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Internal globus pallidus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733071/symmetrical-and-bilateral-basal-ganglia-calcification-case-series-and-literature-review
#1
Amado Jiménez-Ruiz, Omar Cárdenas-Sáenz, José Luis Ruiz-Sandoval
Introduction: Symmetric, bilateral basal ganglia calcification is rare finding that sometimes occurs asymptomatically. Its prevalence increases with age, and the most affected site is the globus pallidus. Report of cases: A series of seven cases with clinical and imaging diagnosis of basal ganglia calcification, recorded during the 2012 to 2016 period at the Department of Internal Medicine of the Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde, is presented...
2018: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726781/microsurgical-anatomy-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-correlating-fiber-dissection-results-with-3-t-magnetic-resonance-imaging-using-neuronavigation
#2
Abuzer Güngör, Şevki Serhat Baydın, Vanessa M Holanda, Erik H Middlebrooks, Cihan Isler, Bekir Tugcu, Kelly Foote, Necmettin Tanriover
OBJECTIVE Despite the extensive use of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target, unveiling the extensive functional connectivity of the nucleus, relating its structural connectivity to the stimulation-induced adverse effects, and thus optimizing the STN targeting still remain challenging. Mastering the 3D anatomy of the STN region should be the fundamental goal to achieve ideal surgical results, due to the deep-seated and obscure position of the nucleus, variable shape and relatively small size, oblique orientation, and extensive structural connectivity...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705556/deep-brain-stimulation-parameters-for-dystonia-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Philippe Magown, Rafael A Andrade, Alexandra Soroceanu, Zelma H T Kiss
INTRODUCTION: Programming of globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems for dystonia is complex because clinical benefits are often gradual. Some groups have advocated starting DBS with higher electrical parameters, whereas others have suggested the opposite. This variability in programming, even within each dystonia subtype, makes it challenging to compare outcomes and program the generators. To determine how variable DBS for dystonia stimulation parameters are, we performed a systematic literature review...
April 17, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681869/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-internal-globus-pallidus-improves-response-initiation-and-proactive-inhibition-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Yixin Pan, Linbin Wang, Yingying Zhang, Chencheng Zhang, Xian Qiu, Yuyan Tan, Haiyan Zhou, Bomin Sun, Dianyou Li
Background: Impulse control disorder is not uncommon in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who are treated with dopamine replacement therapy and subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). Internal globus pallidus (GPi)-DBS is increasingly used, but its role in inhibitory control has rarely been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effect of GPi-DBS on inhibitory control in PD patients. Methods: A stop-signal paradigm was used to test response initiation, proactive inhibition, and reactive inhibition...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668533/motor-learning-in-dystonia-distorted-feedback-results-in-distorted-motor-learning-and-information-seeking-compensatory-behaviour
#5
Edit Nagy
Motor learning is possible in dystonia, but distorted feedback results in distorted motor performance and information-seeking compensatory behavior, as observed in this case. With globus pallidus internal segment deep brain stimulation, the postural background of hand writing improved, but the learned left compensatory grip did not change.
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665982/oscillatory-activity-and-cortical-coherence-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia
#6
Muhammad Nazmuddin, D L Marinus Oterdoom, J Marc C van Dijk, Jonathan C van Zijl, Anne K Kampman, Gea Drost, Teus van Laar, Martijn Beudel
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) is a new potential treatment for Parkinson's Disease dementia (PDD) and other types of dementia. To get a better understanding of this structure, its local neurophysiological properties and cortical connectivity patterns were studied. METHODS: We simultaneously recorded DBS local field potentials (LFPs) and electroencephalography (EEG) in two patients with PDD. Both patients had DBS electrodes in the internal globus pallidus (GPi) with one or more distal contacts close to or inside the NBM...
March 28, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576500/dualistic-effect-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-on-motor-speech-disorders-in-dystonia
#7
Jan Rusz, Tereza Tykalová, Anna Fečíková, Daniela Šťastná, Dušan Urgošík, Robert Jech
BACKGROUND: Although pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) is an effective treatment for dystonia, it may cause important stimulation-induced side-effects such as hypokinetic dysarthria or stuttering. However, the reasons behind the occurrence of these side-effects remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To objectively investigate the impact of GPi-DBS on patients with dystonia on speech fluency, intelligibility, and key aspects of hyperkinetic and hypokinetic dysarthria...
March 15, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572280/beta-oscillations-and-urinary-voiding-in-parkinson-disease
#8
Holly A Roy, Tipu Z Aziz, James J Fitzgerald, Alexander L Green
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of beta oscillations in urinary voiding and their association with lower urinary tract symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: We used surgically implanted deep brain stimulation electrodes to record local field potential signals from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus interna (GPi) of patients with PD during urinary voiding. Five patients with STN electrodes and 5 patients with GPi electrodes were tested. We also explored correlations between beta oscillatory power and urinary symptoms assessed by the International Consultation on Incontinence Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire...
March 23, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547091/clinical-outcomes-following-awake-and-asleep-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-disease
#9
Tsinsue Chen, Zaman Mirzadeh, Kristina M Chapple, Margaret Lambert, Holly A Shill, Guillermo Moguel-Cobos, Alexander I Tröster, Rohit Dhall, Francisco A Ponce
OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shown similar clinical outcomes between Parkinson disease (PD) patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) under general anesthesia without microelectrode recording (MER), so-called "asleep" DBS, and historical cohorts undergoing "awake" DBS with MER guidance. However, few studies include internal controls. This study aims to compare clinical outcomes after globus pallidus internus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS using awake and asleep techniques at a single institution...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520331/reversal-of-status-dystonicus-after-relocation-of-pallidal-electrodes-in-dyt6-generalized-dystonia
#10
D L Marinus Oterdoom, Martje E van Egmond, Luisa Cassini Ascencao, J Marc C van Dijk, Assel Saryyeva, Martijn Beudel, Joachim Runge, Tom J de Koning, Mahmoud Abdallat, Hendriekje Eggink, Marina A J Tijssen, Joachim K Krauss
Background: DYT6 dystonia can have an unpredictable clinical course and the result of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal part of the globus pallidus (GPi) is known to be less robust than in other forms of autosomal dominant dystonia. Patients who had previous stereotactic surgery with insufficient clinical benefit form a particular challenge with very limited other treatment options available. Case Report: A pediatric DYT6 patient unexpectedly deteriorated to status dystonicus 1 year after GPi DBS implantation with good initial clinical response...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508249/atlas-of-the-striatum-and-globus-pallidus-in-the-tree-shrew-comparison-with-rat-and-mouse
#11
Rong-Jun Ni, Zhao-Huan Huang, Yu-Mian Shu, Yu Wang, Tao Li, Jiang-Ning Zhou
The striatum and globus pallidus are principal nuclei of the basal ganglia. Nissl- and acetylcholinesterase-stained sections of the tree shrew brain showed the neuroanatomical features of the caudate nucleus (Cd), internal capsule (ic), putamen (Pu), accumbens, internal globus pallidus, and external globus pallidus. The ic separated the dorsal striatum into the Cd and Pu in the tree shrew, but not in rats and mice. In addition, computer-based 3D images allowed a better understanding of the position and orientation of these structures...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369401/pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-modulates-cortical-excitability-and-plasticity
#12
Zhen Ni, Sang Jin Kim, Nicolas Phielipp, Soumya Ghosh, Kaviraja Udupa, Carolyn A Gunraj, Utpal Saha, Mojgan Hodaie, Suneil K Kalia, Andres M Lozano, Darrin J Lee, Elena Moro, Alfonso Fasano, Mark Hallett, Anthony E Lang, Robert Chen
OBJECTIVE: Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) relieves symptoms in dystonia patients. However, the physiological effects produced by GPi DBS are not fully understood. In particular, how a single-pulse GPi DBS changes cortical circuits has never been investigated. We studied the modulation of motor cortical excitability and plasticity with single-pulse GPi DBS in dystonia patients with bilateral implantation of GPi DBS. METHODS: The cortical evoked potentials from DBS were recorded with electroencephalography...
February 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340590/efficacy-and-safety-of-deep-brain-stimulation-in-tourette-syndrome-the-international-tourette-syndrome-deep-brain-stimulation-public-database-and-registry
#13
Daniel Martinez-Ramirez, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, James Frederick Leckman, Mauro Porta, Domenico Servello, Fan-Gang Meng, Jens Kuhn, Daniel Huys, Juan Carlos Baldermann, Thomas Foltynie, Marwan I Hariz, Eileen M Joyce, Ludvic Zrinzo, Zinovia Kefalopoulou, Peter Silburn, Terry Coyne, Alon Y Mogilner, Michael H Pourfar, Suketu M Khandhar, Man Auyeung, Jill Louise Ostrem, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Marie-Laure Welter, Luc Mallet, Carine Karachi, Jean Luc Houeto, Bryan Timothy Klassen, Linda Ackermans, Takanobu Kaido, Yasin Temel, Robert E Gross, Harrison C Walker, Andres M Lozano, Benjamin L Walter, Zoltan Mari, William S Anderson, Barbara Kelly Changizi, Elena Moro, Sarah Elizabeth Zauber, Lauren E Schrock, Jian-Guo Zhang, Wei Hu, Kyle Rizer, Erin H Monari, Kelly D Foote, Irene A Malaty, Wissam Deeb, Aysegul Gunduz, Michael S Okun
Importance: Collective evidence has strongly suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapy for Tourette syndrome. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of DBS in a multinational cohort of patients with Tourette syndrome. Design, Setting, and Participants: The prospective International Deep Brain Stimulation Database and Registry included 185 patients with medically refractory Tourette syndrome who underwent DBS implantation from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2016, at 31 institutions in 10 countries worldwide...
March 1, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332085/deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-for-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Philip S Lee, Donald J Crammond, R Mark Richardson
The concept of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) was introduced over 20 years ago, but our understanding of the nuances of this procedure continues to improve. The average motor outcomes of internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS appear to be similar, although GPi DBS may allow greater recovery of verbal fluency and may provide greater relief of depression symptoms and improvement in the quality of life, and STN DBS appears more likely to result in decrease in levodopa equivalent doses...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230633/alteration-of-the-pac1-receptor-expression-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-mptp-induced-parkinsonian-macaque-monkeys
#15
M Feher, B Gaszner, A Tamas, A L Gil-Martinez, E Fernandez-Villalba, M T Herrero, D Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a well-known neuropeptide with strong neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. PACAP exerts its protective actions via three G protein-coupled receptors: the specific Pac1 receptor (Pac1R) and the Vpac1/Vpac2 receptors, the neuroprotective effects being mainly mediated by the Pac1R. The protective role of PACAP in models of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases is now well-established in both in vitro and in vivo studies. PACAP and its receptors occur in the mammalian brain, including regions associated with Parkinson's disease...
December 11, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224175/thalamic-interactions-of-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#16
REVIEW
Andreas Hintzen, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Marc Tittgemeyer
Cerebellum and basal ganglia are reciprocally interconnected with the neocortex via oligosynaptic loops. The signal pathways of these loops predominantly converge in motor areas of the frontal cortex and are mainly segregated on subcortical level. Recent evidence, however, indicates subcortical interaction of these systems. We have reviewed literature that addresses the question whether, and to what extent, projections of main output nuclei of basal ganglia (reticular part of the substantia nigra, internal segment of the globus pallidus) and cerebellum (deep cerebellar nuclei) interact with each other in the thalamus...
March 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201557/brain-lesions-affecting-gait-recovery-in-stroke-patients
#17
Kyoung Bo Lee, Joon Sung Kim, Bo Young Hong, Bomi Sul, Seojin Song, Won Jin Sung, Byong Yong Hwang, Seong Hoon Lim
Objectives: Gait recovery is an important goal in stroke patients. Several studies have sought to uncover relationships between specific brain lesions and the recovery of gait, but the effects of specific brain lesions on gait remain unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of stroke lesions on gait recovery in stroke patients. Materials and Methods: In total, 30 subjects with stroke were assessed in a retrograde longitudinal observational study. To assess gait function, the functional ambulation category (FAC) was tested four times: initially (within 2 weeks) and 1, 3, and 6 months after the onset of the stroke...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170650/eye-movements-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-inherited-parkinsonian-syndromes
#18
REVIEW
Elena Pretegiani, Lance M Optican
Despite extensive research, the functions of the basal ganglia (BG) in movement control have not been fully understood. Eye movements, particularly saccades, are convenient indicators of BG function. Here, we review the main oculomotor findings reported in Parkinson's disease (PD) and genetic parkinsonian syndromes. PD is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder caused by dopaminergic cell loss within the substantia nigra pars compacta, resulting in depletion of striatal dopamine and subsequent increased inhibitory BG output from the internal globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160415/interregional-correlations-of-glucose-metabolism-between-the-basal-ganglia-and-different-cortical-areas-an-ultra-high-resolution-pet-mri-fusion-study-using-18f-fdg
#19
J H Kim, Y D Son, J M Kim, H K Kim, Y B Kim, C Lee, C H Oh
Basal ganglia have complex functional connections with the cerebral cortex and are involved in motor control, executive functions of the forebrain, such as the planning of movement, and cognitive behaviors based on their connections. The aim of this study was to provide detailed functional correlation patterns between the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex by conducting an interregional correlation analysis of the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) data based on precise structural information...
November 13, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113946/numerical-and-length-densities-of-microvessels-in-the-human-brain-correlation-with-preferential-orientation-of-microvessels-in-the-cerebral-cortex-subcortical-grey-matter-and-white-matter-pons-and-cerebellum
#20
Tereza Kubíková, Petra Kochová, Petr Tomášek, Kirsti Witter, Zbyněk Tonar
To provide basic data on the local differences in density of microvessels between various parts of the human brain, including representative grey and white matter structures of the cerebral hemispheres, the brain stem and the cerebellum, we quantified the numerical density NV and the length density LV of microvessels in two human brains. We aimed to correlate the density of microvessels with previously published data on their preferential orientation (anisotropy). Microvessels were identified using immunohistochemistry for laminin in 32 samples harvested from the following brain regions of two adult individuals: the cortex of the telencephalon supplied by the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral artery; the basal ganglia (putamen and globus pallidus); the thalamus; the subcortical white matter of the telencephalon; the internal capsule; the pons; the cerebellar cortex; and the cerebellar white matter...
March 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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