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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221827/prevalence-of-copd-in-6-urban-clusters-in-argentina-the-epoc-ar-study
#1
Andrés L Echazarreta, Sergio J Arias, Ricardo Del Olmo, Eduardo R Giugno, Federico D Colodenco, Santiago C Arce, Juan C Bossio, Gustavo Armando, Joan B Soriano
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been studied in Argentina. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and relevant clinical characteristics of COPD in a representative sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in a population of adults aged ≥ 40 years randomly selected by cluster sampling in 6 urban locations. Subjects answered a structured survey and performed pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry (PBD)...
December 5, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220595/dose-dependent-effects-of-tadalafil-and-roflumilast-on-ovalbumin-induced-airway-hyperresponsiveness-in-guinea-pigs
#2
Anna Urbanova, Ivana Medvedova, Martin Kertys, Pavol Mikolka, Petra Kosutova, Daniela Mokra, Juraj Mokrý
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive diseases of airways associated with cough and/or airway smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness are usually treated with bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors have been introduced into the therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several studies have demonstrated their ability to influence the airway reactivity and eosinophilic inflammation by increasing the intracellular cAMP concentrations also in bronchial asthma...
December 8, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217598/phenotypes-of-symptomatic-airways-disease-in-china-and-new-zealand
#3
James Fingleton, Kewu Huang, Mark Weatherall, Yanfei Guo, Stefan Ivanov, Piet Bruijnzeel, Hong Zhang, Wei Wang, Richard Beasley, Chen Wang
It is uncertain whether phenotypes of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary between populations with different genetic and environmental characteristics. Here, our objective was to compare the phenotypes of airways disease in two separate populations.This was a cross-sectional observational study in adult populations from New Zealand and China. Participants aged 40-75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the last 12 months were randomly selected from the general population and underwent detailed characterisation...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213218/tiotropium-in-asthma-back-to-the-future-of-anticholinergic-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Matteo Bonini, Nicola Scichilone
Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases worldwide; however, despite progresses in the understanding of the patho-physiological mechanisms and advances in the development of new therapeutic options and strategies, the disease remains uncontrolled in a not trivial proportion of subjects. Thus, the need of new molecules to treat the underlying biological and functional abnormalities and to control symptoms is strongly advocated by clinicians. In this scenario, the most recent GINA guidelines have included the use of tiotropium bromide in the most severe and uncontrolled forms of the disease, in addition to treatment with inhaled corticosteroid plus long acting beta adrenergic agents...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210318/inhalation-device-options-for-the-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Michael DePietro, Ileen Gilbert, Lauren A Millette, Michael Riebe
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, resulting from abnormalities in the airway and/or damage to the alveoli. Primary care physicians manage the healthcare of a large proportion of patients with COPD. In addition to determining the most appropriate medication regimen, which usually includes inhaled bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids, physicians are charged with optimizing inhalation device selection to facilitate effective drug delivery and patient adherence...
December 5, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208754/proactive-use-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-with-critically-ill-subjects
#6
Keith D Lamb, Sarah K Spilman, Trevor W Oetting, Julie A Jackson, Matthew W Trump, Sheryl M Sahr
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that use of a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) could be a first-line therapy for patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure. The purpose of this study was to determine if protocolized use of HFNC decreases unplanned intubation and adverse outcomes in an ICU population. METHODS: The study was a prospective evaluation of 2 cohorts who received HFNC per protocol. Control groups were retrospective selections of subjects who received HFNC in the pre-protocol period...
December 5, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206657/dual-bronchodilator-therapy-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-evidence-for-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-fixed-dose-combination-treatments-in-the-setting-of-recent-guideline-updates
#7
Steven D Deas, Nikhil Huprikar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent updates to the GOLD guidelines emphasize the use of combination LABA and LAMA bronchodilators for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with persistent dyspnea despite monotherapy or frequent exacerbations despite LAMA monotherapy. There are several commercially available LABA/LAMA fixed dose combination inhalers, which are likely to become the principle therapy for many patients with COPD. RECENT FINDINGS: In the last 4 years, there have been a number of large clinical trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of combined LAMA and LABA bronchodilators...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206629/biological-effects-of-p38-mapk-inhibitor-losmapimod-does-not-translate-to-clinical-benefits-in-copd
#8
Steven Pascoe, Maria Costa, Joanna Marks-Konczalik, Elizabeth McKie, Shuying Yang, Pablo Saez Scherbovsky
RATIONALE: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression is increased in chronic inflammatory disease. Losmapimod, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, has been developed as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of losmapimod in reducing exacerbations in subjects with moderate-to-severe COPD. METHODS: In this double-blind, parallel-group study, subjects at risk of COPD exacerbations and ?2% blood eosinophils at screening, were randomized 1:1 to losmapimod 15 mg or placebo (variable treatment duration: 26-52 weeks)...
September 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202821/effects-of-treatment-changes-on-asthma-phenotype-prevalence-and-airway-neutrophil-function
#9
Collin R Brooks, Christine J Van Dalen, Elizabeth Harding, Ian F Hermans, Jeroen Douwes
BACKGROUND: Asthma inflammatory phenotypes are often defined by relative cell counts of airway eosinophils/neutrophils. However, the importance of neutrophilia remains unclear, as does the effect of ICS treatment on asthma phenotypes and airway neutrophil function. The purpose of this study was to assess asthma phenotype prevalence/characteristics in a community setting, and, in a nested preliminary study, determine how treatment changes affect phenotype stability and inflammation, with particular focus on airway neutrophils...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202767/dose-selection-for-glycopyrrolate-eflow%C3%A2-phase-iii-clinical-studies-results-from-golden-glycopyrrolate-for-obstructive-lung-disease%C3%A2-via-electronic-nebulizer-phase-ii-dose-finding-studies
#10
James F Donohue, Thomas Goodin, Robert Tosiello, Alistair Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) are recommended for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glycopyrrolate/eFlow® is an investigational drug-device combination of the LAMA glycopyrrolate administered by an eFlow® Closed System (eFlow® CS) nebulizer. The GOLDEN 2 (NCT01706536) and GOLDEN 6 (NCT02038829) Phase II, multicenter studies were conducted to inform dose selection for the GOLDEN Phase III clinical trials. Bronchodilator responses and safety assessments supported dose selection...
December 4, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202744/biomarkers-of-collagen-turnover-are-related-to-annual-change-in-fev1-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-within-the-eclipse-study
#11
Diana J Leeming, Inger Byrjalsen, Jannie M B Sand, Asger R Bihlet, Peter Lange, Ruth Thal-Singer, Bruce E Miller, Morten A Karsdal, Jørgen Vestbo
BACKGROUND: Change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is important for defining severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Serological neoepitope markers of collagen turnover may predict rate of change in FEV1. METHODS: One thousand COPD subjects from the observational, multicentre, three-year ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) study (NCT00292552, trial registration in February 2006) were included...
December 4, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199610/potential-utility-of-n-acetylcysteine-for-treating-mustard-lung
#12
Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Mozaffari Hashjin, Ramin Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
More than a century after the introduction of sulfur mustard (SM), as a chemical warfare agent, it has affected thousands of military and civilians on several occasions. The most notable toxic effects of this easily produced chemical, are lung damage ranges from necrotic, hemorrhagic, and infectious acute-lung injury to chronic conditions (i.e., mustard lung). While there is no definite treatment for individuals exposed to sulfur mustard, corticosteroids, mucolytics, bronchodilators, antibiotics, immunosuppressive medicines, and magnesium are being used to help victims...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196350/frequency-of-stepping-down-antibiotics-and-nebuliser-treatment-is-lower-at-weekends-compared-to-weekdays-an-observational-study
#13
Sarah Lewis, Tessa Langley, Julia Lacey, Rob Skelly, Mark Norwood, Nigel Sturrock, Andrew Fogarty
We hypothesised that delays in providing non-urgent medication step-downs at weekends to medical management may be associated with increased length of stay.In a novel use of electronic prescribing data, we analysed emergency admissions from a busy acute medical hospital over 52 weeks from November 2014 to October 2015. The main outcomes of interest were switching from intravenous antibiotics to oral antibiotics and stopping nebulised bronchodilators. The rate of switching from intravenous to oral antibiotics was lower on Saturdays and Sundays compared with weekdays, and the rate of stopping nebulised bronchodilators was similarly lower at weekends (p<0...
December 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187592/heterogeneity-of-respiratory-disease-in-children-and-young-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#14
Alan Lunt, Lucy Mortimer, David Rees, Sue Height, Swee Lay Thein, Anne Greenough
To detect and characterise different phenotypes of respiratory disease in children and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD), 11 lung function and haematological biomarkers were analysed using k-means cluster analysis in a cohort of 114 subjects with SCD aged between 5 and 27 years. Three clusters were detected: cluster 1 had elevated pulmonary capillary blood volume, mixed obstructive/restrictive lung disease, hypoxia and moderately severe anaemia; cluster 2 were older patients with restrictive lung disease; and cluster 3 were younger patients with obstructive lung disease, elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase and bronchodilator reversibility...
November 29, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180860/different-impacts-of-respiratory-symptoms-and-comorbidities-on-copd-specific-health-related-quality-of-life-by-copd-severity
#15
Hyun Lee, Byung Woo Jhun, Juhee Cho, Kwang Ha Yoo, Jin Hwa Lee, Deog Kyeom Kim, Jong Deog Lee, Ki-Suck Jung, Jung Yeon Lee, Hye Yun Park
Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often have poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) that is disproportionate to their degree of airflow limitation. This study evaluated the association between St George's Respiratory Questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C) score and forced expiratory volume in one second and investigated the factors responsible for high SGRQ-C score according to severity of airflow limitation. Methods: Data from 1,264 COPD patients were obtained from the Korean COPD Subgroup Study (KOCOSS) cohort...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180850/role-of-nebulized-glycopyrrolate-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
REVIEW
Pierachille Santus, Dejan Radovanovic, Andrea Cristiano, Vincenzo Valenti, Maurizio Rizzi
In the upcoming years, the proportion of elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) will increase, according to the progressively aging population and the increased efficacy of the pharmacological treatments, especially considering the management of chronic comorbidities. The issue to prescribe an appropriate inhalation therapy to COPD patients with significant handling or coordination difficulties represents a common clinical experience; in the latter case, the choice of an inadequate inhalation device may jeopardize the adherence to the treatment and eventually lead to its ineffectiveness...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178871/efficacy-and-safety-of-tiotropium-and-olodaterol-in-copd-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Marc Miravitlles, Gerard Urrutia, Alexander G Mathioudakis, Julio Ancochea
BACKGROUND: Long-acting bronchodilators are the cornerstone of pharmacologic treatment of COPD. The new combination of long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) tiotropium (TIO) and long acting beta-agonists (LABA) olodaterol (OLO) has been introduced as fist line therapy for COPD. This article analyses the evidence of efficacy and safety of the TIO/OLO combination. METHODS: A systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) with a period of treatment of at least 6 weeks, in patients with COPD confirmed by spirometry, comparing combined treatment with TIO/OLO (approved doses only), with any of the mono-components or any other active comparator administered as an inhalator...
November 25, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169365/physician-perspectives-on-the-burden-and-management-of-asthma-in-six-countries-the-global-asthma-physician-survey-gaps
#18
Kenneth R Chapman, David Hinds, Peter Piazza, Chantal Raherison, Michael Gibbs, Timm Greulich, Kenneth Gaalswyk, Jiangtao Lin, Mitsuru Adachi, Kourtney J Davis
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of asthma as a growing global issue and development of global guidelines, asthma treatment practices vary between countries. Several studies have reported patients' perspectives on asthma control. This study presents physicians' perspectives and strategies for asthma management. METHODS: Physicians seeing ≥4 adult patients with asthma per month in Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, and Japan were surveyed (N=1809; ≈300 per country)...
November 23, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168228/trajectory-of-spirometric-and-exhaled-nitric-oxide-measurements-in-chinese-schoolchildren-with-asthma
#19
Ting F Leung, Man F Tang, Agnes S Y Leung, Wilson W S Tam, Hing Y Sy, Gary W K Wong
BACKGROUND: Lung function growth occurs in most asthmatic children. A subgroup has subnormal lung function trajectory, but such data is limited in children. This prospective study characterized longitudinal changes of spirometric indices and fractional exhaled nitric oxide level (FeNO) among asthmatic children and identified their genetic and environmental determinants. METHODS: Chinese asthmatic children recruited from paediatric clinics underwent 5-year follow-up for pre-bronchodilator spirometric indices and FeNO...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167414/biomarkers-related-to-respiratory-symptoms-and-lung-function-in-adults-with-asthma
#20
Lucia Calciano, Laura Portas, Angelo Guido Corsico, Mario Olivieri, Paolo Degan, Marcello Ferrari, Alessandro Fois, Anna Maria Fratta Pasini, Andrea Pasini, Maria Elisabetta Zanolin, Roberto de Marco, Simone Accordini
There is a need for easily measurable biomarkers that are able to identify different levels of asthma severity. Aim. To assess the association between peripheral blood cell counts, fractional nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO), urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane), and asthma severity in adult patients from the general population. Methods. In the Gene Environment Interactions in Respiratory Diseases study, 287 subjects with asthma (aged 20-64) were identified from the general population in Verona (Italy) (2008-2010)...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
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