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A E Munt, S R Partridge, M Allman-Farinelli
Young adults in Western countries are gaining weight faster than their parents and are more likely to gain weight than any other age cohort. Despite this, investigation into the complex young adults' food choice motives, which enable and prevent healthy eating, has not been widely investigated. A scoping review was conducted involving an extensive literature search of four major electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsychInfo and CINAHL. Data were collected from 34 articles: study descriptions numerically analysed and key findings thematically analysed...
October 20, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jinmin Zhang, Jiankun Yu, Jingzheng Jiang, Xiao Chen, Yanping Sun, Zhen Yang, Tianzhi Yang, Cuifang Cai, Xiaoyun Zhao, Pingtian Ding
Polymers of guanidinylated disulfide containing poly(amido amine)s (Gua-SS-PAAs), have shown high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Previously we synthesized two Gua-SS-PAA polymers, using guanidino containing monomers (i.e., arginine and agmatine, denoted as ARG and AGM, respectively) and N,N'-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBA). In this study, these two polymers, AGM-CBA and ARG-CBA were complexed with plasmid DNA, and their uptake pathway was investigated. Complexes distribution in MCF-7 cells, and changes on cell endosomes/lysosomes and membrane after the cells were exposed to complexes were tested...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
M Schneider, I Schmeh, A Fruth, C Whybra-Trümpler, E Mildenberger
Monozygotic twins were previously regarded as "identical". By now an increasing number of case reports of monozygotic but discordant twins have been reported, and therefore discordance between monozygotic twins is being investigated intensively. We report a case of female preterm monozygotic twins who were discordant for fetal megacystis due to cloacal dysgenesis. Pregnancy was achieved after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection and transfer of 2 embryos. By the first trimester fetal megacystis with consecutive oligohydramnios and hypoplasia of the lungs was diagnosed...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
Bengt Zöller, Xinjun Li, Henrik Ohlsson, Jianguang Ji, Ashfaque A Memon, Peter J Svensson, Karolina Palmér, Björn Dahlbäck, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Familial aggregation (clustering) of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the clustering of VTE within a family. Though several genes, such as antithrombin, protein C, protein S, factor V, and prothrombin are associated with the familial clustering of VTE, these loci only partially explain the familial aggregation of VTE. The epidemiology of the familial aggregation of VTE exhibits typical characteristics of complex traits. The family history of VTE in first-degree relatives is associated with a two to three times increased familial relative risk (FRR)...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Amanpreet Kaur, Marie R Webster, Ashani T Weeraratna
Although the clinical landscape of melanoma is improving rapidly, metastatic melanoma remains a deadly disease. Age remains one of the greatest risk factors for melanoma, and patients older than 55 have a much poorer prognosis than younger individuals, even when the data are controlled for grade and stage. The reasons for this disparity have not been fully uncovered, but there is some recent evidence that Wnt signalling may have a role. Wnt signalling is known to have roles both in cancer progression as well as in organismal ageing...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Tania Dukic Willstrand, Thomas Broberg, Helena Selander
BACKGROUND: To maintain the mobility of older people in later life, it is essential to sustain their autonomy; however, driving is a complex task, requiring a large range of visual, psychomotor and cognitive abilities. Subsequently, a key issue is to measure and evaluate the fitness to drive of older drivers. Several methods have been proposed, among them the useful field of view (UFOV) test. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to identify driving characteristics in older drivers and the relationship between the UFOV test and the on-road driving results...
October 21, 2016: Gerontology
Rui Su, Jia-Nan Gong, Ming-Tai Chen, Li Song, Chao Shen, Xin-Hua Zhang, Xiao-Lin Yin, Hong-Mei Ning, Bing Liu, Fang Wang, Yan-Ni Ma, Hua-Lu Zhao, Jia Yu, Jun-Wu Zhang
Aberrant activation of c-Myc plays an important oncogenic role via regulating a series of coding and non-coding genes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Histone deacetylases (HDACs) can remove acetyl group from histone and regulate gene expression via changing chromatin structure. Here, we found miR-451 is abnormally down-regulated in AML patient samples; c-Myc recruits HDAC3 to form a transcriptional suppressor complex, co-localizes on the miR-451 promoter, epigenetically inhibits its transcription and finally induces its downregulation in AML...
October 15, 2016: Oncotarget
Pei Y Liu, Nicholas Sokolowski, Su T Guo, Faraz Siddiqi, Bernard Atmadibrata, Thomas J Telfer, Yuting Sun, Lihong Zhang, Denise Yu, Joshua Mccarroll, Bing Liu, Rui H Yang, Xiang Y Guo, Andrew E Tee, Ken Itoh, Jenny Wang, Maria Kavallaris, Michelle Haber, Murray D Norris, Belamy B Cheung, Jennifer A Byrne, David S Ziegler, Glenn M Marshall, Marcel E Dinger, Rachel Codd, Xu D Zhang, Tao Liu
BET bromodomain inhibitors are very promising novel anticancer agents, however, single therapy does not cause tumor regression in mice, suggesting the need for combination therapy. After screening a library of 2697 small molecule compounds, we found that two classes of compounds, the quinone-containing compounds such as nanaomycin and anti-microtubule drugs such as vincristine, exerted the best synergistic anticancer effects with the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 in neuroblastoma cells. Mechanistically, the quinone-containing compound nanaomycin induced neuroblastoma cell death but also activated the Nrf2-antioxidant signaling pathway, and the BET bromodomain proteins BRD3 and BRD4 formed a protein complex with Nrf2...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Ana M Contreras-Sandoval, María Merino, Marcos Vasquez, Iñaki F Trocóniz, Pedro Berraondo, María J Garrido
Blockade of PD-L1 with specific monoclonal antibodies (anti-PD-L1) represents a therapeutic strategy to increase the capability of the immune system to modulate the tumor immune-resistance. The relationship between anti-PD-L1 tumor exposition and anti-tumor effect represents a challenge that has been addressed in this work through the identification of certain biomarkers implicated in the antibody's mechanism of action, using a syngeneic melanoma mouse model. The development of an in-vitro/in-vivo platform has allowed us to investigate the PD-L1 behavior after its blockage with anti-PD-L1 at cellular level and in animals...
October 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Alfred Weber, Andrea Engelmaier, Gabriele Mohr, Sonja Haindl, Hans Peter Schwarz, Peter L Turecek
BAX 855 (ADYNOVATE) is a PEGylated recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) that showed prolonged circulatory half-life compared to unmodified rFVIII in hemophilic patients. Here, the development and validation of a novel assay is described that selectively measures the activity of BAX 855 as cofactor for the serine protease factor IX, which actives factor X. This method type, termed modification-dependent activity assay, is based on PEG-specific capture of BAX 855 by an anti-PEG IgG preparation, followed by a chromogenic FVIII activity assay...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Glória Maria Almeida Souza Tedrus, Lineu Corrêa Fonseca, Marina Nobrega Augusto, Fernanda Savoia Trindade
PURPOSE: In patients with epilepsy (PWE), relationships between depression, epilepsy characteristics, and cognitive aspects are complex. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of possible major depressive episode in PWE and to verify whether it is associated with the clinical aspects of the disease and cognition. METHODS: Two hundred consecutive PWE with a mean age and standard deviation of 47.6 (±15.1) years were included in the study. We determined whether their Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDI-E) scores were associated with their clinical, cognitive, and QOLIE-31 aspects using a significance level of 5% (p<0...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Daniel C Anacker, Heather L Aloor, Caitlin N Shepard, Gina M Lenzi, Bryan A Johnson, Baek Kim, Cary A Moody
Productive replication of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is restricted to the uppermost layers of the differentiating epithelia. How HPV ensures an adequate supply of cellular substrates for viral DNA synthesis in a differentiating environment is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that HPV31 positive cells exhibit increased dNTP pools and levels of RRM2, a component of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) complex, which is required for de novo synthesis of dNTPs. RRM2 depletion blocks productive replication, suggesting RRM2 provides dNTPs for viral DNA synthesis in differentiating cells...
October 17, 2016: Virology
Ignacio Baselga, Olga Zafra, Estela Pérez Lago, Raquel Francisco-Álvarez, Gemma Rodriguez-Tarduchy, Cruz Santos
Ribera de Duero Spanish wines are appreciated worldwide for their organoleptic characteristics; however, the wine market is very competitive, and the demand for high quality natural wines has been increasing in recent years. The microbiology of the process, specifically the yeasts involved in the alcoholic fermentation, constitutes an essential element directly related to the complexity and quality of the wine. Our work has focused on the development of a procedure to identify the indigenous wine yeasts present in complex samples of must and wine, without requiring colony isolation or a microbiological culture...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Ronny Hedell, Olga Stephansson, Petter Mostad, Mats Gunnar Andersson
Efficient and correct evaluation of sampling results with respect to hypotheses about the concentration or distribution of bacteria generally requires knowledge about the performance of the detection method. To assess the sensitivity of the detection method an experiment is usually performed where the target matrix is spiked (i.e. artificially contaminated) with different concentrations of the bacteria, followed by analyses of the samples using the pre-enrichment method and the analytical detection method of interest...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Urszula K Komarnicka, Radosław Starosta, Agnieszka Kyzioł, Michał Płotek, Małgorzata Puchalska, Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk
In this paper we present lomefloxacin's (HLm, 2nd generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent) organic and inorganic derivatives: aminomethyl(diphenyl)phosphine (PLm), its oxide as well as new copper(I) iodide or copper(I) thiocyanate complexes with PLm and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) as the auxiliary ligands. The synthesized compounds were fully characterised by NMR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopies. Selected structures were analysed by theoretical DFT (density functional theory) methods...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Zhong Ni, Xiting Wang, Tianchen Zhang, Rong Zhong Jin
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has become as an important target for the treatment of various human cancers, especially non-small-cell lung cancer. A mutation, F1174C, suited in the C-terminal helix αC of ALK and distal from the small-molecule inhibitor ceritinib bound to the ATP-binding site, causes the emergence of drug resistance to ceritinib. However, the detailed mechanism for the allosteric effect of F1174C resistance mutation to ceritinib remains unclear. Here, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding free energy calculations [Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA)] were carried out to explore the advent of drug resistance mutation in ALK...
October 11, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Stephanie C Goodhew, Mark Edwards
When the human brain is confronted with complex and dynamic visual scenes, two pivotal processes are at play: visual attention (the process of selecting certain aspects of the scene for privileged processing) and object individuation (determining what information belongs to a continuing object over time versus what represents two or more distinct objects). Here we examined whether these processes are independent or whether they interact. Object-substitution masking (OSM) has been used as a tool to examine such questions, however, there is controversy surrounding whether OSM reflects object individuation versus substitution processes...
October 17, 2016: Cognition
Mario Encinar, Santiago Casado, Alicia Calzado-Martín, P Natale, Álvaro San Paulo, Montserrat Calleja, Marisela Vélez, Francisco Monroy, Iván López-Montero
Erythrocyte membranes have been particularly useful as a model for studies of membrane structure and mechanics. Native erythroid membranes can be electroformed as giant unilamellar vesicles (eGUVs). In the presence of ATP, the erythroid membrane proteins of eGUVs rearrange into protein networks at the microscale. Here, we present a detailed nanomechanical study of individual protein microfilaments forming the protein networks of eGUVs when spread on supporting surfaces. Using Peak Force tapping Atomic Force Microscopy (PF-AFM) in liquid environment we have obtained the mechanical maps of the composite lipid-protein networks supported on solid surface...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Christoph T Schanzenbächer, Sivakumar Sambandan, Julian D Langer, Erin M Schuman
Homeostatic scaling adjusts the strength of synaptic connections up or down in response to large changes in input. To identify the landscape of proteomic changes that contribute to opposing forms of homeostatic plasticity, we examined the plasticity-induced changes in the newly synthesized proteome. Cultured rat hippocampal neurons underwent homeostatic up-scaling or down-scaling. We used BONCAT (bio-orthogonal non-canonical amino acid tagging) to metabolically label, capture, and identify newly synthesized proteins, detecting and analyzing 5,940 newly synthesized proteins using mass spectrometry and label-free quantitation...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Sheel Shah, Eric Lubeck, Wen Zhou, Long Cai
Identifying the spatial organization of tissues at cellular resolution from single-cell gene expression profiles is essential to understanding biological systems. Using an in situ 3D multiplexed imaging method, seqFISH, we identify unique transcriptional states by quantifying and clustering up to 249 genes in 16,958 cells to examine whether the hippocampus is organized into transcriptionally distinct subregions. We identified distinct layers in the dentate gyrus corresponding to the granule cell layer and the subgranular zone and, contrary to previous reports, discovered that distinct subregions within the CA1 and CA3 are composed of unique combinations of cells in different transcriptional states...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
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