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Cortical visual impairment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225736/effects-of-long-term-musical-training-on-cortical-auditory-evoked-potentials
#1
Carolyn J Brown, Eun-Kyung Jeon, Virginia Driscoll, Bruna Mussoi, Shruti Balvalli Deshpande, Kate Gfeller, Paul J Abbas
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests that musicians, as a group, have superior frequency resolution abilities when compared with nonmusicians. It is possible to assess auditory discrimination using either behavioral or electrophysiologic methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if the acoustic change complex (ACC) is sensitive enough to reflect the differences in spectral processing exhibited by musicians and nonmusicians. DESIGN: Twenty individuals (10 musicians and 10 nonmusicians) participated in this study...
March 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223932/cerebrospinal-fluid-levels-of-amyloid-beta-1-43-mirror-1-42-in-relation-to-imaging-biomarkers-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Ina S Almdahl, Camilla Lauridsen, Per Selnes, Lisa F Kalheim, Christopher Coello, Beata Gajdzik, Ina Møller, Marianne Wettergreen, Ramune Grambaite, Atle Bjørnerud, Geir Bråthen, Sigrid B Sando, Linda R White, Tormod Fladby
Introduction: Amyloid beta 1-43 (Aβ43), with its additional C-terminal threonine residue, is hypothesized to play a role in early Alzheimer's disease pathology possibly different from that of amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ43 has been suggested as a potential novel biomarker for predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia in Alzheimer's disease. However, the relationship between CSF Aβ43 and established imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease has never been assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222510/visuospatial-functioning-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-a-pilot-study
#3
Raffaella Valenti, Andreas Charidimou, Li Xiong, Gregoire Boulouis, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Alison Ayres, Grace Riley, Hugo J Kuijf, Yael D Reijmer, Leonardo Pantoni, M Edip Gurol, Sigurros Davidsdottir, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a contributor to cognitive impairment in the elderly. We hypothesized that the posterior cortical predilection of CAA would cause visual-processing impairment. We systematically evaluated visuospatial abilities in 22 non-demented CAA patients. Neurocognitive evaluation demonstrated visuoperceptual impairment (23% on Benton Facial Recognition Test [BFRT] and 13.6% on Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test [BJLO]). BFRT was inversely correlated with white matter hyperintensities volume and BJLO with parietal cerebral microbleeds...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193695/cortical-spreading-depression-closes-the-paravascular-space-and-impairs-glymphatic-flow-implications-for-migraine-headache
#4
Aaron J Schain, Agustin Melo, Andrew M Strassman, Rami Burstein
Functioning of the glymphatic system, a network of paravascular tunnels through which cortical interstitial solutes are cleared from the brain, has recently been linked to sleep and traumatic brain injury, both of which can affect the progression of migraine. This led us to investigate the connection between migraine and the glymphatic system. Taking advantage of a novel in vivo method we developed to visualize the PVS in naïve uninjected mice using 2-photon microscopy, we show that a single wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD), an animal model of migraine aura, induces a rapid and nearly complete closure of the paravascular space (PVS) around surface as well as penetrating cortical arteries and veins lasting several minutes, and gradually recovering over 30 min...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192502/theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-the-prefrontal-or-parietal-cortex-does-not-impair-metacognitive-visual-awareness
#5
Daniel Bor, David J Schwartzman, Adam B Barrett, Anil K Seth
Neuroimaging studies commonly associate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex with conscious perception. However, such studies only investigate correlation, rather than causation. In addition, many studies conflate objective performance with subjective awareness. In an influential recent paper, Rounis and colleagues addressed these issues by showing that continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) applied to the DLPFC impaired metacognitive (subjective) awareness for a perceptual task, while objective performance was kept constant...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188917/impaired-visual-short-term-memory-capacity-is-distinctively-associated-with-structural-connectivity-of-the-posterior-thalamic-radiation-and-the-splenium-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-preterm-born-adults
#6
Aurore Menegaux, Chun Meng, Julia Neitzel, Josef G Bäuml, Hermann J Müller, Peter Bartmann, Dieter Wolke, Afra M Wohlschläger, Kathrin Finke, Christian Sorg
Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for lasting changes in both the cortico-thalamic system and attention; however, the link between cortico-thalamic and attention changes is as yet little understood. In preterm newborns, cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic structural connectivity are distinctively altered, with increased local clustering for cortico-cortical and decreased integrity for cortico-thalamic connectivity. In preterm-born adults, among the various attention functions, visual short-term memory (vSTM) capacity is selectively impaired...
February 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184211/disrupted-saccade-control-in-chronic-cerebral-injury-upper-motor-neuron-like-disinhibition-in-the-ocular-motor-system
#7
John-Ross Rizzo, Todd E Hudson, Andrew Abdou, Yvonne W Lui, Janet C Rucker, Preeti Raghavan, Michael S Landy
Saccades rapidly direct the line of sight to targets of interest to make use of the high acuity foveal region of the retina. These fast eye movements are instrumental for scanning visual scenes, foveating targets, and, ultimately, serve to guide manual motor control, including eye-hand coordination. Cerebral injury has long been known to impair ocular motor control. Recently, it has been suggested that alterations in control may be useful as a marker for recovery. We measured eye movement control in a saccade task in subjects with chronic middle cerebral artery stroke with both cortical and substantial basal ganglia involvement and in healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183994/optimal-reference-region-to-measure-longitudinal-amyloid-beta-change-with-18-f-florbetaben-pet
#8
Santiago Bullich, Victor L Villemagne, Ana M Catafau, Aleksandar Jovalekic, Norman Koglin, Christopher C Rowe, Susan De Santi
Accurate measurement of changes in amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition over time is important in longitudinal studies, particularly in anti-Aβ therapeutic trials. To achieve this, the optimal reference region (RR) must be selected to reduce variance of Aβ positron emission tomography (PET) measurements, allowing early detection of treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to determine the RR that allows earlier detection of subtle Aβ changes using (18)F florbetaben (FBB) PET. Methods: Forty-five patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (72...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180077/multicenter-stability-of-resting-state-fmri-in-the-detection-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-amnestic-mci
#9
Stefan J Teipel, Alexandra Wohlert, Coraline Metzger, Timo Grimmer, Christian Sorg, Michael Ewers, Eva Meisenzahl, Stefan Klöppel, Viola Borchardt, Michel J Grothe, Martin Walter, Martin Dyrba
BACKGROUND: In monocentric studies, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia exhibited alterations of functional cortical connectivity in resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) analyses. Multicenter studies provide access to large sample sizes, but rs-fMRI may be particularly sensitive to multiscanner effects. METHODS: We used data from five centers of the "German resting-state initiative for diagnostic biomarkers" (psymri...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161311/degradation-of-cortical-representations-during-encoding-following-sleep-deprivation
#10
Jia-Hou Poh, Michael W L Chee
A night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) reduces task-related activation of fronto-parietal and higher visual cortical areas. As this reduction in activation corresponds to impaired attention and perceptual processing, it might also be associated with poorer memory encoding. Related animal work has established that cortical columns stochastically enter an 'off' state in sleep deprivation, leading to predictions that neural representations are less stable and distinctive following TSD. To test these predictions participants incidentally encoded scene images while undergoing fMRI, either during rested wakefulness (RW) or after TSD...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161030/brain-behavior-relationships-in-source-memory-effects-of-age-and-memory-ability
#11
Liesel-Ann Meusel, Cheryl L Grady, Patricia E Ebert, Nicole D Anderson
There is considerable evidence for age-related decrements in source memory retrieval, but the literature on the neural correlates of these impairments is mixed. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine source memory retrieval-related brain activity, and the monotonic relationship between retrieval-related brain activity and source memory accuracy, as a function of both healthy aging (younger vs older) and memory ability within the older adult group (Hi-Old vs Lo-Old). Participants studied lists of word pairs, half visually, half aurally; these were re-presented visually in a scanned test phase and participants indicated if the pair was 'seen' or 'heard' in the study phase...
January 12, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146575/enhanced-fine-form-perception-does-not-contribute-to-gestalt-face-perception-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Takao Yamasaki, Toshihiko Maekawa, Yuka Miyanaga, Kenji Takahashi, Naomi Takamiya, Katsuya Ogata, Shozo Tobimatsu
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show superior performance in processing fine detail, but often exhibit impaired gestalt face perception. The ventral visual stream from the primary visual cortex (V1) to the fusiform gyrus (V4) plays an important role in form (including faces) and color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate how the ventral stream is functionally altered in ASD. Visual evoked potentials were recorded in high-functioning ASD adults (n = 14) and typically developing (TD) adults (n = 14)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138426/alterations-in-visual-cortical-activation-and-connectivity-with-prefrontal-cortex-during-working-memory-updating-in-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Thang M Le, John A Borghi, Autumn J Kujawa, Daniel N Klein, Hoi-Chung Leung
The present study examined the impacts of major depressive disorder (MDD) on visual and prefrontal cortical activity as well as their connectivity during visual working memory updating and related them to the core clinical features of the disorder. Impairment in working memory updating is typically associated with the retention of irrelevant negative information which can lead to persistent depressive mood and abnormal affect. However, performance deficits have been observed in MDD on tasks involving little or no demand on emotion processing, suggesting dysfunctions may also occur at the more basic level of information processing...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130466/antisaccades-in-parkinson-disease-a-new-marker-of-postural-control
#14
Claire Ewenczyk, Salma Mesmoudi, Cécile Gallea, Marie-Laure Welter, Bertrand Gaymard, Adèle Demain, Lydia Yahia Cherif, Bertrand Degos, Habib Benali, Pierre Pouget, Cyril Poupon, Stéphane Lehericy, Sophie Rivaud-Péchoux, Marie Vidailhet
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relation between gaze and posture/gait control in Parkinson disease (PD) and to determine the role of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) and cortex-MLR connection in saccadic behavior because this structure is a major area involved in both gait/postural control and gaze control networks. METHODS: We recruited 30 patients with PD with or without altered postural control and 25 age-matched healthy controls (HCs). We assessed gait, balance, and neuropsychological status and separately recorded gait initiation and eye movements (visually guided saccades and volitional antisaccades)...
January 27, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123026/noisy-spiking-in-visual-area-v2-of-amblyopic-monkeys
#15
Ye Wang, Bin Zhang, Xiaofeng Tao, Janice M Wensveen, Earl L Smith, Yuzo M Chino
: Interocular decorrelation of input signals in developing visual cortex can cause impaired binocular vision and amblyopia. Although increased intrinsic noise is thought to be responsible for a range of perceptual deficits in amblyopic humans, the neural basis for the elevated perceptual noise in amblyopic primates is not known. Here, we tested the idea that perceptual noise is linked to the neuronal spiking noise (variability) resulting from developmental alterations in cortical circuitry...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122432/functional-neuroanatomy-for-posture-and-gait-control
#16
REVIEW
Kaoru Takakusaki
Here we argue functional neuroanatomy for posture-gait control. Multi-sensory information such as somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensation act on various areas of the brain so that adaptable posture-gait control can be achieved. Automatic process of gait, which is steady-state stepping movements associating with postural reflexes including headeye coordination accompanied by appropriate alignment of body segments and optimal level of postural muscle tone, is mediated by the descending pathways from the brainstem to the spinal cord...
January 2017: Journal of Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106153/altered-motion-repulsion-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Yan Li, Shougang Guo, Yongxiang Wang, Huan Chen
Recent research in Alzheimer's disease (AD) indicates that perceptual impairments may occur before the onset of cognitive declines, and can thus serve as an early noninvasive indicator for AD. In this study, we focused on visual motion processing and explored whether AD induces changes in the properties of direction repulsion between two competing motions. We used random dot kinematograms (RDKs) and measured the magnitudes of direction repulsion between two overlapping RDKs moving different directions in three groups of participants: an AD group, an age-matched old control group, and a young control group...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099489/acute-inactivation-of-primary-auditory-cortex-causes-a-sound-localisation-deficit-in-ferrets
#18
Katherine C Wood, Stephen M Town, Huriye Atilgan, Gareth P Jones, Jennifer K Bizley
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of acute inactivation of brain areas by cooling in the behaving ferret and to demonstrate that cooling auditory cortex produced a localisation deficit that was specific to auditory stimuli. The effect of cooling on neural activity was measured in anesthetized ferret cortex. The behavioural effect of cooling was determined in a benchmark sound localisation task in which inactivation of primary auditory cortex (A1) is known to impair performance. Cooling strongly suppressed the spontaneous and stimulus-evoked firing rates of cortical neurons when the cooling loop was held at temperatures below 10°C, and this suppression was reversed when the cortical temperature recovered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088609/leukemia-inhibitory-factor-impairs-structural-and-neurochemical-development-of-rat-visual-cortex-in-vivo
#19
Maren Engelhardt, Graziella di Cristo, Jochen Grabert, Silke Patz, Lamberto Maffei, Nicoletta Berardi, Petra Wahle
Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077397/relationships-between-flortaucipir-pet-tau-binding-and-amyloid-burden-clinical-diagnosis-age-and-cognition
#20
Michael J Pontecorvo, Michael D Devous, Michael Navitsky, Ming Lu, Stephen Salloway, Frederick W Schaerf, Danna Jennings, Anupa K Arora, Anne McGeehan, Nathaniel C Lim, Hui Xiong, Abhinay D Joshi, Andrew Siderowf, Mark A Mintun
The advent of tau-targeted positron emission tomography tracers such as flortaucipir ((18)F-AV-1451, also known as (18)F-T807) have made it possible to investigate the sequence of development of tau and amyloid-β in relationship to age, and to the development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease. In this study, flortaucipir tau and florbetapir amyloid positron emission tomography were obtained for 217 subjects including 16 young and 58 older cognitively normal subjects, 95 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 24-30) and 48 subjects with clinically-defined possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (Mini-Mental State Examination >10)...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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