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Songyuan Tao, Siyu Lu, Yijia Geng, Shoujun Zhu, Simon Redfern, Yubin Song, Tanglue Feng, Weiqing Xu, Bai Yang
Polymer carbon dots (PCDs) are proposed as a new class of room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) materials. The abundant energy levels in PCDs increase the probability of intersystem crossing (ISC) and their covalently-crosslinked framework structures greatly suppress the non-radiative transitions. The efficient methods allow the manufacture of PCDs with unique RTP properties in air without the need for additional metal complexing or for the adopting of complicated matrix compositing. They thus provide a route towards the rational design of metal-free RTP materials that may be synthesized easily...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
John M Wood, Jerry P Weir
The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world-wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and its applicability to the different types of influenza vaccine being produced at that time. Clinical evidence indicated the relevance of SRID as a potency assay. Unique features of the SRID assay are likely responsible for its longevity even as newer technologies for vaccine characterization have been developed and refined...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Boyang Chang, Lujun Shen, Kefeng Wang, Jietian Jin, Tao Huang, Qifeng Chen, Wang Li, Peihong Wu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adjuvant cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells treatment has shown potential in reducing the recurrence rate and prolonging the survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to identify the best predictive biomarker for adjuvant CIK cells treatment in patients with HCC after curative resection. METHODS: This study retrospectively included 145 pairs of HCC patients by one-to-one propensity score matching. One group received CIK cells transfusion after surgery (Surgery-CIK group); the other one group underwent surgery only (Surgery-only group)...
January 22, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Paul Poulton, Johnny Johnston, Andy MacDonald, Rodger White, David Powlson
We evaluated the "4 per 1000″ initiative for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) by analysing rates of SOC increase in treatments in 16 long-term experiments in south-east UK. The initiative sets a goal for SOC stock to increase by 4‰ yr-1 in the 0-40 cm soil depth, continued over 20 years. Our experiments, on 3 soil types, provided 114 treatment comparisons over 7-157 years. Treatments included organic additions (incorporated by inversion ploughing), N fertilizers, introducing pasture leys into continuous arable systems, and converting arable land to woodland...
January 21, 2018: Global Change Biology
Ke Meng, Longlong Wu, Zhou Liu, Xiao Wang, Qiaofei Xu, Youdi Hu, Sanfeng He, Xiaolong Li, Tao Li, Gang Chen
Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have advanced to the forefront of solution-processed photovoltaic techniques and made stunning progress in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Further improvements in device performances rely on perfecting the structure and morphology of perovskite films. However, undesirable defects such as pinholes and grain boundaries are often created in film preparations due to lack of knowledge of the precise reaction mechanism. Here, in situ grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) investigations are performed, facilitated by other techniques, on the formation of the widely adopted MAPbI3 (MA = methylammonium) perovskite films from their intermediate adduct (IA) phases...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ling Huang, Mei Xiang, Ping Ye, Wei Zhou, Manhua Chen
Regulatory mechanisms for acute inflammatory responses post myocardial infarction (MI) have yet to be fully understood. In particular, the mechanisms by which cardiac macrophages modulate MI-induced myocardial inflammation remains unclear. In this study, using a mouse MI model, we showed that β-catenin-mediated signaling was activated in cardiac macrophages post-MI, especially in Ly-6C-positive proinflammatory macrophages. Using a RAW264.7-based β-catenin reporter cell line, we confirmed the presence of active β-catenin and its downstream signaling in cardiac macrophages after MI...
January 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Jared Jagdeo, Evan Austin, Andrew Mamalis, Christopher Wong, Derek Ho, Daniel Siegel
OBJECTIVE: In dermatology, patient and physician adoption of light-emitting diode (LED) medical technology continues to grow as research indicates that LEDs may be used to treat skin conditions. The goal of this systematic review is to critically analyze published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and provide evidence-based recommendations on the therapeutic uses of LEDs in dermatology based on published efficacy and safety data. METHODS: A systematic review of the published literature on the use of LED treatments for skin conditions was performed on September 13th 2017...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Thais N Helou, Raul D Santos, Antonio G Laurinavicius, Marcio Sommer Bittencourt, Antonio E P Pesaro, Fabio G M Franco, Raquel D O Conceição, José A M Carvalho, Fernando M F Silva, Mauricio Wajngarten, Marcelo Katz
BACKGROUND: The perception of cardiovascular (CV) risk is essential for adoption of healthy behaviors. However, subjects underestimate their own risk. HYPOTHESIS: Clinical characteristics might be associated with self-underestimation of CV risk. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional study of individuals submitted to routine health evaluation between 2006 and 2012, with calculated lifetime risk score (LRS) indicating intermediate or high risk for CV disease (CVD)...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Gilles Lemesle, Marc Laine, Mathieu Pankert, Etienne Puymirat, Thomas Cuisset, Ziad Boueri, Luc Maillard, Sébastien Armero, Guillaume Cayla, Laurent Bali, Pascal Motreff, Jean-Pascal Peyre, Franck Paganelli, François Kerbaul, Antoine Roch, Pierre Michelet, Karine Baumstarck, Laurent Bonello
According to recent literature, pretreatment with a P2Y12 ADP receptor antagonist before coronary angiography appears no longer suitable in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) due to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. Optimal delay of the invasive strategy in this specific context is unknown. We hypothesize that without P2Y12 ADP receptor antagonist pretreatment, a very early invasive strategy may be beneficial. The EARLY trial (Early or Delayed Revascularization for Intermediate- and High-Risk Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes?) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, 2-parallel-group study that plans to enroll 740 patients...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
Lisa M Daly, Glenn Gardener, Victoria Bowring, Wendy Burton, Yogesh Chadha, David Ellwood, Frederik Frøen, Adrienne Gordon, Alexander Heazell, Kassam Mahomed, Susan McDonald, Jane E Norman, Jeremy Oats, Vicki Flenady
The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Centre of Research Excellence in Stillbirth and the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand (PSANZ) have recently partnered in updating an important clinical practice guideline, Care of pregnant women with decreased fetal movements. This guideline offers 12 recommendations and a suggested care pathway, with the aim to improve the quality of care for women reporting decreased fetal movements through an evidence-based approach. Adoption of the guideline by clinicians and maternity hospitals could result in earlier identification of higher-risk pregnancies, improved perinatal health outcomes for women and their babies, and reduced stillbirth rates...
January 22, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Ching-Heáng Lin, Hsin-I Chou, Ueng-Cheng Yang
OBJECTIVE: Using standards is not only useful for data interchange during the process of a clinical trial, but also useful for analyzing data in a review process. Any step, which speeds up approval of new drugs, may benefit patients. As a result, adopting standards for regulatory submission becomes mandatory in some countries. However, preparing standard-compliant documents, such as annotated case report form (aCRF), needs a great deal of knowledge and experience. The process is complex and labor-intensive...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Changxuan Shao, Haotian Tian, Tianyu Wang, Zhihua Wang, Shuli Chou, Anshan Shan, Baojing Cheng
Although membrane lytic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) show enormous potential for addressing mounting global antibiotic resistance, therapeutic applications are hindered by their weak antimicrobial activity, high toxicity, salt sensitivity and poor understanding of structure-activity relationships. To investigate the effects of different parameters on the biological activities of AMPs, a rational approach was adopted to design a series of short cationic α-helical peptides comprising the Ac-WxKyWxzzyKxWyK-NH2 sequence, where x: cationic residues (Arg or Lys), y: hydrophobic residues (Ala, Val, Ile or Leu), and zz: β-turn (rigid D-Pro-Gly turn or flexible Gly-Gly turn)...
January 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Savannah Gleim, Stuart J Smyth
Part of what is presently missing at domestic regulatory levels (and that is important at the international level as well) is a detailed understanding of what the rules of, and for, regulation should be, who the actors, stakeholders and major decision makers are and finally, how to get agreement about the rules. Greater insights into the system of rules that underpin regulatory frameworks for agri-food and biotechnology products in genetically modified (GM) crop- adopting nations will provide value by clarifying the evidence used to commercialize these technologies...
January 17, 2018: New Biotechnology
Sophia N Economidou, Dimitrios A Lamprou, Dennis Douroumis
The role of two and three-dimensional printing as a fabrication technology for sophisticated transdermal drug delivery systems is explored in literature. 3D printing encompasses a family of distinct technologies that employ a virtual model to produce a physical object through numerically controlled apparatuses. The applicability of several printing technologies has been researched for the direct or indirect printing of microneedle arrays or for the modification of their surface through drug-containing coatings...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bartosz Wawrzynow, Alicja Zylicz, Maciej Zylicz
Organized networks of heat shock proteins, which possess molecular chaperone activity, protect cells from abrupt environmental changes. Additionally, molecular chaperones are essential during stress-free periods, where they moderate housekeeping functions. During tumorigenesis these chaperone networks are extensively remodeled in such a way that they are advantageous to the transforming cell. Molecular chaperones by buffering critical elements of signaling pathways empower tumor evolution leading to chemoresistance of cancer cells...
January 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Marie-Theres Vielberg, Verena C Bauer, Michael Groll
The 20S proteasome is a key player in eukaryotic and archaeal protein degradation, but its progenitor in eubacteria is unknown. Recently, the ancestral β-subunit protein (Anbu) was predicted to be the evolutionary precursor of the proteasome. We crystallised Anbu from Hyphomicrobium sp. strain MC1 in four different space groups and solved the structures by SAD-phasing and Patterson search calculation techniques. Our data reveal that Anbu adopts the classical fold of Ntn-hydrolases, but its oligomeric state differs from that of barrel-shaped proteases...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Di Zhao, Eliseo Guallar, Janice V Bowie, Bonnielin Swenor, Prateek Gajwani, Natasha Kanwar, David S Friedman
PURPOSE: To evaluate factors associated with attendance to follow-up ophthalmic care, and to assess the impact of strategies to improve follow-up. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: This is an ongoing study to develop an eye screening paradigm, focusing on African Americans ≥50 years of age at multiple urban community sites in Baltimore, MD. Several strategies were employed aiming to increase follow-up attendance rates. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations between demographic, medical and ocular factors with follow-up rate...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Jean M Twenge, Gabrielle N Martin, W Keith Campbell
In nationally representative yearly surveys of United States 8th, 10th, and 12th graders 1991-2016 (N = 1.1 million), psychological well-being (measured by self-esteem, life satisfaction, and happiness) suddenly decreased after 2012. Adolescents who spent more time on electronic communication and screens (e.g., social media, the Internet, texting, gaming) and less time on nonscreen activities (e.g., in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, attending religious services) had lower psychological well-being...
January 22, 2018: Emotion
Yadong Xu, Alvaro Goyanes, Yuwei Wang, Andrew J Weston, Po-Wah So, Carlos F G C Geraldes, Andrew M Fogg, Abdul W Basit, Gareth R Williams
The potential of the layered gadolinium hydroxide (LGdH) [Gd2(OH)5]Cl·yH2O (LGdH-Cl) for simultaneous drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging was explored in this work. Three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac [dic], ibuprofen [ibu], and naproxen [nap]) were intercalated into LGdH-Cl for the first time, using three different routes (ion exchange intercalation, coprecipitation, and exfoliation-self-assembly). X-ray diffraction, elemental microanalysis and IR spectroscopy confirmed successful incorporation of the drug into the interlayer spaces of the LGdH in all cases...
January 22, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yujie Sun, Baoyan Liu, Liyun He, Xiaodong Wu, Jia Liu
Acupuncture is developing rapidly in the world, and more attention is paid on acupuncture in various countries. Because of the cultural differences, there are different views on acupuncture between China and the west, which has brought influence and challenge to the development of acupuncture in the world. Acupuncture-related research is becoming increasingly extensive and complex, but the definition of acupuncture is lack of unified standards. The definition of acupuncture is in urgent need. Based on the analysis of acupuncture definition in the 201 international organizations of 48 countries on five continents and legislation of representative countries, this paper summarized the development status of acupuncture in foreign countries, and put forward that the definition of acupuncture should adopt the model of small connotation and large extension, integrate discipline superiority, expand the scope of acupuncture, and focus on the overall situation...
December 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
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