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Internal globus pallidus

Anna Castrioto, Odeya Marmor, Marc Deffains, Dafna Willner, Eduard Linetsky, Hagai Bergman, Zvi Israel, Renana Eitan, David Arkadir
Classical rate models of basal ganglia circuitry associate discharge rate of the globus pallidus external and internal segments (GPe, GPi respectively) solely with dopaminergic state and predict an inverse ratio between the discharge rates of the two pallidal segments. In contrast, the effects of other rate modulators such as general anesthesia (GA) on this ratio have been ignored. To respond to this need, we recorded the neuronal activity in the GPe and GPi in awake and anesthetized human patients with dystonia (57 and 53 trajectories respectively) and in awake patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, 16 trajectories) undergoing deep brain stimulation procedures...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ruben Smith, Martin Schain, Christer Nilsson, Olof Strandberg, Tomas Olsson, Douglas Hägerström, Jonas Jögi, Edilio Borroni, Michael Schöll, Michael Honer, Oskar Hansson
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is difficult to diagnose accurately. The recently developed tau PET tracers may improve the diagnostic work-up of PSP. METHODS: Regional tau accumulation was studied using (18) F-AV-1451 PET in 11 patients with PSP and 11 age-matched healthy controls in the Swedish BioFinder study. RESULTS: (18) F-AV-1451 standard uptake volume ratios were significantly higher in the basal ganglia in PSP patients when compared with controls (globus pallidus 1...
October 6, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Laura Cif, Philippe Coubes
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous by the underlying pathobiology and clinical presentation, childhood onset dystonia is most frequently progressive, with related disability and limitations in functions of daily living. Consequently, there is an obvious need for efficient symptomatic therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following lesional surgery to basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a more conservative and adjustable intervention to and validated for internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), highly efficient in treating isolated "primary" dystonia and associated symptoms such as subcortical myoclonus...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Judith A Boel, Vincent J J Odekerken, Ben A Schmand, Gert J Geurtsen, Danielle C Cath, Martijn Figee, Pepijn van den Munckhof, Rob J de Haan, P Richard Schuurman, Rob M A de Bie
BACKGROUND: Effects on non-motor symptoms, mainly cognitive and psychiatric side effects, could influence the decision for either globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: 1) To compare cognitive and psychiatric outcomes 3 years after GPi DBS versus STN DBS, and 2) to report on occurrence of suicidal ideation, psychiatric diagnoses, social functioning, and marital satisfaction 3 years after DBS...
September 19, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Stefan Kammermeier, Damien Pittard, Ikuma Hamada, Thomas Wichmann
Deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) is a major treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. The effects of this intervention on electrical activity patterns in targets of GPi output, specifically in the thalamus, are poorly understood. The experiments described here examined these effects using electrophysiologic recordings in two Rhesus monkeys rendered moderately parkinsonian through treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), after sampling control data in the same animals...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Lin-Lin Gao, Jiarong Zhang, Piu Chan, Tao Wu
AIMS: To investigate the effects of levodopa on the basal ganglia motor circuit (BGMC) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Thirty PD patients with asymmetrical bradykinesia and 30 control subjects were scanned using resting-state functional MRI. Functional connectivity of the BGMC was measured and compared before and after levodopa administration in patients with PD. The correlation between improvements in bradykinesia and changes in BGMC connectivity was examined...
September 24, 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Wolfgang Oertel, Jörg B Schulz
Over a period of more than 50 years, the symptomatic treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) has been optimized using pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation, and physiotherapy. The arsenal of pharmacotherapies includes L-Dopa, several dopamine agonists, inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), and amantadine. In the later course of the disease, motor complications occur, at which stage different oral formulations of L-Dopa or dopamine agonists with long half-life, a transdermal application or parenteral pumps for continuous drug supply can be subscribed...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
G Fernández-Pajarín, A Sesar, J L Relova, B Ares, I Jiménez-Martín, P Blanco-Arias, M Gelabert-González, A Castro
BACKGROUND: Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS) is an autosomal dominant movement disorder caused by mutations in the SGCE gene. MDS is characterized by mild dystonia and myoclonic jerks, and a constellation of psychiatric manifestations. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of bilateral internal globus pallidus (GPi) has recently been introduced as a new and beneficial technique to improve motor symptoms in MDS. METHODS: We report three proven genetically MDS cases with successful response to DBS, and their clinical evolution over years...
October 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
Malvindar K Singh-Bains, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by pronounced pathology of the basal ganglia, with numerous studies documenting the pattern of striatal neurodegeneration in the human brain. However, a principle target of striatal outflow, the globus pallidus (GP), has received limited attention in comparison, despite being a core component of the basal ganglia. The external segment (GPe) is a major output of the dorsal striatum, connecting widely to other basal ganglia nuclei via the indirect motor pathway. The internal segment (GPi) is a final output station of both the direct and indirect motor pathways of the basal ganglia...
August 16, 2016: Brain Pathology
Korosh Rouhollahi, Mehran Emadi Andani, Seyed Mahdi Karbassi, Iman Izadi
In this study, a model of basal ganglia (BG) is applied to develop a deep brain stimulation controller to reduce Parkinson's tremor. Conventionally, one area in BG is stimulated, with no feedback, to control Parkinson's tremor. In this study, a new architecture is proposed to develop feedback controller as well as to stimulate two areas of BG simultaneously. To this end, two controllers are designed and implemented in globus pallidus internal (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) in the brain. A proportional controller and a backstepping controller are designed and implemented in GPi and STN, respectively...
August 2016: IET Systems Biology
Clement Baumgarten, Yulong Zhao, Paul Sauleau, Cecile Malrain, Pierre Jannin, Claire Haegelen
Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus (GPm) is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning-based method called PyMAN (PTSE model based on artificial neural network) accounting for the current used in stimulation, the three-dimensional electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE...
April 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Chiao-Yun Chen, Adrian Raine, Kun-Hsien Chou, I-Yun Chen, Daisy Hung, Ching-Po Lin
BACKGROUND: Recent research has documented structural brain abnormalities in various criminal offenders. However, there have been few brain imaging studies of sex offenders, and none on white matter integrity. The current study tested the hypothesis that rapists, when compared to matched controls, would show abnormal cortical and subcortical white matter integrity. RESULTS: Rapists showed significantly increased fractional anisotropy in the internal capsul e in the thalamus, caudate, and globus pallidus, and also in white matter tracts near the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate, frontal pole, lateral occipital cortex, and genu compared to controls matched for age, gender, and educational status...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Michał Sobstyl, Mirosław Ząbek, Zbigniew Mossakowski, Artur Zaczyński
AIM: Tardive dystonia (TD) represents a side effect of prolonged intake of neuroleptic drugs. TD can be a disabling movement disorder persisting despite available medical treatment. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been reported successful in this condition although the number of treated patients with TD is still limited to small clinical studies or case reports. In this study, we present 2 additional cases of patients after bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation. METHODS: The formal assessment included the Burke-Fahn-Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS)...
July 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Yuichi Riku, Hirohisa Watanabe, Mari Yoshida, Maya Mimuro, Yasushi Iwasaki, Michihito Masuda, Shinsuke Ishigaki, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
Recent pathological studies indicate that neuronal loss and/or TAR DNA-binding protein-43 kDa (TDP-43) inclusions are frequent in the striatum of patients with TDP-43-related frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-TDP). However, no investigations have clarified the impact of such pathological changes on striatal neuronal outputs in these diseases. We analyzed pathological changes in the striatal efferent system of 59 consecutively autopsied patients with sporadic FTLD-TDP or ALS-TDP...
June 26, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Karl Egger, Florian Amtage, Shan Yang, Markus Obmann, Ralf Schwarzwald, Lena Köstering, Irina Mader, Julia Koenigsdorf, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph P Kaller, Horst Urbach
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance (MR) relaxometry is of increasing scientific relevance in neurodegenerative disorders but is still not established in clinical routine. Several studies have investigated relaxation time alterations in disease-specific areas in Parkinson's disease (PD), all using manually drawn regions of interest (ROI). Implementing MR relaxometry into the clinical setting involves the reduction of time needed for postprocessing using an investigator-independent and reliable approach...
June 22, 2016: Clinical Neuroradiology
Antonio Daniele, Francesco Panza, Antonio Greco, Giancarlo Logroscino, Davide Seripa
At present, patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) are unsatisfactorily controlled by currently used anti-Parkinsonian dopaminergic drugs. Various studies suggest that therapeutic strategies based on nondopaminergic drugs might be helpful in PD. Zolpidem, an imidazopyridine widely used as sleep inducer, shows high affinity only for GABAA receptors containing the α-1 subunit and facilitates GABAergic neurotransmission through a positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. Various observations, although preliminary, consistently suggest that in PD patients zolpidem may induce beneficial (and sometimes remarkable) effects on motor symptoms even after single doses and may also improve dyskinesias...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
Malvindar K Singh-Bains, Lynette J Tippett, Virginia M Hogg, Beth J Synek, Richard H Roxburgh, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have focused on striatal neurodegeneration in Huntington disease (HD). In comparison, the globus pallidus (GP), a main striatal output nucleus, has received less focus in HD research. This study characterizes the pattern of neurodegeneration in 3 subdivisions of the human GP, and its relation to clinical symptomatology. METHODS: Stereology was used to measure regional atrophy, neuronal loss, and soma neuronal atrophy in 3 components of the GP-the external segment (GPe), internal segment (GPi), and ventral pallidum (VP)-in 8 HD cases compared with 7 matched control cases...
August 2016: Annals of Neurology
Pablo Andrade, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as an established effective and safe treatment option for a small subset of patients with severe Tourette syndrome (TS) refractory to psychological and pharmacological treatments. Several targets have been implicated in the study of the effects of DBS on TS symptomatology. The targets applied for DBS in TS include the thalamus, the globus pallidus internus, the internal capsule/nucleus accumbens, the globus pallidus externus and the subthalamic nucleus. In the majority of studies there has been a significant clinical benefit on tics...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Katherine J Turner, Thomas A Hawkins, Julián Yáñez, Ramón Anadón, Stephen W Wilson, Mónica Folgueira
The habenulae are bilateral nuclei located in the dorsal diencephalon that are conserved across vertebrates. Here we describe the main afferents to the habenulae in larval and adult zebrafish. We observe afferents from the subpallium, nucleus rostrolateralis, posterior tuberculum, posterior hypothalamic lobe, median raphe; we also see asymmetric afferents from olfactory bulb to the right habenula, and from the parapineal to the left habenula. In addition, we find afferents from a ventrolateral telencephalic nucleus that neurochemical and hodological data identify as the ventral entopeduncular nucleus (vENT), confirming and extending observations of Amo et al...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Michiel F Dirkx, Hanneke den Ouden, Esther Aarts, Monique Timmer, Bastiaan R Bloem, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
UNLABELLED: Parkinson's resting tremor has been linked to pathophysiological changes both in the basal ganglia and in a cerebello-thalamo-cortical motor loop, but the role of those circuits in initiating and maintaining tremor remains unclear. Here, we test whether and how the cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop is driven into a tremor-related state by virtue of its connectivity with the basal ganglia. An internal replication design on two independent cohorts of tremor-dominant Parkinson patients sampled brain activity and tremor with concurrent EMG-fMRI...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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