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hunger strike

Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Kara Weisman, Carol S Dweck, Ellen M Markman
How do people make sense of the emotions, sensations, and cognitive abilities that make up mental life? Pioneering work on the dimensions of mind perception has been interpreted as evidence that people consider mental life to have two core components-experience (e.g., hunger, joy) and agency (e.g., planning, self-control) [Gray HM, et al. (2007) Science 315:619]. We argue that this conclusion is premature: The experience-agency framework may capture people's understanding of the differences among different beings (e...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jean-Paul Noel, Marisa Lytle, Carissa Cascio, Mark T Wallace
In addition to deficits in social communication, individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) frequently exhibit changes in sensory and multisensory function. Recent evidence has focused on changes in audiovisual temporal processing, and has sought to relate these sensory-based changes to weaknesses in social communication. These changes in audiovisual temporal function manifest as differences in the temporal epoch or "window" within which paired auditory and visual stimuli are integrated or bound, with those with ASD exhibiting expanded audiovisual temporal binding windows (TBWs)...
October 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Yechiel Michael Barilan
In its Malta Declaration, The World Medical Association prohibits force-feeding of hunger strikers as "degrading and inhuman," even when this is the only way to save their lives. The European Court of Human Rights ruled that lifesaving force-feeding is compatible with the state's duty to protect the lives of prisoners. To understand how such extreme divergence of opinions has become possible, this paper offers a critical examination of the social history of prisoners' hunger strikes, the philosophy of nonviolence, and the debate on its medicalization...
2017: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Stephen N Xenakis
There is no agreement on how to manage hunger strikers. The health professionals called to intervene in a hunger strike are faced with a dilemma: commit themselves to good order and discipline or comply with best practices for providing healthcare. Handling cases of hunger strikers confronts practitioners with the ethics dilemma of managing apparent intentional behavior that carries serious morbidity or mortality, but recognizing that hunger striking is a military and political tactic, and not a medical condition...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Rusty Reeves, Anthony C Tamburello, Jennifer Platt, Drew Tepper, Kerri Edelman
A hunger strike is a common, expensive, and potentially lethal event within a correctional institution. In this study, we describe the characteristics of inmates who initiated hunger strikes in a state prison system. Electronic medical records for a state prison system were reviewed for documentation of hunger strikes from January 2005 through September 2015. There were 292 hunger strikes during the study period. Most (71%) lasted three or fewer days. When weight data were available, only 12.9 percent of the hunger strikes resulted in a weight loss >10 percent...
September 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Ying Han, Xing-Yu Li, Shao-Ran Wang, Yi-Chao Wei, Xiao-Hong Xu
Despite recent progress on neural pathways underlying individual behaviors, how an animal balances and prioritizes behavioral outputs remains poorly understood. While studying the relationship between hunger-induced feeding and pup-induced maternal behaviors in virgin female mice, we made the unexpected discovery that presence of pups strongly delayed and decreased food consumption. Strikingly, presence of pups also suppressed feeding induced by optogenetic activation of Agrp neurons. Such a suppressive effect inversely correlated with the extents of maternal behaviors, but did not rely on the display of these behaviors, and was also present in virgin males...
September 4, 2017: Neuroscience
Zohar Lederman, Shmuel Lederman
In 2015, the Israeli Knesset passed the force-feeding act that permits the director of the Israeli prison authority to appeal to the district court with a request to force-feed a prisoner against his expressed will. A recent position paper by top Israeli clinicians and bioethicists, published in Hebrew, advocates for force-feeding by medical professionals and presents several arguments that this would be appropriate. Here, we first posit three interrelated questions: 1. Do prisoners have a right to hunger-strike? 2...
August 15, 2017: Monash Bioethics Review
Gregory T Smith, Pamela K Keel
This is a time of striking progress in the field of eating disorders, and outstanding young psychological scientists are playing an important role in this progress. This special section provides a sample of this work, which is characterized by a diversity of research questions and methods. The importance of transdiagnostic processes that increase risk for both disordered eating and other dysfunction is reflected in articles that identify shared familial risk across disorders, integrate transdiagnostic and eating disorder-specific risk, and examine the impact of affective processing on restricting behavior...
July 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Nicolas Dauby, Agnès Libois, Johan Van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Olivier Vandenberg, Delphine Martiny
Extra-colonic infections, and especially bacteremia, are infrequent manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection. C. difficile bacteremia is generally health-care associated and polymicrobial. We report the case of a patient on hunger strike that presented a C. difficile colitis and mono-microbial bacteremia on its admission to the hospital. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of stool and blood isolates indicated clonality. The strain was characterized as a ribotype 002, an emerging ribotype previously associated with high fatality rate...
April 2017: Anaerobe
Miki Igarashi, Vidya Narayanaswami, Virginia Kimonis, Pietro M Galassetti, Fariba Oveisi, Kwang-Mook Jung, Daniele Piomelli
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the leading genetic cause of obesity, is characterized by a striking hyperphagic behavior that can lead to obesity, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death. The molecular mechanism underlying impaired satiety in PWS is unknown. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid mediator involved in the control of feeding, body weight and energy metabolism. OEA produced by small-intestinal enterocytes during dietary fat digestion activates type-α peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α) to trigger an afferent signal that causes satiety...
December 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Mirko D Garasic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
Narayanan Kandasamy, Sarah N Garfinkel, Lionel Page, Ben Hardy, Hugo D Critchley, Mark Gurnell, John M Coates
Interoception is the sensing of physiological signals originating inside the body, such as hunger, pain and heart rate. People with greater sensitivity to interoceptive signals, as measured by, for example, tests of heart beat detection, perform better in laboratory studies of risky decision-making. However, there has been little field work to determine if interoceptive sensitivity contributes to success in real-world, high-stakes risk taking. Here, we report on a study in which we quantified heartbeat detection skills in a group of financial traders working on a London trading floor...
2016: Scientific Reports
Bradley Elliott, Michelle Mina, Chrystalla Ferrier
A 34-year-old obese male (96.8 kg; BMI, 30.2 kg m(-1)) volitionally undertook a 50-day fast with the stated goal of losing body mass. During this time, only tea, coffee, water, and a daily multivitamin were consumed. Severe and linear loss of body mass is recorded during these 50 days (final 75.4 kg; BMI, 23.5 kg m(-1)). A surprising resilience to effects of fasting on activity levels and physical function is noted. Plasma samples are suggestive of early impairment of liver function, and perturbations to cardiovascular dynamics are also noted...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
Christian R Burgess, Rohan N Ramesh, Arthur U Sugden, Kirsten M Levandowski, Margaret A Minnig, Henning Fenselau, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
The needs of the body can direct behavioral and neural processing toward motivationally relevant sensory cues. For example, human imaging studies have consistently found specific cortical areas with biased responses to food-associated visual cues in hungry subjects, but not in sated subjects. To obtain a cellular-level understanding of these hunger-dependent cortical response biases, we performed chronic two-photon calcium imaging in postrhinal association cortex (POR) and primary visual cortex (V1) of behaving mice...
September 7, 2016: Neuron
Daiane Rosolen, Iara Fabrícia Kretzer, Evelyn Winter, Vânia Floriani Noldin, Ícaro Andrade Rodrigues do Carmo, Fabíola Branco Filippin-Monteiro, Valdir Cechinel-Filho, Tânia Beatriz Creczynski-Pasa
In light of the evidence that in contrast to most healthy tissues, several neoplasms overexpress fatty acid synthase (FASN) upon their dependence on increased lipogenesis; targeting of this protein is being considered as a valuable strategy in anticancer drug development. This can be particularly relevant for aggressive tumors such as melanoma in which FASN overexpression has been associated with increased depth of invasion and worse prognosis. We have previously shown that a sub-class of cyclic imides, the N-phenylmaleimides, presented antitumor activity against L1210 leukemia and B16F10 melanoma with evidences of interference in the energetic metabolism...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Luciana Caenazzo, Pamela Tozzo, Daniele Rodriguez
We refer to hospitalized convicted hunger strikers in Padua Hospital who decided to fast for specific reasons, often demanding, to be heard by the judge, to complain about the existing custodial situation or to claim unjust treatment. The medical ethics of hunger strikers are debated because the use of force feeding by physicians is widely condemned as unethical, but courts, in Italy, sometimes order to transfer the convicted person to hospital and oblige healthcare practitioners to perform forcible feeding...
December 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Christiane Druml, Peter E Ballmer, Wilfred Druml, Frank Oehmichen, Alan Shenkin, Pierre Singer, Peter Soeters, Arved Weimann, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The worldwide debate over the use of artificial nutrition and hydration remains controversial although the scientific and medical facts are unequivocal. Artificial nutrition and hydration are a medical intervention, requiring an indication, a therapeutic goal and the will (consent) of the competent patient. METHODS: The guideline was developed by an international multidisciplinary working group based on the main aspects of the Guideline on "Ethical and Legal Aspects of Artificial Nutrition" published 2013 by the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) after conducting a review of specific current literature...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jacob Frølich, Camilla Viola Buskbjerg Palm, Rene K Støving
Extreme malnutrition with body mass index (BMI) as low as 10 kg/m(2) is not uncommon in anorexia nervosa, with survival enabled through complex metabolic adaptations. In contrast, outcomes from hunger strikes and famines are usually fatal after weight loss to about 40% below expected body weight, corresponding to BMI 12 to 13 kg/m(2) in adults. Thus, many years of adaptation in adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa, supported by supplements of vitamins and treatment of intercurrent diseases, may allow survival at a much lower BMI...
January 2016: Nutrition
Vicente P Guerrero-Bote, Félix Moya-Anegón
Food Science is an active discipline in scientific research. The improvements in Food Technology constitute a challenge for society to eradicate hunger, while achieving food safety. This work analyses the scientific production in Food Science of the 25 countries with the greatest output in this subject area in the period 2003 to 2013. The growth of China's production was striking, with the country becoming top-ranked by the end of the period. Some developing countries (such as Nigeria) achieved a major increase in production but reducing their proportion of scientific collaboration and their works' impact...
December 2015: Journal of Food Science
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