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Sushil Sharma, Walter Lipincott
Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of memory and cognitive function. It is the common cause of dementia in elderly and is a global health concern as the population of people aged 85 and older, is growing alarmingly. Although pharmacotherapy for the treatment of AD has improved, lot of work remains to treat this devastating disease. AD pathology begins even before the onset of clinical symptoms. Because therapies could be more effective if implemented early in the disease progression, it is highly prudent to discover reliable biomarkers, to detect its exact pathophysiology during pre-symptomatic stage...
February 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
Anna M Barron, Masaki Tokunaga, Ming-Rong Zhang, Bin Ji, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on neuroinflammation and cerebral glucose metabolism using PET in a mouse model of β-amyloidosis and determine the relationship between these PET imaging biomarkers, pathogenic changes, and functional outcomes. METHODS: Three-month-old C57BL/J6 mice were fed either a standard (control group) or high-fat diet (obese group) for 3 months and intracerebroventricularly infused with vehicle or human beta amyloid 1-42 (Aβ42)...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
J M Coughlin, Y Wang, E B Ambinder, R E Ward, I Minn, M Vranesic, P K Kim, C N Ford, C Higgs, L N Hayes, D J Schretlen, R F Dannals, M Kassiou, A Sawa, M G Pomper
Several lines of evidence suggest aberrant immune response in schizophrenia, including elevated levels of cytokines. These cytokines are thought to be produced by activated microglia, the innate immune cells of the central nervous system. However, increase in translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO), a marker of activated glia, has not been found in patients with chronic schizophrenia using second-generation radiotracers and positron emission tomography (PET)-based neuroimaging. In this study we focused on patients with recent onset of schizophrenia (within 5 years of diagnosis)...
April 12, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Jaime H Vera, Qi Guo, James H Cole, Adriano Boasso, Louise Greathead, Peter Kelleher, Eugenii A Rabiner, Nicola Kalk, Courtney Bishop, Roger N Gunn, Paul M Matthews, Alan Winston
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of microglial activation on brain function and structure, and its relationship with peripheral inflammatory markers, in treated, HIV-positive individuals, using in vivo [(11)C]PBR28 PET (to measure the 18 kDa translocator protein [TSPO]). METHODS: Cognitively healthy HIV-positive individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy and HIV-negative individuals (controls) underwent brain [(11)C]PBR28 PET and MRI. HIV-positive patients completed neuropsychological testing and CSF testing for chemokines...
April 12, 2016: Neurology
Cornelius Schüle, Caroline Nothdurfter, Rainer Rupprecht
Neuroactive steroids such as allopregnanolone do not only act as transcriptional factors in the regulation of gene expression after intracellular back-oxidation into the 5-α pregnane steroids but may also alter neuronal excitability through interactions with specific neurotransmitter receptors. In particular, certain 3α-reduced metabolites of progesterone such as 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (allopregnanolone) and 3α,5β-tetrahydroprogesterone (pregnanolone) are potent positive allosteric modulators of the GABA(A) receptor complex...
February 2014: Progress in Neurobiology
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