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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641692/interoceptive-ability-predicts-survival-on-a-london-trading-floor
#1
Narayanan Kandasamy, Sarah N Garfinkel, Lionel Page, Ben Hardy, Hugo D Critchley, Mark Gurnell, John M Coates
Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547044/complete-and-voluntary-starvation-of-50-days
#2
Bradley Elliott, Michelle Mina, Chrystalla Ferrier
A 34-year-old obese male (96.8 kg; BMI, 30.2 kg m(-1)) volitionally undertook a 50-day fast with the stated goal of losing body mass. During this time, only tea, coffee, water, and a daily multivitamin were consumed. Severe and linear loss of body mass is recorded during these 50 days (final 75.4 kg; BMI, 23.5 kg m(-1)). A surprising resilience to effects of fasting on activity levels and physical function is noted. Plasma samples are suggestive of early impairment of liver function, and perturbations to cardiovascular dynamics are also noted...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523426/hunger-dependent-enhancement-of-food-cue-responses-in-mouse-postrhinal-cortex-and-lateral-amygdala
#3
Christian R Burgess, Rohan N Ramesh, Arthur U Sugden, Kirsten M Levandowski, Margaret A Minnig, Henning Fenselau, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
The needs of the body can direct behavioral and neural processing toward motivationally relevant sensory cues. For example, human imaging studies have consistently found specific cortical areas with biased responses to food-associated visual cues in hungry subjects, but not in sated subjects. To obtain a cellular-level understanding of these hunger-dependent cortical response biases, we performed chronic two-photon calcium imaging in postrhinal association cortex (POR) and primary visual cortex (V1) of behaving mice...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507602/n-phenylmaleimides-affect-adipogenesis-and-present-antitumor-activity-through-reduction-of-fasn-expression
#4
Daiane Rosolen, Iara Fabrícia Kretzer, Evelyn Winter, Vânia Floriani Noldin, Ícaro Andrade Rodrigues do Carmo, Fabíola Branco Filippin-Monteiro, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Tânia Beatriz Creczynski-Pasa
In light of the evidence that in contrast to most healthy tissues, several neoplasms overexpress fatty acid synthase (FASN) upon their dependence on increased lipogenesis; targeting of this protein is being considered as a valuable strategy in anticancer drug development. This can be particularly relevant for aggressive tumors such as melanoma in which FASN overexpression has been associated with increased depth of invasion and worse prognosis. We have previously shown that a sub-class of cyclic imides, the N-phenylmaleimides, presented antitumor activity against L1210 leukemia and B16F10 melanoma with evidences of interference in the energetic metabolism...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27263088/hospitalized-hunger-striking-prisoners-the-role-of-ethics-consultations
#5
Luciana Caenazzo, Pamela Tozzo, Daniele Rodriguez
We refer to hospitalized convicted hunger strikers in Padua Hospital who decided to fast for specific reasons, often demanding, to be heard by the judge, to complain about the existing custodial situation or to claim unjust treatment. The medical ethics of hunger strikers are debated because the use of force feeding by physicians is widely condemned as unethical, but courts, in Italy, sometimes order to transfer the convicted person to hospital and oblige healthcare practitioners to perform forcible feeding...
June 4, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923519/espen-guideline-on-ethical-aspects-of-artificial-nutrition-and-hydration
#6
Christiane Druml, Peter E Ballmer, Wilfred Druml, Frank Oehmichen, Alan Shenkin, Pierre Singer, Peter Soeters, Arved Weimann, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The worldwide debate over the use of artificial nutrition and hydration remains controversial although the scientific and medical facts are unequivocal. Artificial nutrition and hydration are a medical intervention, requiring an indication, a therapeutic goal and the will (consent) of the competent patient. METHODS: The guideline was developed by an international multidisciplinary working group based on the main aspects of the Guideline on "Ethical and Legal Aspects of Artificial Nutrition" published 2013 by the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) after conducting a review of specific current literature...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26520917/to-the-limit-of-extreme-malnutrition
#7
Jacob Frølich, Camilla Viola Buskbjerg Palm, Rene K Støving
Extreme malnutrition with body mass index (BMI) as low as 10 kg/m(2) is not uncommon in anorexia nervosa, with survival enabled through complex metabolic adaptations. In contrast, outcomes from hunger strikes and famines are usually fatal after weight loss to about 40% below expected body weight, corresponding to BMI 12 to 13 kg/m(2) in adults. Thus, many years of adaptation in adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa, supported by supplements of vitamins and treatment of intercurrent diseases, may allow survival at a much lower BMI...
January 2016: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26512941/analysis-of-scientific-production-in-food-science-from-2003-to-2013
#8
Vicente P Guerrero-Bote, Félix Moya-Anegón
Food Science is an active discipline in scientific research. The improvements in Food Technology constitute a challenge for society to eradicate hunger, while achieving food safety. This work analyses the scientific production in Food Science of the 25 countries with the greatest output in this subject area in the period 2003 to 2013. The growth of China's production was striking, with the country becoming top-ranked by the end of the period. Some developing countries (such as Nigeria) achieved a major increase in production but reducing their proportion of scientific collaboration and their works' impact...
December 2015: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26194871/professional-ethics-in-extreme-circumstances-responsibilities-of-attending-physicians-and-healthcare-providers-in-hunger-strikes
#9
Nurbay Irmak
Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians' duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers' decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow the strikers' unpressured advance directives...
August 2015: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165682/episodes-of-voluntary-total-fasting-hunger-strike-in-spanish-prisons-a-descriptive-analysis
#10
MULTICENTER STUDY
J García-Guerrero, E J Vera-Remartínez
OBJECTIVE: To provide a description of the frequency and main features of the episodes of voluntary total fasting (VTF) taking place in Spanish prisons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information on the episodes of VTF reported between 04/01/2013 and 03/31/2014 was gathered. Once the appropriate informed consent was given, other data on social, demographic, penitentiary and clinical aspects were collected. A descriptive study of such variables together with a bivariate analysis was then carried out by means of standard statistical techniques and binary logistic regression models...
August 2015: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25946770/hunger-striking-inmates-and-detainees-and-medical-ethics
#11
EDITORIAL
Tami Karni
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2015: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25673236/guantanamo-force-feeding-trial-the-us-is-wrong-to-medicalize-hunger-striking
#12
W John Kalk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25507223/-force-feeding-of-hunger-striking-prisoners
#13
Shimon Glick
In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law...
September 2014: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25417495/-force-feeding-of-hunger-striking-prisoners
#14
Shimon Glick
In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law...
September 2014: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25280415/management-of-patients-during-hunger-strike-and-refeeding-phase
#15
M Eichelberger, M L Joray, M Perrig, M Bodmer, Z Stanga
OBJECTIVE: Hunger strikers resuming nutritional intake may develop a life-threatening refeeding syndrome (RFS). Consequently, hunger strikers represent a core challenge for the medical staff. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness and safety of evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of RFS during the refeeding phase. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational data analysis of 37 consecutive, unselected cases of prisoners on a hunger strike during a 5-y period...
November 2014: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25184454/-a-group-of-pregnant-teenagers-perceptions-regarding-their-pregnancy-accompanied-by-food-insecurity
#16
Liliana A López-Cano, Sandra L Restrepo-Mesa
OBJECTIVE: Describing pregnant adolescents' perceptions regarding food insecurity in their households. METHOD: Quantitative methodology involving an ethnographic approach was used; seventeen adolescents in their third trimester of pregnancy were included in the study; they were registered in the Medellin public hospital network's prenatal control program and living in households classified as being food insecure. RESULTS: Some adolescents said that initially their pregnancies were unwanted; however, feeling a baby in their wombs became an act of love and became acceptance of their unborn children...
January 2014: Revista de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25162850/suicidal-protests-self-immolation-hunger-strikes-or-suicide-bombing
#17
COMMENT
David Lester
Following Lankford's persuasive argument that suicide bombers are indeed suicidal, the next question to ask is why individuals choose one form of suicidal protest over others. Why choose suicide bombing rather than a hunger strike or self-immolation? Some suggestions are provided.
August 2014: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24985228/-every-mountain-too-high-when-nausea-strikes-gastrointestinal-function-at-high-altitude
#18
REVIEW
Heiko Frühauf
For people unaccustomed to high altitude, exposure to height often leads to Acute Mountain Sickness, with headaches, difficulty breathing and gastrointestinal symptoms. Nausea and loss of appetite may result in less calorie intake and weight loss. At altitudes greater than 4000 m about 50-80% of people are affected. After only short exposure, gastrointestinal mucosal lesions can occur, potentially leading to gastrointestinal bleeding and lessened hunger. Patients with inflammatory bowel disorders may develop an acute exacerbation...
July 2, 2014: Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24978413/ajob-case-presentation-hunger-strike-or-suicide-by-starvation-is-force-feeding-a-prisoner-ethical
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24916663/israel-medical-association-fights-to-stop-legalisation-of-force-feeding-prisoners-on-hunger-strike
#20
Judy Siegel-Itzkovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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