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Internal globus pallidus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159649/field-evoked-potentials-in-the-globus-pallidus-of-non-human-primates
#1
Ian A Prescott, Robert A Marino, Ron Levy
Stimulation-induced field evoked potentials (fEPs) have been described in the basal ganglia output nuclei of patients with Parkinson's disease and dystonia. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether fEPs were inducible in the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the globus pallidus in normal non-human primates (NHPs). Microelectrode recording and stimulation was performed in the GPe and GPi of 2 healthy NHPs. Stimulus response curves of the fEP response to changing pulse width and amplitude examined strength-duration relationships and allowed for calculation of fEP chronaxie in the GPe and GPi...
January 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102636/thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-tourette-syndrome-clinical-evidence-for-increasing-disbalance-of-therapeutic-effects-and-side-effects-at-long-term-follow-up
#2
Anouk Y J M Smeets, Annelien A Duits, Albert F G Leentjens, Koen Schruers, Vivianne van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Yasin Temel, Linda Ackermans
OBJECTIVE: Thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective in reducing tics in patients with refractory Tourette syndrome at the short-term. Here, we report on the long-term outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients underwent bilateral DBS between 2001 and 2008. The target was the centromedian nucleus, substantia periventricularis and nucleus ventro-oralis internus cross point of the thalamus. The effect on tics and side effects were evaluated with a variable follow-up duration of 12 to 78 months...
January 19, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078738/dorsal-pallidal-neurons-directly-link-the-nidopallium-and-midbrain-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#3
J Martin Wild
The dorsal pallidum in birds is considered similar, if not homologous, to the globus pallidus (GP) of mammals. The dorsal pallidum projects to both thalamic and midbrain targets similar to the direct and indirect pathways arising from the internal and external segments of the GP. In the present study retrograde and anterograde tracing studies revealed a previously undescribed projection of the avian dorsal pallidum. This arises from a specific dorsomedial component, which terminates in the intercollicular nucleus and partly surrounds the avian equivalent of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065850/deep-grey-matter-iron-accumulation-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#4
Michal Juhás, Hongfu Sun, Matthew R G Brown, Marnie B MacKay, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Alan H Wilman, Serdar M Dursun, Andrew J Greenshaw
PURPOSE: Evaluate brain iron accumulation in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients compared to controls using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). METHODS: QSM was performed retrospectively by using phase images from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 male AUD patients and 15 matched healthy controls were examined. Susceptibility values were manually traced in deep grey matter regions including caudate nucleus, combined putamen and globus pallidus, combined substantia nigra and red nucleus, dentate nucleus, and a reference white matter region in the internal capsule...
January 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018207/neural-correlates-for-apathy-frontal-prefrontal-and-parietal-cortical-subcortical-circuits
#5
REVIEW
Rita Moretti, Riccardo Signori
Apathy is an uncertain nosographical entity, which includes reduced motivation, abulia, decreased empathy, and lack of emotional involvement; it is an important and heavy-burden clinical condition which strongly impacts in everyday life events, affects the common daily living abilities, reduced the inner goal directed behavior, and gives the heaviest burden on caregivers. Is a quite common comorbidity of many neurological disease, However, there is no definite consensus on the role of apathy in clinical practice, no definite data on anatomical circuits involved in its development, and no definite instrument to detect it at bedside...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003623/internal-structures-of-the-globus-pallidus-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-evaluation-with-phase-difference-enhanced-imaging
#6
Satoru Ide, Shingo Kakeda, Tetsuya Yoneda, Junji Moriya, Keita Watanabe, Atsushi Ogasawara, Koichiro Futatsuya, Norihiro Ohnari, Toru Sato, Yasuhiro Hiai, Atsuji Matsuyama, Hitoshi Fujiwara, Masanori Hisaoka, Yukunori Korogi
PURPOSE: The medial medullary lamina (MML) separates the medial globus pallidus (GPm) from the lateral. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in appearance of MML related to age using the phase difference-enhanced imaging (PADRE) and to determine whether PADRE can depict the MML in the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 20 patients with PD and 50 normal control subjects (NC). First, for the visualization of the MML in the NC, we compared the PADRE, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)-like images and T2 weighted imaging (WI) by using multiple comparison...
December 22, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943471/a-novel-rab39b-gene-mutation-in-x-linked-juvenile-parkinsonism-with-basal-ganglia-calcification
#7
Chang-He Shi, Shu-Yu Zhang, Zhi-Hua Yang, Jing Yang, Dan-Dan Shang, Cheng-Yuan Mao, Hao Liu, Hai-Man Hou, Meng-Meng Shi, Jun Wu, Yu-Ming Xu
OBJECTIVES: Mutations in RAB39B have been reported as a potential cause of X-linked Parkinson's disease (PD), a rare form of familial PD. We conducted a genetic analysis on RAB39B to evaluate whether RAB39B mutations are related to PD in the Chinese population. METHODS: In this study, 2 patients from an X-linked juvenile parkinsonism pedigree were clinically characterized and underwent whole-exome sequencing. A comprehensive screening for RAB39B mutations in 505 sporadic patients with PD and 510 healthy controls in a Chinese population was also performed...
December 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914146/pregnancy-and-delivery-in-a-generalized-dystonia-patient-treated-with-internal-globus-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-a-case-report
#8
Hye Ran Park, Jae Meen Lee, Hyeyoung Park, Chae Won Shin, Han Joon Kim, Hee Pyoung Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Beom Seok Jeon, Sun Ha Paek
Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been widely accepted as an effective treatment modality of medically refractory dystonia. However, there have been few studies regarding the safety issue of pregnancy and childbirth related with DBS. This report describes a female patient who was pregnant and delivered a baby after GPi DBS surgery. A 33-year-old female patient with acquired generalized dystonia underwent bilateral GPi DBS implantation. She obtained considerable improvement in both movement and disability after DBS implantation...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856398/recovery-of-accurate-t2-from-historical-1-5-tesla-proton-density-and-t2-weighted-images-application-to-7-year-t2-changes-in-multiple-sclerosis-brain
#9
Md Nasir Uddin, Kelly C McPhee, Gregg Blevins, Alan H Wilman
OBJECTIVE: To determine accurate quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2) using retrospective clinical images and apply it to examine 7-year changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. METHODS: A method for T2 mapping from retrospective proton density (PD) and T2-weighted fast spin echo images was recently introduced, but requires measurement of flip angles. We examined whether 1.5T flip angle variation in brain can be predicted, thus enabling T2 analysis of historical PD and T2-weighted images without a concurrent flip angle map...
November 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813160/subcortical-18-f-av-1451-binding-patterns-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#10
Hanna Cho, Jae Yong Choi, Mi Song Hwang, Seung Ha Lee, Young Hoon Ryu, Myung Sik Lee, Chul Hyoung Lyoo
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of cortical and subcortical tau pathology is the primary pathological substrate for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). (18) F-AV-1451, a radiotracer that binds to the pathological tau protein, may be helpful for in vivo visualization and quantitation of tau pathology in PSP. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate cortical and subcortical (18) F-AV-1451 binding patterns in patients with PSP. METHODS: We recruited 14 PSP patients and compared their cortical and subcortical binding patterns in (18) F-AV-1451 positron emission tomography (PET) studies with those of 15 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and 15 healthy controls...
November 3, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799903/the-neural-bases-of-disgust-for-cheese-an-fmri-study
#11
Jean-Pierre Royet, David Meunier, Nicolas Torquet, Anne-Marie Mouly, Tao Jiang
The study of food aversion in humans by the induction of illness is ethically unthinkable, and it is difficult to propose a type of food that is disgusting for everybody. However, although cheese is considered edible by most people, it can also be perceived as particularly disgusting to some individuals. As such, the perception of cheese constitutes a good model to study the cerebral processes of food disgust and aversion. In this study, we show that a higher percentage of people are disgusted by cheese than by other types of food...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717186/anesthesia-reduces-discharge-rates-in-the-human-pallidum-without-changing-the-discharge-rate-ratio-between-pallidal-segments
#12
Anna Castrioto, Odeya Marmor, Marc Deffains, Dafna Willner, Eduard Linetsky, Hagai Bergman, Zvi Israel, Renana Eitan, David Arkadir
Classical rate models of basal ganglia circuitry associate discharge rate of the globus pallidus external and internal segments (GPe, GPi respectively) solely with dopaminergic state and predict an inverse ratio between the discharge rates of the two pallidal segments. In contrast, the effects of other rate modulators such as general anesthesia (GA) on this ratio have been ignored. To respond to this need, we recorded the neuronal activity in the GPe and GPi in awake and anesthetized human patients with dystonia (57 and 53 trajectories respectively) and in awake patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, 16 trajectories) undergoing deep brain stimulation procedures...
December 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709757/increased-basal-ganglia-binding-of-18-f-av-1451-in-patients-with-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#13
Ruben Smith, Martin Schain, Christer Nilsson, Olof Strandberg, Tomas Olsson, Douglas Hägerström, Jonas Jögi, Edilio Borroni, Michael Schöll, Michael Honer, Oskar Hansson
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is difficult to diagnose accurately. The recently developed tau PET tracers may improve the diagnostic work-up of PSP. METHODS: Regional tau accumulation was studied using (18) F-AV-1451 PET in 11 patients with PSP and 11 age-matched healthy controls in the Swedish BioFinder study. RESULTS: (18) F-AV-1451 standard uptake volume ratios were significantly higher in the basal ganglia in PSP patients when compared with controls (globus pallidus 1...
October 6, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693334/historical-developments-in-children-s-deep-brain-stimulation
#14
REVIEW
Laura Cif, Philippe Coubes
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous by the underlying pathobiology and clinical presentation, childhood onset dystonia is most frequently progressive, with related disability and limitations in functions of daily living. Consequently, there is an obvious need for efficient symptomatic therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following lesional surgery to basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a more conservative and adjustable intervention to and validated for internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), highly efficient in treating isolated "primary" dystonia and associated symptoms such as subcortical myoclonus...
January 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688200/cognitive-and-psychiatric-outcome-3-years-after-globus-pallidus-pars-interna-or-subthalamic-nucleus-deep-brain-stimulation-for-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Judith A Boel, Vincent J J Odekerken, Ben A Schmand, Gert J Geurtsen, Danielle C Cath, Martijn Figee, Pepijn van den Munckhof, Rob J de Haan, P Richard Schuurman, Rob M A de Bie
BACKGROUND: Effects on non-motor symptoms, mainly cognitive and psychiatric side effects, could influence the decision for either globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: 1) To compare cognitive and psychiatric outcomes 3 years after GPi DBS versus STN DBS, and 2) to report on occurrence of suicidal ideation, psychiatric diagnoses, social functioning, and marital satisfaction 3 years after DBS...
December 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683881/effects-of-high-frequency-stimulation-of-the-internal-pallidal-segment-on-neuronal-activity-in-the-thalamus-in-parkinsonian-monkeys
#16
Stefan Kammermeier, Damien Pittard, Ikuma Hamada, Thomas Wichmann
Deep brain stimulation of the internal globus pallidus (GPi) is a major treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. The effects of this intervention on electrical activity patterns in targets of GPi output, specifically in the thalamus, are poorly understood. The experiments described here examined these effects using electrophysiological recordings in two Rhesus monkeys rendered moderately parkinsonian through treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), after sampling control data in the same animals...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663605/levodopa-effect-on-basal-ganglia-motor-circuit-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Lin-Lin Gao, Jia-Rong Zhang, Piu Chan, Tao Wu
AIMS: To investigate the effects of levodopa on the basal ganglia motor circuit (BGMC) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Thirty PD patients with asymmetrical bradykinesia and 30 control subjects were scanned using resting-state functional MRI. Functional connectivity of the BGMC was measured and compared before and after levodopa administration in patients with PD. The correlation between improvements in bradykinesia and changes in BGMC connectivity was examined...
January 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577098/current-and-experimental-treatments-of-parkinson-disease-a-guide-for-neuroscientists
#18
Wolfgang Oertel, Jörg B Schulz
Over a period of more than 50 years, the symptomatic treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) has been optimized using pharmacotherapy, deep brain stimulation, and physiotherapy. The arsenal of pharmacotherapies includes L-Dopa, several dopamine agonists, inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), and amantadine. In the later course of the disease, motor complications occur, at which stage different oral formulations of L-Dopa or dopamine agonists with long half-life, a transdermal application or parenteral pumps for continuous drug supply can be subscribed...
October 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531176/bilateral-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-myoclonus-dystonia-our-experience-in-three-cases-and-their-follow-up
#19
G Fernández-Pajarín, A Sesar, J L Relova, B Ares, I Jiménez-Martín, P Blanco-Arias, M Gelabert-González, A Castro
BACKGROUND: Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS) is an autosomal dominant movement disorder caused by mutations in the SGCE gene. MDS is characterized by mild dystonia and myoclonic jerks, and a constellation of psychiatric manifestations. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of bilateral internal globus pallidus (GPi) has recently been introduced as a new and beneficial technique to improve motor symptoms in MDS. METHODS: We report three proven genetically MDS cases with successful response to DBS, and their clinical evolution over years...
October 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529459/the-role-of-the-human-globus-pallidus-in-huntington-s-disease
#20
Malvindar K Singh-Bains, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by pronounced pathology of the basal ganglia, with numerous studies documenting the pattern of striatal neurodegeneration in the human brain. However, a principle target of striatal outflow, the globus pallidus (GP), has received limited attention in comparison, despite being a core component of the basal ganglia. The external segment (GPe) is a major output of the dorsal striatum, connecting widely to other basal ganglia nuclei via the indirect motor pathway. The internal segment (GPi) is a final output station of both the direct and indirect motor pathways of the basal ganglia...
August 16, 2016: Brain Pathology
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