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Cortical visual impairment

Yu-On Jeong, Soo Jung Shin, Jun Yong Park, Bo Kyeong Ku, Ji Soo Song, Jwa-Jin Kim, Seong Gak Jeon, Sang Min Lee, Minho Moon
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death. The primary pathogenic cause is believed to be the accumulation of pathogenic amyloid beta (Aβ) assemblies in the brain. Ghrelin, which is a peptide hormone predominantly secreted from the stomach, is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). MK-0677 is a ghrelin agonist that potently stimulates the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Naoko Kurahashi, Yukiko Futamura, Norie Nonobe, Shunsuke Ogaya, Yuki Maki, Ikuko Yoshimura, Takeshi Suzuki, Yosuke Hosokawa, Keitaro Yamada, Kosaburo Aso, Koichi Maruyama, Miho Nakamura
BACKGROUND: There are few studies on hiragana reading skill and phonological awareness in Japanese schoolchildren with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). METHODS: Three seven-year-old children with PVL who had no intellectual disabilities or dysarthria were recruited. Their perinatal information, brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) at term equivalent age, accompanying neurodevelopmental disorders, ophthalmologic features, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), a hiragana reading test (four tasks), and a phonological awareness task (mora reversal tasks) were analyzed...
June 13, 2018: Brain & Development
Debra A Fleischman, Konstantinos Arfanakis, Sue Leurgans, Sheila M Keating, Melissa Lamar, David A Bennett, Oluwatoyin M Adeyemi, Lisa L Barnes
Objective: HIV infection sets off an immediate immune response and inflammatory cascade that can lead to neuronal injury and cognitive impairment, but the relationship between immune markers, regional brain volumes, and cognition remains understudied in HIV-infected adults. Methods: Cross-sectional associations were examined between serum immune markers of activation (neopterin) and inflammation (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and C-reactive protein) with regional brain volumes (cortical, subcortical, total gray matter, hippocampus, and subfields) and cognition in 66 HIV-infected, virally suppressed, adults who underwent 3...
July 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Tobias Bormann, Lars Frings, Andrea Dreßing, Volkmar Glauche, Cornelius Weiller
Pure alexia is a deficit of reading affecting the ability to process a word's letters in parallel. Instead, a slow, effortful letter-by-letter reading strategy is employed. It has been claimed that a visual impairment caused the reading impairment. The present study compares visual processing and word reading of a patient with severe visuospatial deficits due to probable posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) to two patients with pure alexia. A double dissociation emerged between visual processing and word reading: The participant with PCA was severely impaired in all visual tasks but read fluently while the patients with pure alexia read slowly but exhibited better preserved visual processing...
June 11, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Murat Bilgel, Yang An, Jessica Helphrey, Wendy Elkins, Gabriela Gomez, Dean F Wong, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Understanding short-term cognitive decline in relation to Alzheimer's neuroimaging biomarkers in early stages of the development of neuropathology and neurodegeneration will inform participant recruitment and monitoring strategies in clinical trials aimed at prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia. We assessed associations among neuroimaging measures of cerebral amyloid pathology, a hallmark Alzheimer's neuropathology, hippocampal atrophy, and prospective cognition among 171 cognitively normal Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (baseline age 56-95 years, 48% female, 562 cognitive assessments, 3...
June 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Samrah Ahmed, Muireann Irish, Clare Loane, Ian Baker, Masud Husain, Sian Thompson, Cristina Blanco-Duque, Clare Mackay, Giovanna Zamboni, David Foxe, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Christopher Butler
Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterised by progressive disruption of visual and perceptual processing, associated with atrophy in the parieto-occipital cortex. Current diagnostic criteria describe relative sparing of episodic memory function, but recent findings suggest that anterograde memory is often impaired. Whether these deficits extend to remote memory has not been addressed. A large body of evidence suggests that the recollection of an autobiographical event from the remote past coincides with the successful retrieval of visual images...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sjoerd M Bruijn, Jaap H van Dieën
During human walking, the centre of mass (CoM) is outside the base of support for most of the time, which poses a challenge to stabilizing the gait pattern. Nevertheless, most of us are able to walk without substantial problems. In this review, we aim to provide an integrative overview of how humans cope with an underactuated gait pattern. A central idea that emerges from the literature is that foot placement is crucial in maintaining a stable gait pattern. In this review, we explore this idea; we first describe mechanical models and concepts that have been used to predict how foot placement can be used to control gait stability...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Matthew J Hoptman, Emily M Parker, Sangeeta Nair-Collins, Elisa C Dias, Marina E Ross, Joanna N DiCostanzo, Pejman Sehatpour, Daniel C Javitt
Patients with schizophrenia show response inhibition deficits equal to or greater than those seen in impulse-control disorders, and these deficits contribute to poor outcome. However, little is known about the circuit abnormalities underlying this impairment. To address this, we examined stop signal task performance in 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls using event related potential (ERP) and resting state functional connectivity. Patients showed prolonged stop signal reaction time (SSRT) and reduced N1, N2, and P3 amplitudes compared to controls...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Deepti Putcha, Scott M McGinnis, Michael Brickhouse, Bonnie Wong, Janet C Sherman, Bradford C Dickerson
Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that typically presents with predominant visual and spatial impairments. The early diagnostic criteria specify a relative sparing of functioning in other cognitive domains, including executive functions, language, and episodic memory, yet little is known of the cognitive profile of PCA as the disease progresses. Studies of healthy adults and other posterior cortical lesion patients implicate posterior parietal and temporal regions in executive functions of working memory and verbal fluency, both of which may impact episodic memory...
May 10, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Leslie S Gaynor, Sarah A Johnson, Jack Morgan Mizell, Keila T Campos, Andrew P Maurer, Russell M Bauer, Sara N Burke
The perirhinal cortex (PRC) supports associative memory and perception, and PRC dysfunction impairs animals' abilities to associate stimulus features across sensory modalities. PRC damage also leads to deficits in discriminating between stimuli that share features. Although PRC-dependent stimulus discrimination has been shown to be impaired with advanced age, data regarding the abilities of older adults and other animals to form PRC-dependent associations have been equivocal. Moreover, the extent to which similar neural computations within the PRC support associative memory versus discrimination abilities have not been directly examined...
June 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Robert S Hurley, M-Marsel Mesulam, Jaiashre Sridhar, Emily J Rogalski, Cynthia K Thompson
The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-S) is diagnosed based on impaired single-word comprehension, but nonverbal impairments in face and object recognition can also be present, particularly in later disease stages. PPA-S is associated with focal atrophy in the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL), often accompanied by a lesser degree of atrophy in the right ATL. According to a dual-route account, the left ATL is critical for verbal access to conceptual knowledge while nonverbal access to conceptual knowledge depends upon the integrity of right ATL...
May 23, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Nathalia Zak, Torgeir Moberget, Erlend Bøen, Birgitte Boye, Trine R Waage, Espen Dietrichs, Nina Harkestad, Ulrik F Malt, Lars T Westlye, Ole A Andreassen, Stein Andersson, Torbjørn Elvsåshagen
Visual evoked potential (VEP) plasticity is a promising assay for noninvasive examination of long-term potentiation (LTP)-like synaptic processes in the cerebral cortex. We conducted longitudinal and cross-sectional investigations of VEP plasticity in controls and individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) type II. VEP plasticity was assessed at baseline, as described previously (Elvsåshagen et al. Biol Psychiatry 2012), and 2.2 years later, at follow-up. The longitudinal sample with VEP data from both time points comprised 29 controls and 16 patients...
May 24, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Emma M Coppen, Jeroen van der Grond, Ellen P Hart, Egbert A J F Lakke, Raymund A C Roos
The processing of visual stimuli from retina to higher cortical areas has been extensively studied in the human brain. In Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, it is suggested that visual processing deficits are present in addition to more characteristic signs such as motor disturbances, cognitive dysfunction, and behavioral changes. Visual deficits are clinically important because they influence overall cognitive performance and have implications for daily functioning. The aim of this review is to summarize current literature on clinical visual deficits, visual cognitive impairment, and underlying visual cortical changes in HD patients...
May 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ali Khaleghi, Hadi Zarafshan, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi
We designed a study to investigate the patterns of the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and auditory steady-state response (ASSR) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when performing a motor response inhibition task. Thirty 12- to 18-year-old adolescents with ADHD and 30 healthy control adolescents underwent an electroencephalogram (EEG) examination during steady-state stimuli when performing a stop-signal task. Then, we calculated the amplitude and phase of the steady-state responses in both visual and auditory modalities...
May 22, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Michael J Gale, Hope E Titus, Gareth A Harman, Talal Alabduljalil, Anna Dennis, Jenny L Wilson, David M Koeller, Erika Finanger, Peter A Blasco, Pei-Wen Chiang, Daniel J Karr, Paul Yang
Purpose: We present the first detailed ophthalmic description of a child with Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome (HVDAS), including longitudinal follow-up and analysis. Observations: After extensive workup, a young child with poor visual behavior, hypotonic cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and global developmental delay was found to have a heterozygous de novo mutation in the ADNP gene and diagnosed with HVDAS. Ophthalmic findings were remarkable for progressive nystagmus, macular pigment mottling, mild foveal hypoplasia with abnormal macular laminations, persistent rod dysfunction with electronegative waveform, and progressive cone degeneration...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Denisa Salihović, Dževdet Smajlović, Milija Mijajlović, Emina Zoletić, Omer Ć Ibrahimagić
AIM: The aim of this study is to determine impairments of certain cognitive functions in certain vascular cognitive syndromes and to identify predictors of dementia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-year prospective study included 275 patients, who were hospitalized at the Department of Neurology Tuzla and therefore fulfilled certain criteria. Patients were divided into following subgroups of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI): dementia of strategic infarct (DSI), cortical dementia (CD), sub cortical dementia (SCD), hemorrhagic dementia (HD), and patients without dementia...
May 19, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Jae Myeong Kang, Jun-Young Lee, Yu Kyeong Kim, Bo Kyung Sohn, Min Soo Byun, Ji Eun Choi, Soo Kyung Son, Hyung-Jun Im, Jae-Hoon Lee, Young Hoon Ryu, Dong Young Lee
BACKGROUND: Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is useful to predict Alzheimer's disease (AD) conversion in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, few studies have examined the extent to which FDG PET alone can predict AD conversion and compared the efficacy between visual and computer-assisted analysis directly. OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate the value of FDG PET in predicting the conversion to AD in patients with MCI and to compare the predictive values of visual reading and computer-assisted analysis...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Qianli Meng, Yan Huang, Ding Cui, Lixia He, Lin Chen, Yuanye Ma, Xudong Zhao
Introduction: "Where to begin" is a fundamental question of vision. A "Global-first" topological approach proposed that the first step in object representation was to extract topological properties, especially whether the object had a hole or not. Numerous psychophysical studies found that the hole (closure) could be rapidly recognized by visual system as a primitive property. However, neuroimaging studies showed that the temporal lobe (IT), which lied at a late stage of ventral pathway, was involved as a dedicated region...
May 2018: Brain and Behavior
Matthias Krause, Jan Hubert, Simon Deymann, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Birgit Wulff, Andreas Petersik, Klaus Püschel, Michael Amling, Thelonius Hawellek, Karl-Heinz Frosch
BACKGROUND: Impaired bone structure poses a challenge for the treatment of osteoporotic tibial plateau fractures. As knowledge of region-specific structural bone alterations is a prerequisite to achieving successful long-term fixation, the aim of the current study was to characterize tibial plateau bone structure in patients with osteoporosis and the elderly. METHODS: Histomorphometric parameters were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in 21 proximal tibiae from females with postmenopausal osteoporosis (mean age: 84...
May 7, 2018: Knee
Di Zhao, Yixuan Ku
Neural activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been suggested to integrate information from distinct sensory areas. However, how the DLPFC interacts with the bilateral primary somatosensory cortices (SIs) in tactile-visual cross-modal working memory has not yet been established. In the present study, we applied single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sp-TMS) over the contralateral DLPFC and bilateral SIs of human participants at various time points, while they performed a tactile-visual delayed matching-to-sample task with a 2-second delay...
May 1, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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