amyloid ligand carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography after long-term prospective follow-up...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336779/validation-of-the-semi-quantitative-static-suvr-method-for-18-f-av45-pet-by-pharmacokinetic-modeling-with-an-arterial-input-function
#16
Julie Ottoy, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Leonie Wyffels, Charisse Somers, Ellen De Roeck, Hanne Struyfs, Femke Soetewey, Steven Deleye, Tobi Van den Bossche, Sara Van Mossevelde, Sarah Ceyssens, Jan Versijpt, Sigrid Stroobants, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Steven Staelens
Increased brain uptake of [(18)F]-AV45 visualized by PET is a key biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) is widely used for quantification, but is subject to variability based on choice of reference region and changes in cerebral blood flow. Here we validate the SUVR method against the gold standard volume of distribution (VT) to assess cross-sectional differences in plaque load. Methods: Dynamic 60-min [(18)F]-AV45 (291 ± 67 MBq) and 1-min [(15)O]-H2O (370 MBq) scans were obtained in 35 age-matched elderly subjects, including 10 probable AD dementia, 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 10 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328855/head-to-head-comparison-of-11c-pib-and-18f-fc119s-for-a%C3%AE-imaging-in-healthy-subjects-mild-cognitive-impairment-patients-and-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Byung Hyun Byun, Byung Il Kim, Su Yeon Park, In Ok Ko, Kyo Chul Lee, Kyeong Min Kim, Yu Kyeong Kim, Jun-Young Lee, Seon Hee Bu, Jung Hwa Kim, Dae Yoon Chi, Jeong Ho Ha, Sang Moo Lim
As a new beta amyloid (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, F-FC119S has shown higher cortical uptake in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than that in healthy control subjects without adverse effects in a previous preliminary study. The aim of this study was to compare F-FC119S PET and C-PiB PET in healthy control (HC) subjects, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and AD patients.A total of 48 subjects, including 28 HC subjects, 10 MCI patients, and 10 AD patients, underwent static F-FC119S PET (30 minutes after intravenous [i...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322203/associations-between-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Austyn Roseborough, Joel Ramirez, Sandra E Black, Jodi D Edwards
INTRODUCTION: This systematic review synthesizes current evidence for associations between cortical amyloid β, visualized on amyloid positron emission tomography imaging, and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden on magnetic resonance imaging in healthy elderly adults and individuals with cognitive impairment and dementia. METHODS: Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) systematic review guidelines, we systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and PsycINFO databases from January 2000 to September 2015...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320141/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-responses-in-cadasil
#19
Ikreet Cheema, Aaron R Switzer, Cheryl R McCreary, Michael D Hill, Richard Frayne, Bradley G Goodyear, Eric E Smith
OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of the blood oxygen dependent level (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) response to visual stimulation is reduced in the small vessel disease cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), reflecting impaired vascular reactivity. We determined whether BOLD responses were reduced in another small vessel disease, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). METHODS: BOLD fMRI data were collected using a visual stimulus (contrast-reversing checkerboard) and motor task (finger-tapping)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316586/spatial-and-temporal-high-processing-of-visual-and-auditory-stimuli-in-cervical-dystonia
#20
Gaetana Chillemi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Francesca Morgante, Carmen Terranova, Vincenzo Rizzo, Paolo Girlanda, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Angelo Quartarone
OBJECTIVE: Investigation of spatial and temporal cognitive processing in idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) by means of specific tasks based on perception in time and space domains of visual and auditory stimuli. BACKGROUND: Previous psychophysiological studies have investigated temporal and spatial characteristics of neural processing of sensory stimuli (mainly somatosensorial and visual), whereas the definition of such processing at higher cognitive level has not been sufficiently addressed...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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