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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166354/smoothing-the-transition-points-in-canadian-medical-education
#1
Nick Busing, Jay Rosenfield, Kamal Rungta, Matt Raegele, Andrew Warren, Bruce Wright, Mark Walton, Ivy Oandasan, Anthony Sanfilippo, Anurag Saxena
In 2010 the Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada, Collège des médecins du Québec, College of Family Physicians of Canada, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada launched The Future of Medical Education in Canada Postgraduate (FMEC PG) Project to examine postgraduate medical education (PGME) in Canada and make recommendations for improvement. One recommendation that emerged concerns the transitions learners experience across the undergraduate medical education-PGME-practice continuum...
November 21, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166305/botulinum-toxin-therapy-is-syringe-type-related-to-cost-effectiveness
#2
Mark Anthony Foglietti, Lauren Wright, Alanna Foglietti-Fostyk
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium botulinum toxin is effective through cleaving presynaptic proteins at the neuromuscular junction, which prevents the release of acetylcholine and inhibits muscle contraction. Several serotypes of botulinum toxin (BT) exist; however, only 2 types have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for commercial and medical use, A and B. Both types of BT must be administered intramuscularly with a syringe, but the type of syringe is the injector's preference...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166290/implementation-of-a-routine-health-literacy-assessment-at-an-academic-medical-center
#3
Carrie D Warring, Jacqueline R Pinkney, Elaine D Delvo-Favre, Michelle Robinson Rener, Jennifer A Lyon, Betty Jax, Irene Alexaitis, Kari Cassel, Kacy Ealy, Melanie Gross Hagen, Erin M Wright, Myron Chang, Nila S Radhakrishnan, Robert R Leverence
Limited health literacy is a common but often unrecognized problem associated with poor health outcomes. Well-validated screening tools are available to identify and provide the opportunity to intervene for at-risk patients in a resource-efficient manner. This is a multimethod study describing the implementation of a hospital-wide routine health literacy assessment at an academic medical center initiated by nurses in April 2014 and applied to all adult inpatients. Results were documented in the electronic health record, which then generated care plans and alerts for patients who screened positive...
November 14, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165594/revisiting-fis-fst-wahlund-effects-and-null-alleles
#4
Thierry De Meeûs
Null alleles and Wahlund effects are well known causes of heterozygote deficits in empirical population genetics studies as compared to Hardy-Weinberg genotypic expectations. Some authors have theoretically studied the relationship of Wright's FIS computed from subsamples displaying a Wahlund effect and FST before the Wahlund effect, as can occasionally be obtained from populations of long-lived organisms. In the two subsample case, a positive relationship between these two parameters across loci would represent a signature of Wahlund effects...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165423/meeting-report-a-hard-look-at-the-state-of-enamel-research
#5
REVIEW
Ophir D Klein, Olivier Duverger, Wendy Shaw, Rodrigo S Lacruz, Derk Joester, Janet Moradian-Oldak, Megan K Pugach, J Timothy Wright, Sarah E Millar, Ashok B Kulkarni, John D Bartlett, Thomas Gh Diekwisch, Pamela DenBesten, James P Simmer
The Encouraging Novel Amelogenesis Models and Ex vivo cell Lines (ENAMEL) Development workshop was held on 23 June 2017 at the Bethesda headquarters of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR). Discussion topics included model organisms, stem cells/cell lines, and tissues/3D cell culture/organoids. Scientists from a number of disciplines, representing institutions from across the United States, gathered to discuss advances in our understanding of enamel, as well as future directions for the field...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164873/plasma-protein-turnover-rates-in-rats-using-stable-isotope-labeling-global-proteomics-and-activity-based-protein-profiling
#6
Jordan Ned Smith, Kimberly J Tyrrell, Joshua R Hansen, Dennis George Thomas, Taylor A Murphree, Anil K Shukla, Teresa Luders, James M Madden, YunYing Li, Aaron T Wright, Paul D Piehowski
Protein turnover is important for general health on cellular and organism scales providing a strategy to replace old, damaged, or dysfunctional proteins. Protein turnover also informs of biomarker kinetics, as a better understanding of synthesis and degradation of proteins increases the clinical utility of biomarkers. Here, turnover rates of plasma proteins in rats were measured in vivo using a pulse-chase stable isotope labeling experiment. During the pulse, rats (n=5) were fed 13C6-labeled lysine ("heavy") feed for 23 days to label proteins...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164776/nutritional-screening-and-dietitian-consultation-rates-in-a-geriatric-evaluation-and-management-unit
#7
Elsa Dent, Olivia Wright, Emiel O Hoogendijk, Ruth E Hubbard
AIM: Nutritional screening may not always lead to intervention. The present study aimed to determine: (i) the rate of nutritional screening in hospitalised older adults; (ii) whether nutritional screening led to dietitian consultation and (iii) factors associated with malnutrition. METHODS: In this prospective study of patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a Geriatric Evaluation and Management Unit (GEMU), malnutrition was screened for using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and identified using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)...
November 22, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163915/field-deployable-quantitative-rapid-identification-of-active-ebola-virus-infection-in-unprocessed-blood
#8
Kavit Shah, Emma Bentley, Adam Tyler, Kevin S R Richards, Edward Wright, Linda Easterbrook, Diane Lee, Claire Cleaver, Louise Usher, Jane E Burton, James K Pitman, Christine B Bruce, David Edge, Martin Lee, Nelson Nazareth, David A Norwood, Sterghios A Moschos
The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay...
November 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163636/a-pipeline-for-high-throughput-concentration-response-modeling-of-gene-expression-for-toxicogenomics
#9
John S House, Fabian A Grimm, Dereje D Jima, Yi-Hui Zhou, Ivan Rusyn, Fred A Wright
Cell-based assays are an attractive option to measure gene expression response to exposure, but the cost of whole-transcriptome RNA sequencing has been a barrier to the use of gene expression profiling for in vitro toxicity screening. In addition, standard RNA sequencing adds variability due to variable transcript length and amplification. Targeted probe-sequencing technologies such as TempO-Seq, with transcriptomic representation that can vary from hundreds of genes to the entire transcriptome, may reduce some components of variation...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163452/the-opportunistic-pathogen-vibrio-vulnificus-produces-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-a-spatially-distinct-manner-related-to-capsular-polysaccharide
#10
Cheri M Hampton, Ricardo C Guerrero-Ferreira, Rachel E Storms, Jeannette V Taylor, Hong Yi, Paul A Gulig, Elizabeth R Wright
Vibrio vulnificus, a bacterial species that inhabits brackish waters, is an opportunistic pathogen of humans. V. vulnificus infections can cause acute gastroenteritis, invasive septicemia, tissue necrosis, and potentially death. Virulence factors associated with V. vulnificus include the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), lipopolysaccharide, flagellum, pili, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The aims of this study were to characterize the morphology of V. vulnificus cells and the formation and arrangement of OMVs using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162493/outbreak-of-gentamicin-resistant-meticillin-susceptible-staphlococcus-aureus-on-a-neonatal-unit
#11
Sahar Eldirdiri, Jennifer Lee, Ann Jack, Alison Wright, Alison Findlay, Gabby Phillips
BACKGROUND: This report describes an outbreak of gentamicin-resistant meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (GR MSSA) which occurred on a 21-bed neonatal unit (NNU) in Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, Scotland. METHODS: An outbreak investigation was triggered by two new GR MSSA isolates from babies admitted directly to the unit who had acquired this organism during their stay. Data on MSSA cases and antibiograms of patient isolates were flagged as an alert and microbiology records trawled to detect previous cases...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162305/quantifying-success-after-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-the-minimal-clinically-important-difference
#12
Ryan Simovitch, Pierre-Henri Flurin, Thomas Wright, Joseph D Zuckerman, Christopher P Roche
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for different shoulder outcome metrics and range of motion after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) can be useful to establish a minimum threshold of improvement that defines successful treatment. This study quantifies how MCID varies with different prosthesis types, patient age, gender, and length of follow-up after TSA. METHODS: A total of 466 anatomic TSA (aTSA) and reverse TSA (rTSA) with 2-year minimum follow-up were performed by 13 shoulder surgeons...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162146/smoking-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-the-generations-study-cohort
#13
Michael E Jones, Minouk J Schoemaker, Lauren B Wright, Alan Ashworth, Anthony J Swerdlow
BACKGROUND: Plausible biological reasons exist regarding why smoking could affect breast cancer risk, but epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. METHODS: We used serial questionnaire information from the Generations Study cohort (United Kingdom) to estimate HRs for breast cancer in relation to smoking adjusted for potentially confounding factors, including alcohol intake. RESULTS: Among 102,927 women recruited 2003-2013, with an average of 7...
November 22, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162099/malaria-prevalence-metrics-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-an-assessment-of-precision-in-nationally-representative-surveys
#14
Victor A Alegana, Jim Wright, Claudio Bosco, Emelda A Okiro, Peter M Atkinson, Robert W Snow, Andrew J Tatem, Abdisalan M Noor
BACKGROUND: One pillar to monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals is the investment in high quality data to strengthen the scientific basis for decision-making. At present, nationally-representative surveys are the main source of data for establishing a scientific evidence base, monitoring, and evaluation of health metrics. However, little is known about the optimal precisions of various population-level health and development indicators that remains unquantified in nationally-representative household surveys...
November 21, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161655/the-association-between-ambient-temperature-and-mortality-in-south-africa-a-time-series-analysis
#15
Noah Scovronick, Francesco Sera, Fiorella Acquaotta, Diego Garzena, Simona Fratianni, Caradee Y Wright, Antonio Gasparrini
BACKGROUND: There is an extensive literature describing temperature-mortality associations in developed regions, but research from developing countries, and Africa in particular, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis using daily temperature data and a national dataset of all 8.8 million recorded deaths in South Africa between 1997 and 2013. Mortality and temperature data were linked at the district municipality level and relationships were estimated with a distributed lag non-linear model with 21 days of lag, and pooled in a multivariate meta-analysis...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160977/using-evidence-based-practice-and-an-educational-intervention-to-improve-vascular-access-management-a-pilot-project
#16
Stephanie Wright
Abstract.
September 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160065/transformation-of-the-anticancer-drug-doxorubicin-in-the-human-gut-microbiome
#17
Austin Yan, Elizabeth Culp, Julie Perry, Jennifer Lau, Lesley MacNeil, Michael G Surette, Gerard D Wright
Bacteria living in the human gut are implicated in the etiology of several diseases. Moreover, dozens of drugs are metabolized by elements of the gut microbiome, which may have further implications for human health. Here we screened a collection of primary gut isolates for their ability to inactivate the widely used antineoplastic drug doxorubicin and identified a strain of Raoultella planticola as a potent inactivator under anaerobic conditions. We demonstrate that R. planticola deglycosylates doxorubicin to metabolites 7-deoxydoxorubicinol and 7-deoxydoxorubicinolone via a reductive deglycosylation mechanism...
November 21, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159818/c-ebp%C3%AE-dependent-pre-neoplastic-tumor-foci-are-the-origin-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-aggressive-pediatric-liver-cancer
#18
Ashley Cast, Leila Valanejad, Mary Wright, Phuong Nguyen, Anita Gupta, Liqin Zhu, Soona Shin, Nikolai Timchenko
Recent publications show that classic hepatoblastoma (HBL) is the result of failure of hepatic stem cells to differentiate into hepatocytes; while hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is caused by the de-differentiation of hepatocytes into Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). However, the mechanisms of aggressive HBL and mechanisms that cause de-differentiation of hepatocytes into CSCs are unknown. We found that, similar to HCC but opposite to classic HBL, aggressive HBL is the result of de-differentiation of hepatocytes into CSCs...
November 21, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157891/surgical-resection-improves-median-overall-survival-with-marginal-improvement-in-long-term-survival-when-compared-with-definitive-radiotherapy-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis-of-the-national-cancer-database
#19
G Paul Wright, Matthew P Holtzman
BACKGROUND: Definitive radiotherapy has been suggested as a treatment alternative to surgical resection in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). METHODS: Patients with MCC were identified from the National Cancer Database. Propensity score matching accounting for age, Charlson-Deyo score, grade, and AJCC stage was used to match patients in 1:1 fashion by primary treatment (surgery vs. radiotherapy). RESULTS: There were 1227 patients in each group. Median overall survival was improved with surgical resection in stage I/II (76 vs...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157371/australian-horse-owners-and-their-biosecurity-practices-in-the-context-of-hendra-virus
#20
Anke K Wiethoelter, Nicole Schembri, Navneet K Dhand, Kate Sawford, Melanie R Taylor, Barbara Moloney, Therese Wright, Nina Kung, Hume E Field, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio
In recent years, outbreaks of exotic as well as newly emerging infectious diseases have highlighted the importance of biosecurity for the Australian horse industry. As the first potentially fatal zoonosis transmissible from horses to humans in Australia, Hendra virus has emphasised the need to incorporate sound hygiene and general biosecurity practices into day-to-day horse management. Recommended measures are widely publicised, but implementation is at the discretion of the individual owner. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine current levels of biosecurity of horse owners and to identify factors influencing the uptake of practices utilising data from an online survey...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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