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Internal globus pallidus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728152/use-of-the-putamen-as-a-surrogate-anatomical-marker-for-the-internal-segment-of-the-globus-pallidus-in-deep-brain-stimulation-surgery
#1
John A Thompson, Dali Yin, Steven G Ojemann, Aviva Abosch
OBJECTIVE: The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) depends on accurately placing the electrode into the GPi motor territory. Direct targeting can be difficult as GPi laminar borders are not always clearly identifiable on MRI. Here, we report a method for using the putamen (PUT) as a surrogate anatomical marker to target the GPi. METHODS: We developed a PUT-based GPi targeting using the FGATIR (fast gray matter acquisition T1-weighted inversion recovery) MRI sequence and compared it with consensus coordinate-based indirect targeting...
July 21, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712991/low-beta-cortico-pallidal-coherence-decreases-during-movement-and-correlates-with-overall-reaction-time
#2
Bernadette C M van Wijk, Wolf-Julian Neumann, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Tilmann H Sander, Vladimir Litvak, Andrea A Kühn
Beta band oscillations (13-30 Hz) are a hallmark of cortical and subcortical structures that are part of the motor system. In addition to local population activity, oscillations also provide a means for synchronization of activity between regions. Here we examined the role of beta band coherence between the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and (motor) cortex during a simple reaction time task performed by nine patients with idiopathic dystonia. We recorded local field potentials from deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted in bilateral GPi in combination with simultaneous whole-head magneto-encephalography (MEG)...
July 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653648/gadolinium-deposition-in-the-brain-summary-of-evidence-and-recommendations
#3
REVIEW
Vikas Gulani, Fernando Calamante, Frank G Shellock, Emanuel Kanal, Scott B Reeder
Emerging evidence has linked MRI signal changes in deep nuclei of the brain with repeated administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents. Gadolinium deposits have been confirmed in brain tissue, most notably in the dentate nuclei and globus pallidus. Although some linear contrast agents appear to cause greater MRI signal changes than some macrocyclic agents, deposition of gadolinium has also been observed with macrocyclic agents. However, the extent of gadolinium deposition varies between agents. Furthermore, the clinical significance of the retained gadolinium in the brain, if any, remains unknown...
July 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645853/anterior-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-s-syndrome-a-randomised-double-blind-controlled-trial
#4
Marie-Laure Welter, Jean-Luc Houeto, Stéphane Thobois, Benoit Bataille, Marc Guenot, Yulia Worbe, Andreas Hartmann, Virginie Czernecki, Eric Bardinet, Jerome Yelnik, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Yves Agid, Marie Vidailhet, Philippe Cornu, Audrey Tanguy, Solène Ansquer, Nematollah Jaafari, Emmanuel Poulet, Giulia Serra, Pierre Burbaud, Emmanuel Cuny, Bruno Aouizerate, Pierre Pollak, Stephan Chabardes, Mircea Polosan, Michel Borg, Denys Fontaine, Bruno Giordana, Sylvie Raoul, Tiphaine Rouaud, Anne Sauvaget, Isabelle Jalenques, Carine Karachi, Luc Mallet
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed to treat patients with severe Tourette's syndrome, and open-label trials and two small double-blind trials have tested DBS of the posterior and the anterior internal globus pallidus (aGPi). We aimed to specifically assess the efficacy of aGPi DBS for severe Tourette's syndrome. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18-60 years with severe and medically refractory Tourette's syndrome from eight hospitals specialised in movement disorders in France...
June 20, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623417/a-validated-clinical-mri-injury-scoring-system-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#5
Shamik B Trivedi, Zachary A Vesoulis, Rakesh Rao, Steve M Liao, Joshua S Shimony, Robert C McKinstry, Amit M Mathur
BACKGROUND: Deep nuclear gray matter injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is associated with worse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We previously published a qualitative MRI injury scoring system utilizing serial T1-weighted, T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), weighted for deep nuclear gray matter injury. OBJECTIVES: To establish the validity of the MRI scoring system with neurodevelopmental outcome at 18-24 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI scans from neonates with moderate to severe HIE treated with therapeutic hypothermia were evaluated...
June 16, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590521/seventy-years-of-pallidotomy-for-movement-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Laura Cif, Marwan Hariz
The year 2017 marks the 70th anniversary of the birth of human stereotactic neurosurgery. The first procedure was a pallidotomy for Huntington's disease. However, it was for Parkinson's disease that pallidotomy was soon adopted worldwide. Pallidotomy was abandoned in the late 1950s in favor of thalamotomy because of the latter's more striking effect on tremor. The advent of levodopa put a halt to all surgery for PD. In the mid-1980s, Laitinen reintroduced the posteroventral pallidotomy of Leksell, and this procedure spread worldwide thanks to its efficacy on most parkinsonian symptoms including levodopa-induced dyskinesias and thanks to basic scientific work confirming the role of the globus pallidus internus in the pathophysiology of PD...
July 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575905/association-of-white-matter-lesions-cerebral-atrophy-intracranial-extravascular-calcifications-and-ventricular-communicating-hydrocephalus-with-delirium-among-veterans
#7
Mark B Detweiler, Rathnakara M Sherigar, Geoffrey Bader, Kelly Sullivan, Arline Kenneth, Naciye Kalafat, Pavan Reddy, Brian Lutgens
OBJECTIVES: The literature regarding the underlying neuropathogenesis of delirium on head computed tomography (CT) is limited. The aim of this research was to investigate, using case-control retrospective chart review, the association of white matter lesions (WML), cerebral atrophy, intracranial extravascular calcifications, and ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus in older adult military veterans with and without delirium hospitalized in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. METHODS: Head CT scans were examined for WML, atrophy, and intracranial extravascular calcifications globally in the cortex, subcortex (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital lobes), basal ganglia (globus pallidus, caudate, putamen), and internal capsule, in addition to the presence of ventricular-communicating hydrocephalus...
June 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556479/tonic-and-phasic-changes-in-anteromedial-globus-pallidus-activity-in-tourette-syndrome
#8
Michal Israelashvili, Anouk Y J M Smeets, Maya Bronfeld, Dagmar H Zeef, Albert F G Leentjens, Vivianne van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Marcus L F Janssen, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans, Izhar Bar-Gad
BACKGROUND: Tourette syndrome is a hyperkinetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics. OBJECTIVE: Assess the neuronal changes in the associative/limbic GP associated with Tourette syndrome. METHODS: Neurophysiological recordings were performed from the anterior (associative/limbic) GPe and GPi of 8 awake patients during DBS electrode implantation surgeries. RESULTS: The baseline firing rate of the neurons was low in a state-dependent manner in both segments of the GP...
July 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413841/correlation-of-electrode-position-and-clinical-outcomes-in-globus-pallidus-stimulation-for-dystonia
#9
Hye Ran Park, Jae Min Lee, Gwanhee Ehm, Hui-Jun Yang, In Ho Song, Yong Hoon Lim, Mi-Ryoung Kim, Keyoung Ran Kim, Woong-Woo Lee, Young Eun Kim, Jae Ha Hwang, Chae Won Shin, Hyeyoung Park, Jin Wook Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Cheolyoung Kim, Dong Gyu Kim, Beom Seok Jeon, Sun Ha Paek
BACKGROUND: The correlation between the electrode location and the clinical outcome for internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the discrepancies between the theoretical target planned by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the actual electrode location in postoperative MRI, as well as to find the correlation between the final electrode locations and the clinical outcome after GPi DBS...
July 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347615/the-p-thr11met-mutation-in-c19orf12-is-frequent-among-adult-turkish-patients-with-mpan
#10
Simone Olgiati, Okan Doğu, Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Yunus Diler, Esen Saka, Murat Gultekin, Hakan Kaleagasi, Demy Kuipers, Josja Graafland, Guido J Breedveld, Marialuisa Quadri, Reyhan Sürmeli, Gülin Sünter, Tuğrul Doğan, Ayşe Destina Yalçın, Başar Bilgiç, Bülent Elibol, Murat Emre, Hasmet A Hanagasi, Vincenzo Bonifati
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the C19orf12 gene cause mitochondrial membrane protein associated neurodegeneration (MPAN), an autosomal recessive form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). A limited number of patients with C19orf12 mutations, particularly those with adult onset of symptoms, have been reported. METHODS: We sequenced the entire coding region of C19orf12 in 15 Turkish adult probands with idiopathic NBIA. We also performed haplotype analysis in families with a recurrent C19orf12 mutation...
March 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345164/comparing-functional-mri-protocols-for-small-iron-rich-basal-ganglia-nuclei-such-as-the-subthalamic-nucleus-at-7-t-and-3-t
#11
Gilles de Hollander, Max C Keuken, Wietske van der Zwaag, Birte U Forstmann, Robert Trampel
The basal ganglia (BG) form a network of subcortical nuclei. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the BG could provide insight in its functioning and the underlying mechanisms of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). However, fMRI of the BG with high specificity is challenging, because the nuclei are small and variable in their anatomical location. High resolution fMRI at field strengths of 7 Tesla (T) could help resolve these challenges to some extent. A set of MR protocols was developed for functional imaging of the BG nuclei at 3 T and 7 T...
June 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303790/design-of-robust-adaptive-controller-and-feedback-error-learning-for-rehabilitation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-simulation-study
#12
Korosh Rouhollahi, Mehran Emadi Andani, Seyed Mahdi Karbassi, Iman Izadi
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an efficient therapy to control movement disorders of Parkinson's tremor. Stimulation of one area of basal ganglia (BG) by DBS with no feedback is the prevalent opinion. Reduction of additional stimulatory signal delivered to the brain is the advantage of using feedback. This results in reduction of side effects caused by the excessive stimulation intensity. In fact, the stimulatory intensity of controllers is decreased proportional to reduction of hand tremor. The objective of this study is to design a new controller structure to decrease three indicators: (i) the hand tremor; (ii) the level of delivered stimulation in disease condition; and (iii) the ratio of the level of delivered stimulation in health condition to disease condition...
February 2017: IET Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242732/inhibitory-dysfunction-contributes-to-some-of-the-motor-and-non-motor-symptoms-of-movement-disorders-and-psychiatric-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Marjan Jahanshahi, John C Rothwell
Recently, it has been proposed that similar to goal-directed and habitual action mediated by the fronto-striatal circuits, the fronto-striato-subthalamic-pallidal-thalamo-cortical network may also mediate goal-directed and habitual (automatic) inhibition in both the motor and non-motor domains. Within this framework, some of the clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder can be considered to represent an imbalance between goal-directed and habitual action and inhibition...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159649/field-evoked-potentials-in-the-globus-pallidus-of-non-human-primates
#14
Ian A Prescott, Robert A Marino, Ron Levy
Stimulation-induced field evoked potentials (fEPs) have been described in the basal ganglia output nuclei of patients with Parkinson's disease and dystonia. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether fEPs were inducible in the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the globus pallidus in normal non-human primates (NHPs). Microelectrode recording and stimulation was performed in the GPe and GPi of 2 healthy NHPs. Stimulus response curves of the fEP response to changing pulse width and amplitude examined strength-duration relationships and allowed for calculation of fEP chronaxie in the GPe and GPi...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102636/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-tourette-syndrome-clinical-evidence-for-increasing-disbalance-of-therapeutic-effects-and-side-effects-at-long-term-follow-up
#15
Anouk Y J M Smeets, Annelien A Duits, Albert F G Leentjens, Koen Schruers, Vivianne van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans
OBJECTIVE: Thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective in reducing tics in patients with refractory Tourette syndrome at the short-term. Here, we report on the long-term outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients underwent bilateral DBS between 2001 and 2008. The target was the centromedian nucleus, substantia periventricularis and nucleus ventro-oralis internus cross point of the thalamus. The effect on tics and side effects were evaluated with a variable follow-up duration of 12 to 78 months...
January 19, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078738/dorsal-pallidal-neurons-directly-link-the-nidopallium-and-midbrain-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#16
J Martin Wild
The dorsal pallidum in birds is considered similar, if not homologous, to the globus pallidus (GP) of mammals. The dorsal pallidum projects to both thalamic and midbrain targets similar to the direct and indirect pathways arising from the internal and external segments of the GP. In the present study retrograde and anterograde tracing studies revealed a previously undescribed projection of the avian dorsal pallidum. This arises from a specific dorsomedial component, which terminates in the intercollicular nucleus and partly surrounds the avian equivalent of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065850/deep-grey-matter-iron-accumulation-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#17
Michal Juhás, Hongfu Sun, Matthew R G Brown, Marnie B MacKay, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Alan H Wilman, Serdar M Dursun, Andrew J Greenshaw
PURPOSE: Evaluate brain iron accumulation in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients compared to controls using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). METHODS: QSM was performed retrospectively by using phase images from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 male AUD patients and 15 matched healthy controls were examined. Susceptibility values were manually traced in deep grey matter regions including caudate nucleus, combined putamen and globus pallidus, combined substantia nigra and red nucleus, dentate nucleus, and a reference white matter region in the internal capsule...
January 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018207/neural-correlates-for-apathy-frontal-prefrontal-and-parietal-cortical-subcortical-circuits
#18
REVIEW
Rita Moretti, Riccardo Signori
Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003623/internal-structures-of-the-globus-pallidus-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-evaluation-with-phase-difference-enhanced-imaging
#19
Satoru Ide, Shingo Kakeda, Tetsuya Yoneda, Junji Moriya, Keita Watanabe, Atsushi Ogasawara, Koichiro Futatsuya, Norihiro Ohnari, Toru Sato, Yasuhiro Hiai, Atsuji Matsuyama, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Masanori Hisaoka, Yukunori Korogi
PURPOSE: The medial medullary lamina (MML) separates the medial globus pallidus (GPm) from the lateral. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in appearance of MML related to age using the phase difference-enhanced imaging (PADRE) and to determine whether PADRE can depict the MML in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 20 patients with PD and 50 normal control subjects (NC). First, for the visualization of the MML in the NC, we compared the PADRE, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)-like images and T2 weighted imaging (WI) by using multiple comparison...
December 22, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943471/a-novel-rab39b-gene-mutation-in-x-linked-juvenile-parkinsonism-with-basal-ganglia-calcification
#20
Chang-He Shi, Shu-Yu Zhang, Zhi-Hua Yang, Jing Yang, Dan-Dan Shang, Cheng-Yuan Mao, Hao Liu, Hai-Man Hou, Meng-Meng Shi, Jun Wu, Yu-Ming Xu
OBJECTIVES: Mutations in RAB39B have been reported as a potential cause of X-linked Parkinson's disease (PD), a rare form of familial PD. We conducted a genetic analysis on RAB39B to evaluate whether RAB39B mutations are related to PD in the Chinese population. METHODS: In this study, 2 patients from an X-linked juvenile parkinsonism pedigree were clinically characterized and underwent whole-exome sequencing. A comprehensive screening for RAB39B mutations in 505 sporadic patients with PD and 510 healthy controls in a Chinese population was also performed...
December 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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