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Nitrogen asphyxiation

Roger W Byard
A study was undertaken of autopsy cases of suicide where either helium or nitrogen gas had been used (taken from Forensic Science SA files, 2003-2017). 33 deaths involved helium (age range 19-94yrs, average 47yrs; M:F-2.7:1), compared to 23 cases of nitrogen inhalation (age range 29-93yrs, average 66yrs; M:F-2.3:1). The combined numbers of deaths due to both helium and nitrogen inhalation showed a steady increase (5: 2003-2007; 31: 2013-2017); however, while helium deaths plateaued (14: 2008-2012, 15: 2013-2017) nitrogen-related deaths increased 16-fold...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Phiphob Sodsee, Erik D Pollock, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sexual maturity on pectoralis major and gastrocnemius muscle protein turnover in broiler breeder pure lines. Protein turnover in skeletal muscle tissue was determined in 4 broiler breeder pure lines (Line A, Line B, Line C and Line D) at 22, 27, 33, 37, 44, and 50 wk of age. A completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement 4 × 6 (4 lines and 6 time periods (ages)) was used. There were 5 replicates per line/time and each hen represented a replicate...
February 1, 2018: Poultry Science
D I Adewole, A Rogiewicz, B Dyck, B A Slominski
Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of canola meal source on the standardized ileal digestible amino acids (AA) and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn) contents of canola meal (CM) from 6 processing plants in Canada. Two plants provided CM in both mash and pellet forms, while the other 4 provided CM in mash form only, giving a total of 8 samples. In the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) assay, 280 birds were housed 7 per cage and fed a commercial starter diet from 1 to 14 d of age followed by the test diets from 15 to 21 d...
December 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Yang Yang, Yue Wu, Jing-Jing Pan, Rui Cheng
BACKGROUND: To explore the values of cystatin C (Cys-C) in asphyxial preterm babies as an effective endogenous marker of renal function. METHODS: After birth, preterm infants with 5-minute Apgar score <8 were included into the asphyxia group. Finally, 276 preterm infants born in two neonatal intensive care units were studied (including 78 babies in the asphyxia group and 198 babies in the control group). Blood samples were obtained from peripheral veins on day 1, day 7, and day 28 when routine blood screening tests were performed...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
A Y Pekel, N L Horn, O Adeola
A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phytase (PHY) and xylanase (XYL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal characteristics in broilers fed corn-soybean meal-based diets with added expeller-extracted camelina meal (CM). The corn-soybean meal-based diets without or with CM was formulated to contain 2.9 or 2.7 g/kg non phytate phosphorus, respectively. A total of 384 male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to 8 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 6 replicates per treatment, from 7 to 21 d post hatching...
January 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Pei Wang, Liyan Jia, Bihua Chen, Lei Zhang, Jiankang Liu, Jiangang Long, Yongqin Li
BACKGROUND: Non-shockable rhythms represent an increasing proportion of reported cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but with an associated poor prognosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydrogen inhalation on cardiac and neurological function after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and compared the therapeutic benefit with hypothermia in an asphyxial rat model of cardiac arrest. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated after 5 min of untreated asphyxial cardiac arrest...
September 2016: Shock
Hanna Kletkiewicz, Anna Nowakowska, Agnieszka Siejka, Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska, Alina Woźniak, Michał Caputa, Justyna Rogalska
Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury involves increased oxidative stress. In asphyxiated newborns iron deposited in the brain catalyses formation of reactive oxygen species. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E are key factors protecting cells against such agents. Our previous investigation has demonstrated that newborn rats, showing physiological low body temperature as well as their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF) are protected against iron-mediated, delayed neurotoxicity of perinatal asphyxia...
2016: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Roelof Oosting, Rogier van der Hulst, Leo Peschier, Miranda Verschraagen
INTRODUCTION: Toxicological findings in deaths by asphyxiation due to a pure inert gas like helium are rare. We present three suicide cases of asphyxial death attributed to anoxia caused by inhalation of helium in a plastic bag positioned over the head. METHODS: In one case, lung tissue, brain tissue and heart blood were obtained during standard autopsy procedures. In two cases, samples were obtained differently: heart blood, femoral blood, brain tissue, lung tissue and/or air from the lungs were directly sealed into headspace vials during autopsy...
November 2015: Forensic Science International
A Smędra, S Szustowski, A P Jurczyk, J Klemm, S Szram, J Berent
Helium is one of inert gases causing physical asphyxiation, whose excess content in the breathing atmosphere reduces the partial pressure of oxygen and may be fatal after short-term exposure. When breathing a mixture of an inert gas (helium, nitrogen, argon) with a small amount of oxygen, with the possibility of exhaling carbon dioxide, no warning signs characteristic of suffocation are perceived by the subject. Freedom from discomfort and pain, effectiveness, rapid effect and relatively easy availability of required accessories have resulted in the use of inert gases for suicidal purposes...
2015: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
K S Sobotka, T Ong, G R Polglase, K J Crossley, T J M Moss, S B Hooper
OBJECTIVE: At birth, an initial sustained inflation (SI) uniformly aerates the lungs, increases arterial oxygenation and rapidly improves circulatory recovery in asphyxiated newborns. We hypothesised that lung aeration, in the absence of an increase in arterial oxygenation, can increase heart rate (HR) in asphyxiated near-term lambs. INTERVENTIONS: Lambs were delivered and instrumented at 139±2 days of gestation. Asphyxia was induced by umbilical cord clamping and then delaying the onset of ventilation until mean carotid arterial pressures (CAPs) had decreased <20 mm Hg...
July 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
C Kong, O Adeola
A total of 608 three-week-old male broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were used in a 5-d trial to compare ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM) using the regression method. A corn-casein-cornstarch-based diet was mixed to contain 15% CP. Cornstarch was replaced with test ingredient (SBM or CM) to contain 18 or 21% of CP in 4 other diets. A nitrogen-free diet (NFD) was used for standardization of apparent digestibility. Birds received a standard starter diet (23% CP) from d 0 to 14 posthatch and then 6 experimental diets for 5 d...
September 2013: Poultry Science
C Kong, O Adeola
An experiment was conducted to determine response in digestibility of DM and the AA composition of ileal endogenous flow of 26-d-old broilers to nitrogen-free diets (NFD) formulated with different ratios of corn starch to dextrose. A total of four hundred eighty 3-wk-old broiler chickens were used in a 4-d trial to estimate ileal endogenous flow (IEF) of amino acid (AA). The ratios of dextrose to corn starch investigated were 0:849, 283:566, 566:283, or 849:0 for diet numbers 1, 2, 3, or 4, respectively. All diets contained a calculated dietary electrolyte balance of 115 mEq/kg and chromic oxide (5 g/kg) as an indigestible marker...
May 2013: Poultry Science
Brian H Walsh, David I Broadhurst, Rupasri Mandal, David S Wishart, Geraldine B Boylan, Louise C Kenny, Deirdre M Murray
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns can cause significant long-term neurological disability. The insult is a complex injury characterised by energy failure and disruption of cellular homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial damage. The importance of individual metabolic pathways, and their interaction in the disease process is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the metabolomic profile of umbilical cord blood samples in a carefully defined population of full-term infants with HIE...
2012: PloS One
Nazir Ahmed, Javed Chowdhary, Riyaz U Saif
To determine the incidence of acute renal failure (ARF) and nephrosonographic findings among asphyxiated neonates, and to correlate this with uric acid levels and the severity of hypoxic encephalopathy, we studied 80 full-term appropriate-for-date singleton neonates with perinatal asphyxia, and 30 healthy full-term neonates as controls from March 2006 to February 2007. A detailed history, thorough clinical examination along with investigations, including urine examination, 24-h urine collection, ultrasonography of abdomen and cranium, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid were obtained...
November 2011: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Po-Yin Cheung, Richdeep S Gill, David L Bigam
Annually more than 1 million neonates die worldwide as related to asphyxia. Asphyxiated neonates commonly have multi-organ failure including hypotension, perfusion deficit, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, pulmonary hypertension, vasculopathic enterocolitis, renal failure and thrombo-embolic complications. Animal models are developed to help us understand the patho-physiology and pharmacology of neonatal asphyxia. In comparison to rodents and newborn lambs, the newborn piglet has been proven to be a valuable model...
2011: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Chang-jiang Xue, Yu-jing Xia, Ying-mei Niu, Feng-tong Hao, Shuo Zhou, Qing-sheng Lu, Jian-zhong Liu, Peng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate the effects of different oxygen therapies on the rats with acute nitrogen asphyxia and to study the best oxygen therapic protocol for patients with acute nitrogen asphyxia on the spot. METHODS: Sixty healthy male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, exposure to nitrogen, 33% oxygen treatment, 50% oxygen treatment and hyperbaric oxygen treatment groups. The behavioral performance, arterial oxygen pressure (PO2), carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) and oxygen saturation (SPO2), biochemical changes in liver and kidney function and myocardial enzymes in 5 groups were measured...
May 2011: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
P T Walsh, S E Gant, K P Dowker, R Batt
Electrochemical oxygen gas sensors are widely used for monitoring the state of inertisation of flammable atmospheres and to warn of asphyxiation risks. It is well established but not widely known by users of such oxygen sensors that the response of the sensor is affected by the nature of the diluent gas responsible for the decrease in ambient oxygen concentration. The present work investigates the response of electrochemical sensors, with either acid or alkaline electrolytes, to gas mixtures comprising air with enhanced levels of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon or helium...
February 15, 2011: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Elavazhagan Chakkarapani, John Dingley, Xun Liu, Nicholas Hoque, Kristian Aquilina, Helen Porter, Marianne Thoresen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether inhaling 50% xenon during hypothermia (HT) offers better neuroprotection than xenon or HT alone. METHODS: Ninety-eight newborn pigs underwent a 45-minute global hypoxic-ischemic insult severe enough to cause permanent brain injury, and 12 pigs underwent sham protocol. Pigs then received intravenous anesthesia and were randomized to 6 treatment groups: (1) normothermia (NT; rectal temperature 38.5 degrees C, n = 18); (2) 18 hours 50% xenon with NT (n = 12); (3) 12 hours HT (rectal temperature 33...
September 2010: Annals of Neurology
Qiang Wei, Li Zhang, Xinghui Liu
OBJECTIVES: To discuss the clinical features of severe preeclampsia and its outcome manifested as nephrotic syndrome (NSP). METHODS: Clinical data of 22 NSP patients treated in our hospital from January 2003 to March 2008 were collected to retrospectively analyze the blood pressure, serum albumin, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, 24 h urine protein, etc. before and after pregnancy. RESULTS: (1) The outcome of pregnant women: the blood pressure of patients in all 22 cases recovered within 6 weeks; edema usually regressed within 6 weeks, however, only 1 patient recovered on week 10; urine protein usually disappeared within 6 weeks, however, it kept remaining in the urine of patients in 2 cases after 10 weeks; the recovery of blood lipid, serum uric acid and plasma albumin often occurred within 4-10 weeks, while only a few patients did not recover; no pregnant woman died, indicating good prognosis...
February 2011: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Roberto Bubbico, Sergio Di Cave, Barbara Mazzarotta, Barbara Silvetti
The risk associated to road and rail transportation of some hazardous materials along two routes, one including a significant portion in tunnels, and the other following the same path, but running completely in the open, is assessed. The results show that, for rail transport, no particular risk increase or mitigation is associated to the circulation of the dangerous goods through tunnels; on the contrary, for road transport, a risk increase is generally observed in the presence of tunnels. However, for LPG, the risk curve in the open lies above that in tunnels in the high frequency-low fatality zone, according to the different evolution of the accidental scenarios in the tunnel (assuming no ventilation)...
November 2009: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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