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Medical biotech

Joseph P Garner, Brianna N Gaskill, Elin M Weber, Jamie Ahloy-Dallaire, Kathleen R Pritchett-Corning
This focus issue of Lab Animal coincides with a tipping point in biomedical research. For the first time, the scale of the reproducibility and translatability crisis is widely understood beyond the small cadre of researchers who have been studying it and the pharmaceutical and biotech companies who have been living it. Here we argue that an emerging literature, including the papers in this focus issue, has begun to congeal around a set of recurring themes, which themselves represent a paradigm shift. This paradigm shift can be characterized at the micro level as a shift from asking "what have we controlled for in this model?" to asking "what have we chosen to ignore in this model, and at what cost?" At the macro level, it is a shift from viewing animals as tools (the furry test tube), to viewing them as patients in an equivalent human medical study...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
Hyun Jik Lee, Moon Jae Chung, Jeong Yup Park, Seung Woo Park, Chung Mo Nam, Si Young Song, Seungmin Bang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A biliary self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is commonly used to relieve malignant biliary obstruction. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a conventional uncovered SEMS with that of a newly developed uncovered double bare metal stent in reducing the risk of stent occlusion caused by tumor ingrowth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial in 71 patients at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine from June 2013 to June 2014...
November 18, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
David J Brayden
David Brayden speaks to Hannah Makin, Commissioning Editor: David Brayden is a Full Professor (Advanced Drug Delivery) at the School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin (UCD) and also a Fellow of the UCD Conway Institute. Following a PhD in Pharmacology at the University of Cambridge, UK (1989), and a postdoctoral research fellowship at Stanford University, CA, USA, he set up Elan Biotechnology Research's in vitro pharmacology laboratory in Dublin (1991). At Elan, he became a senior scientist and project manager of several of Elan's joint-venture drug delivery research collaborations with US biotech companies...
November 8, 2016: Therapeutic Delivery
Damir Ljuboja, Brian W Powers, Benjamin Robbins, Robert Huckman, Krishnan Yeshwant, Sachin H Jain
There has been substantial growth in the number of physicians pursing Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees over the past decade, but there is continuing debate over the utility of these programs and the career outcomes of their graduates. The authors analyzed the clinical and professional activities of a large cohort of physician-MBAs by gathering information on 206 physician graduates from the Harvard Business School MBA program who obtained their degrees between 1941 and 2014. Key outcome measures that were examined include medical specialty, current professional activity, and clinical practice...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Managed Care
Tamir Weinberg, Ido Klein, David Zadok, Monica Huszar, Ayelet Harari, Nathan Ezov, Guy Kleinmann
PURPOSE: To evaluate lens epithelial cell (LEC) proliferation on the anterior optic of 2 types of hydrophobic intraocular lenses (IOLs). SETTING: Harlan Biotech Israel and Kaplan Medical Center, Rehovot, Israel. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Ten New Zealand white rabbits had crystalline lens removal and implantation of an Acrysof IOL in 1 eye (Group 1) and a Tecnis IOL in the fellow eye (Group 2). A weekly biomicroscopy examination was performed during the 2-week study duration, after which the rabbits were humanely killed...
February 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Valentin K Gribkoff, Leonard K Kaczmarek
An important goal of biomedical research is to translate basic research findings into useful medical advances. In the field of neuropharmacology this requires understanding disease mechanisms as well as the effects of drugs and other compounds on neuronal function. Our hope is that this information will result in new or improved treatment for CNS disease. Despite great progress in our understanding of the structure and functions of the CNS, the discovery of new drugs and their clinical development for many CNS disorders has been problematic...
March 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Li Lin, Yonghui Dai, Dongdong Liu, Jingchun Huang, Wen Shi, Chenyu Shang, Wanyi Pan, Feng Qiu, Jianhua Xu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bias of three different methods in determination of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). METHODS: According to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)EP9-A3 document, 40 serum specimens among linear range were tested by immunoturbidimetry assay (Roche Tina-quant), capillary electrophoresis (Sebia Minicap FP), high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC, Trinity Biotech Premier Hb 9210™). RESULTS were analyzed by pairwise comparision...
March 1, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Shamik Chakraborty, Imithri Bodhinayake, Amrit Chiluwal, David J Langer, Rosamaria Ruggieri, Marc Symons, John A Boockvar
The Brain Tumor Biotech Center at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, in collaboration with Voices Against Brain Cancer hosted The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit at in New York City in June 2015. The focus was once again on fostering collaboration between neuro-oncologist, neurosurgeons, scientists, leaders from biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, and members of the financial community. The summit highlighted the recent advances in the treatment of brain tumor, and specifically focused on targeting of stem cells and EGFR, use of prophage and immunostimulatory vaccines, retroviral vectors for drug delivery, biologic prodrug, Cesium brachytherapy, and use of electric field to disrupt tumor cell proliferation...
May 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Michael W Amolins, Cathy M Ezrailson, David A Pearce, Amy J Elliott, Peter F Vitiello
The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher's subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development...
December 2015: Advances in Physiology Education
Sharon Licqurish, Laura Biggs, Jane Morrow
AIM: To discuss the methods of a study which will aim to determine the usability of a medical device not yet approved for use in a clinical trial. BACKGROUND: The Blood Loss Estimation and Evaluation of Drape (BLEED) pilot aims to determine the usability of a drape which measures blood loss during third stage labour. Third stage blood loss is usually estimated visually. This method has been found to be inaccurate. The drape has been tested in developing countries overseas and has been found to more accurately measure third stage blood loss when compared with visual methods...
September 2015: Nurse Researcher
E Karampini, F McCaughan
Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) is that fraction of circulating DNA that is derived from a patient's cancer. For a number of years, patients with haematological malignancies have had their disease diagnosed or monitored using tests based on detecting specific cytological or molecular biomarkers in blood. It has long been appreciated that the more common epithelial malignancies also shed DNA into the blood and that this tumour-derived DNA generally contributes a minor percentage of the overall cell-free DNA burden in peripheral blood...
April 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Hongying Kuang, Susan Jin, Karl R Hansen, Michael P Diamond, Christos Coutifaris, Peter Casson, Gregory Christman, Ruben Alvero, Hao Huang, G Wright Bates, Rebecca Usadi, Scott Lucidi, Valerie Baker, Nanette Santoro, Esther Eisenberg, Richard S Legro, Heping Zhang
STUDY QUESTION: Can we build and validate predictive models for ovulation and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: We were able to develop and validate a predictive model for pregnancy outcomes in women with PCOS using simple clinical and biochemical criteria particularly duration of attempting conception, which was the most consistent predictor among all considered factors for pregnancy outcomes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Predictive models for ovulation and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome have been reported, but such models require validation...
September 2015: Human Reproduction
Erik Parens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Hastings Center Report
P Chakrabarty, S Rudra, M A Hossain, S A Begum, T T Mirza, M Rudra
Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from voluntary and replacement blood donors & HIV-infected patients (positive samples from BSMMU, Dhaka). Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical), SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3...
April 2015: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Jacqueline A French, Steven C Schachter, Joseph Sirven, Roger Porter
On June 5 and 6, 2014, the Epilepsy Foundation held its 4th Biennial Epilepsy Pipeline Update Conference, an initiative of the Epilepsy Therapy Project, which showcased the most promising epilepsy innovations from health-care companies and academic laboratories dedicated to pioneering and advancing drugs, biologics, technologies, devices, and diagnostics for epilepsy. Speakers and attendees included emerging biotech and medical technology companies, major pharmaceutical and device companies, as well as investigators and innovators at the cutting-edge of epilepsy...
May 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
O Crasson, N Rhazi, O Jacquin, A Freichels, C Jérôme, N Ruth, M Galleni, P Filée, M Vandevenne
Antibody-based products constitute one of the most attractive biological molecules for diagnostic, medical imagery and therapeutic purposes with very few side effects. Their development has become a major priority of biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, a growing number of modified antibody-based products have emerged including fragments, multi-specific and conjugate antibodies. In this study, using protein engineering, we have functionalized the anti-hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) camelid VHH antibody fragment (cAb-Lys3), by insertion into a solvent-exposed loop of the Bacillus licheniformis β-lactamase BlaP...
October 2015: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Miroslav Vujasinovic, Bojan Tepes, Bojan Vujkovac, Andreja Cokan Vujkovac, Martin Tretjak, Vesna Korat
BACKGROUND: Fabry disease (FD), also called Anderson-Fabry disease, is the second most prevalent lysosomal storage disorder after Gaucher disease. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are very common among male and female individuals, although the age of onset is later among female patients. To our best knowledge, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) has not yet been studied in patients with FD as a possible cause of abdominal complaints. The aim of our study was to determine whether exocrine pancreatic function is impaired in patients with FD...
December 2015: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Charles Scott Hultman, Ida Janelle Wagner
INTRODUCTION: Professionalism is now recognized as a core competency of surgical education and is required for certification and licensure. However, best teaching methods remain elusive, because (1) ethical standards are not absolute, and (2) learning and teaching styles vary considerably-both of which are influenced by cultural and generational forces. We sought to compare attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in fourth year medical students, compared to surgeons in training and practice, focusing on issues related to professionalism in plastic surgery...
June 2015: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Xiaowei Jin, Li Chen
Recognized as the most common inherited from of intellectual disability (ID) and the most common known monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is identified as an unmet medical need for the development of personalized medicine and targeted therapeutics for neurodevelopment disorders as a result of improved understanding of the genetic and cellular mechanisms. Consequently promising pharmacological targets have emerged from basic and translational research, are now being pursued by global pharmaceutical and biotech companies in early proof-of-concept clinical trials...
February 2015: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
Ronald Evens, Kenneth Kaitin
For more than three decades the field of biotechnology has had an extraordinary impact on science, health care, law, the regulatory environment, and business. During this time more than 260 novel biotechnology products were approved for over 230 indications. Global sales of these products exceeded $175 billion in 2013 and have helped sustain a vibrant life sciences sector that includes more than 4,600 biotech companies worldwide. In this article we examine the evolution of biotechnology during the past three decades and the profound impact that it has had on health care through four interrelated and interdependent tracks: innovations in science, government activity, business development, and patient care...
February 2015: Health Affairs
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