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Taylor J Noble, Christopher J Lortie, Michael Westphal, H Scott Butterfield
BACKGROUND: Carrizo Plain National Monument (San Joaquin Desert, California, USA) is home to many threatened and endangered species including the blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia sila). Vegetation is dominated by annual grasses, and shrubs such as Mormon tea (Ephedra californica), which is of relevance to our target species, the federally listed blunt-nosed leopard lizard, and likely also provides key ecosystem services. We used relatively nonintrusive camera traps, or trail cameras, to capture interactions between animals and these shrubs using a paired shrub-open deployment...
September 27, 2016: GigaScience
Stephen Cranney
Much of the literature on mental and physical health among religious LGB individuals has relied on small-N convenience samples. This study takes advantage of a unique, large-N, population-based dataset to test the relationship between religious identity, religious activity, and health, with a specific emphasis on Utah Mormons. In a surprising finding, Mormon LGBs report better mental health than non-Mormon LGBs, while their self-rated and physical health is not significantly different. However, there is some evidence that Mormon LGBs derive fewer health benefits from church attendance than their non-LGB Mormon counterparts...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
Daniel Reynoso-Velasco, Robert W Sites
The Ambrysus guttatipennis Stål species complex is revised and includes A. arizonus La Rivers, A. bispinus La Rivers, A. drakei La Rivers, A. guttatipennis Stål, A. mexicanus Montandon, and A. mormon Montandon. Six new species that belong to this complex are described from Mexico: A. ayoyolin n. sp., A. bowlesi n. sp., A. contrerasi n. sp., A. itsipatsari n. sp., A. noveloi n. sp., and A. veracruzanus n. sp. The subspecies A. mormon australis La Rivers, A. m. heidemanni Montandon, and A. m. minor La Rivers are proposed as junior synonyms of A...
2016: Zootaxa
Robert B Srygley, Patrick D Lorch
Coordinated movement of animals is a spectacular phenomenon that has received much attention. Experimental studies of Mormon crickets and locust nymphs have demonstrated that collective motion can arise from cannibalism that compensates for nutritional deficiencies arising from group living. Grouping into migratory bands confers protection from predators. By radiotracking migrating, Mormon crickets released over 3 days, we found that specialized, parasitoid digger wasps (Sphecidae) respond numerically and prey heavily on aggregated Mormon crickets leading to loss of safety in numbers...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
R B Srygley
Differential transmission of disease among individuals within a population or among species in a community can result in superspreaders, relatively rare individuals responsible for a large proportion of transmission events. Migrating Mormon crickets and nymphal locusts readily engage in cannibalistic attacks and necrophagy. Typically multiple individuals consume a cadaver, which fosters the spread of disease. Cannibalistic attacks result in aligned, coordinated movement of individuals in massive bands that march daily for weeks at a time...
August 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Benjamin Proshek, Julian R Dupuis, Anna Engberg, Ken Davenport, Paul A Opler, Jerry A Powell, Felix A H Sperling
BACKGROUND: The Mormon Metalmark (Apodemia mormo) species complex occurs as isolated and phenotypically variable colonies in dryland areas across western North America. Lange's Metalmark, A. m. langei, one of the 17 subspecies taxonomically recognized in the complex, is federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973. Metalmark taxa have traditionally been described based on phenotypic and ecological characteristics, and it is unknown how well this nomenclature reflects their genetic and evolutionary distinctiveness...
2015: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Donald S Chandler, Giorgio Sabella, Christoph Bückle
The North American species of Brachygluta Thomson, 1859 are revised, treating a total of 29 species. Six names are placed as junior synonyms: Bryaxis perpunctata Brendel, 1890 (=B. luniger LeConte, 1849), B. labyrinthea Casey, 1894 (=B. intermedia Brendel, 1866), B. loripes Casey, 1894 and B. jacobina Casey, 1908 (=B. foveata LeConte, 1851), B. arizonae Casey, 1887 (=B. texana Casey, 1886), and B. intricata Casey, 1894 (=B. terebrata Casey, 1894). Twelve new Brachygluta species are described: B. chisos Sabella (USA), B...
2015: Zootaxa
Jeremy E Uecker, Charles E Stokes
Despite the rapid growth of the gambling industry over the last 40 years, there have been few large-scale, nationally representative longitudinal studies of gambling among young adults. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to investigate whether and how the gambling behavior of young adults is associated with their religious beliefs and practices during adolescence. We find that young adults who grew up as conservative Protestants, mainline Protestants, Mormons, and Jehovah's Witnesses; those were raised in a community with a higher percentage of conservative Protestants; and those who attended religious services weekly are less likely to have ever gambled...
March 2016: Journal of Gambling Studies
Li Wang, Xia-Jin Du, Xiao-Feng Li
The complete mitogenome of the Common Mormon Papilio polytes has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The circular genome is 15,256 bp in length, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons except for the COI gene, which uses the unusual CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND3) or incomplete stop codon T (COI & COII), while all the others use TAA as their stop codons...
2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Elisabetta Mormone, Sunita D'Sousa, Vera Alexeeva, Maria M Bederson, Isabelle M Germano
The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) from somatic cells has enabled the possibility to provide patient-specific hiPSC for cell-based therapy, drug discovery, and other translational applications. Two major obstacles in using hiPSC for clinical application reside in the risk of genomic modification when they are derived with viral transgenes and risk of teratoma formation if undifferentiated cells are engrafted. In this study, we report the generation of "footprint-free" hiPSC-derived astrocytes...
November 1, 2014: Stem Cells and Development
Min Jee Kim, Iksoo Kim
We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Apodemia mormo in the lepidopteran family Riodinidae. The 15,262 bp long complete genome was comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the arrangement typically found in the majority of Lepidoptera. The genes of A. mormo were interleaved with a total of 168 bp, which were spread over 16 regions and overlapped 58 bp at eight locations. All tRNAs of the A. mormo mitogenome formed a typical cloverleaf structure, except tRNA(Ser(AGN)), which formed a truncated dihydrouridine arm...
2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Robert B Srygley
During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the Western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer temperatures are predicted to increase and precipitation is expected to decrease in most areas of the U.S. Great Basin, but little is known of the response of Mormon crickets to changes in temperature and soil moisture. In a laboratory study, we varied ambient temperature and lighting and measured the propensity of mating pairs to mate, and the proportion of eggs that developed into embryos...
June 2014: Journal of Insect Physiology
Stefan T Jaronski
Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex Haldeman (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). This behavior has been proposed as a mechanism for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. Aanecdotal observations suggested that the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes Fabricius (Acrididae), and A. simplex did not eat cadavers that had been killed by insect pathogenic fungi. The hypothesis tested was that A. simplex or M. sanguinipes would not cannibalize individuals freshly killed by the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana Bals...
2013: Journal of Insect Science
Emanuela Binello, Elisabetta Mormone, Luni Emdad, Harini Kothari, Isabelle M Germano
Glioblastoma is the most common, and at the same time, most aggressive type of high-grade glioma (HGG). The prognosis of glioblastoma patients treated with standard therapy including surgery, temozolomide and radiation therapy remains poor. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) agonists are in widespread clinical use for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recent evidence has suggested a potential role in various cancers including glioblastoma. In this study, we characterized the effects of PPARα agonist, fenofibrate, directly on HGG cells and glioma stem cells (GSC)...
April 2014: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Pawel Romanczuk, Lutz Schimansky-Geier
We discuss the collective dynamics of self-propelled particles with selective attraction and repulsion interactions. Each particle, or individual, may respond differently to its neighbours depending on the sign of their relative velocity. Thus, it is able to distinguish approaching (coming closer) and retreating (moving away) individuals. This differentiation of the social response is motivated by the response to looming visual stimuli and may be seen as a generalization of the previously proposed escape and pursuit interactions motivated by empirical evidence for cannibalism as a driving force of collective migration in locusts and Mormon crickets...
December 6, 2012: Interface Focus
S R Simmerman
The Mormon church has long been seen as an unusual group in relation to its health practices. But its health traditions and practices go much further than the ban on tobacco, coffee, and alcohol for which it is so well known. Church teachings and influences pervade the entire Mormon existence. This paper briefly discusses these traditions, first by examining their roots in the teachings of its first two prophet/presidents, Joseph Smith and Brigham Young. Then, how these ideas have evolved into the church's current thought is examined; and finally, the church's responses to many modern-day health care issues are presented...
September 1993: Journal of Religion and Health
Deborah Rogow, Nicole Haberland, Angel Del Valle, Nicole Lee, Grace Osakue, Zhihong Sa, Michelle Skaer
International policy agreements, along with emerging evidence about factors influencing programme effectiveness, have led to calls for a shift in sexuality education toward an approach that places gender norms and human rights at its heart. Little documentation exists, however, about the degree to which this shift is actually taking place on the ground or what it entails. Field experiences in using new curriculum tools, such as It's All One, offer one lens onto these questions. To gain a sense of practitioners' experience with this tool, a two-part exercise was conducted...
May 2013: Reproductive Health Matters
Robert B Srygley, Patrick D Lorch
Migration often is associated with movement away from areas with depleted nutrients or other resources, and yet migration itself is energetically demanding. Migrating Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) lack nutrients, and supplementation of deficient nutrients slows migratory movements and enhances specific aspects of their immune systems. Migrants deficient in proteins have less spontaneous phenoloxidase (PO) activity, whereas those deficient in carbohydrates have lower lysozyme-like anti-bacterial titers with a proposed compromise between migratory and anti-bacterial activities...
December 2013: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Rune Lindahl-Jacobsen, Heidi A Hanson, Anna Oksuzyan, Geraldine P Mineau, Kaare Christensen, Ken R Smith
PURPOSE: In Utah, the prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviors are lower than in most other male populations, whereas women experience higher mortality risk because of higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. METHODS: Life tables from Utah, Denmark, and Sweden were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born in 1850-1910. RESULTS: The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared with Denmark and Sweden...
April 2013: Annals of Epidemiology
Stephanie J Lyon
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also known as the Mormon Church, is a Christian faith with a large presence across the globe. Although Mormon doctrine suggests that faith in Jesus allows people to overcome weakness and heal from pain, Mormon people are not immune from experiencing periods of mental and emotional suffering. The deeply held religious beliefs of Mormons can influence the nature of the psychological difficulties a Mormon individual is prone to experiencing, how and when they choose to seek treatment, as well as the types of treatment that may be most beneficial...
June 2013: Journal of Religion and Health
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