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P Broderick, F Horgan, C Blake, M Ehrensberger, D Simpson, K Monaghan
BACKGROUND: Mirror therapy has been proposed as an effective intervention for lower limb rehabilitation post stroke. RESEARCH QUESTION: This systematic review with meta-analysis examined if lower limb mirror therapy improved the primary outcome measures of muscle tone and motor function and the secondary outcome measures balance characteristics, functional ambulation, walking velocity, passive range of motion (PROM) for ankle dorsiflexion and gait characteristics in patients with stroke compared to other interventions...
May 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
F A K Mazari, N Sharma, D Reid, K Horgan
AIM: To assess the safety of selective use of triple assessment with omission of radiological assessment proposed in patients <40-years old. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively for all patients seen in the one-stop breast clinic between January 2014 and August 2015. Demographics, symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment details were recorded. Subgroup and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors for breast cancer. RESULTS: Of the 3,305 patients included, 95...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Declan Fahy
When scientists become Nobel laureates, they become famous in science and public life, but few studies have examined the nature of their scientific celebrity. This article examines how Scientific American portrayed laureates in order to identify and explain core features of Nobel fame. It examines the portrayals of seven laureates - Francis Crick, Linus Pauling, Hans Bethe, Murray Gell-Mann, Brian Josephson, Philip Anderson and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar - in magazine profiles written between 1992 and 1995 by science writer John Horgan...
May 2018: Public Understanding of Science
Mark Hopkins, Graham Finlayson, Cristiana Duarte, Catherine Gibbons, Alexandra M Johnstone, Stephen Whybrow, Graham W Horgan, John E Blundell, R James Stubbs
BACKGROUND: While recent studies in humans indicate that fat-free mass (FFM) is closely associated with energy intake (EI) when in energy balance, associations between fat mass (FM) and EI are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the indirect and direct effects of FFM, FM and resting metabolic rate (RMR) on EI in individuals at or close to energy balance. METHODS: Data for 242 individuals (114 males; 128 females; BMI = 25...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Margaret T Lee, Andrea Acevedo, Deborah W Garnick, Constance M Horgan, Lee Panas, Grant A Ritter, Kevin M Campbell
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether having co-occurring substance use and mental disorders influenced treatment engagement or continuity of care and whether offering financial incentives, client-specific electronic reminders, or a combination to treatment agencies improved treatment engagement and continuity of care among clients with co-occurring disorders. METHODS: The study used a randomized cluster design to assign agencies (N=196) providing publicly funded substance use disorder treatment in Washington State to a research arm: incentives only, reminders only, incentives and reminders, and a control condition...
April 26, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Bryan J Sandler, Laurent Biertho, Mehran Anvari, Roberto Rumbaut, Luis Alonso Morales-Garza, Gustavo Torres-Barrera, Simon Marceau, Dennis Hong, C Daniel Smith, Santiago Horgan
BACKGROUND: Only a small percentage of candidates for bariatric surgery ever undergo a procedure for weight loss. Devices duplicating key effects of bariatric surgeries with removable, fully trans-oral implants could extend their benefits to patients unwilling to undergo anatomy-altering abdominal surgeries. METHODS: Thirty-two obese subjects (mean BMI: 42.3) were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, feasibility trial of the first fully trans-oral endoscopic gastrointestinal bypass device...
April 20, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
M Murphy, D J Dijkstra, J S Duncan, G W Horgan, J G Mercer
Many pre-clinical models of binge-like eating involve predictable, scheduled, access to a palatable diet high in fat (HF), where access may be preceded by anticipatory behaviour. Here, to introduce spontaneity into the binge-type consumption of palatable diets, mice were allowed 2 h access on a random day once per week and at a random time within an 8 h window either side of the transition from dark phase to light phase. Despite normal intake of a stock diet prior to unpredictable access to HF diet, mice immediately initiated a substantial eating episode when presented with HF diet...
April 5, 2018: Appetite
Pamela J Rice, Brian P Horgan, Jennifer L Hamlin
Flutolanil and pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) are fungicides used to control or suppress foliar and soil borne diseases in turf and ornamental crops. On golf courses, sports fields, sod farms and commercial lawns these fungicides are used as preventive treatments to combat snow mold, brown patch and fairy ring. Depending on the aquatic organism, flultolanil and PCNB are considered to be moderately to highly toxic. Therefore runoff or drift from treated areas may be hazardous to organisms in adjacent aquatic sites...
April 2, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Brian Eastwood, Amy Peacock, Tim Millar, Andrew Jones, Jonathan Knight, Patrick Horgan, Tim Lowden, Peter Willey, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This was a national English observational cohort study to estimate the effectiveness of inpatient withdrawal (IW) and residential rehabilitation (RR) interventions for alcohol use disorder (AUD) using administrative data. METHODS: All adults commencing IW and/or RR intervention for AUD between April 1, 2014 and March 31, 2015 reported to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (n=3812). The primary outcome was successful completion of treatment within 12months of commencement, with no re-presentation (SCNR) in the subsequent six months, analysed by multi-level, mixed effects, multivariable logistic regression...
May 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Pamela J Rice, Brian P Horgan, Brian L Barber, William C Koskinen
Management of turfgrass on golf courses and athletic fields often involves application of plant protection products to maintain or enhance turfgrass health and performance. However, the transport of fertilizer and pesticides with runoff to adjacent surface waters can enhance algal blooms, promote eutrophication and may have negative impacts on sensitive aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of chemical application setbacks to reduce the off-site transport of chemicals with storm runoff...
March 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ross D Dolan, Stephen T McSorley, Paul G Horgan, Donald C McMillan
Prognosis in colon cancer is based on pathological criteria including TNM staging. However, there are deficiencies in this approach, and the lymph node ratio (LNR) has been proposed to improve the prediction of outcomes. LNR is dependent on optimal retrieval of lymph nodes-lymph node count (LNC). Recent studies have suggested that an elevated preoperative systemic inflammatory response (SIR) was associated with a lower LNC and a higher LNR. However, there are a number of potential confounding factors. The aim of the present study was to examine, in detail, these relationships in a large cohort of patients...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Dominic Hodgkin, Wenwu Gao, Elizabeth L Merrick, Charles E Drebing, Mary Jo Larson, Constance M Horgan, Monica Sharma, Nancy M Petry, Richard Saitz
BACKGROUND: Unhealthy drug use is a concern in many settings, including military and veteran populations. In 2013, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical center in Bedford, Massachusetts, started requiring routine screening for unhealthy drug use in outpatient primary care and mental health settings, using a validated single question. METHODS: This study used descriptive and multivariable analyses of VHA electronic records for patients eligible for the screening program (N = 16,118)...
March 29, 2018: Substance Abuse
Patrick Broderick, Frances Horgan, Catherine Blake, Paula Hickey, Joanne O'Reilly, Monika Ehrensberger, Daniel Simpson, David Roberts, Kenneth Monaghan
INTRODUCTION: A large proportion of patients with chronic stroke have permanent lower limb functional disability leading to reduced levels of independent mobility. Individually, both mirror therapy and treadmill training have been shown to improve aspects of lower limb functioning in patients with stroke. This case report examined whether a new combination of both interventions would lead to improvements in lower limb functional disability for a patient with chronic stroke. CASE DESCRIPTION: The participant was a 50-year-old female who had a left middle cerebral artery infarction (47 months' post stroke)...
March 28, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Akash J Maliampurakal, Donald C McMillan, John H Anderson, Paul G Horgan, David Mansouri
Objective: Flexible sigmoidoscopy reduces the incidence of colonic cancer through the detection and removal of premalignant adenomas. However, the efficacy of the procedure is variable. The aim of the present study was to examine factors associated with the efficacy of detecting polyps during flexible sigmoidoscopy. Design and patients: Retrospective observational cohort study of all individuals undergoing routine flexible sigmoidoscopy in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde from January 2013 to January 2016...
April 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
Amy Peacock, Brian Eastwood, Andrew Jones, Tim Millar, Patrick Horgan, Jonathan Knight, Kulvir Randhawa, Martin White, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This was a national English observational cohort study using administrative data to estimate the effectiveness of community pharmacological and psychosocial treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: All adults commencing AUD treatment in the community reported to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (April 1 2014-March 31 2015; N = 52,499). Past 28-day admission drinking pattern included drinks per drinking day (DDD): 0 ('Abstinent'), 1-15 ('Low-High'), 16-30 ('High-Extreme') and over 30 DDD ('Extreme')...
March 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Meera Patel, Paul G Horgan, Donald C McMillan, Joanne Edwards
Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) has been widely implicated in the development and progression of cancer. In colorectal cancer (CRC), NF-κB has a key role in cancer-related processes such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The role of NF-κB in CRC is complex, owed to the cross talk with other signaling pathways. Although there is sufficient evidence gained from cell lines and animal models that NF-κB is involved in cancer-related processes, because of a lack of studies in human tissue, the clinical evidence of its importance is limited in patients with CRC...
March 1, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Joshu J Mountjoy, Jamie D Howarth, Alan R Orpin, Philip M Barnes, David A Bowden, Ashley A Rowden, Alexandre C G Schimel, Caroline Holden, Huw J Horgan, Scott D Nodder, Jason R Patton, Geoffroy Lamarche, Matthew Gerstenberger, Aaron Micallef, Arne Pallentin, Tim Kane
Although the global flux of sediment and carbon from land to the coastal ocean is well known, the volume of material that reaches the deep ocean-the ultimate sink-and the mechanisms by which it is transferred are poorly documented. Using a globally unique data set of repeat seafloor measurements and samples, we show that the moment magnitude ( M w ) 7.8 November 2016 Kaikōura earthquake (New Zealand) triggered widespread landslides in a submarine canyon, causing a powerful "canyon flushing" event and turbidity current that traveled >680 km along one of the world's longest deep-sea channels...
March 2018: Science Advances
Finbarr G Horgan, Ainara Peñalver Cruz, Carmencita C Bernal, Angelee Fame Ramal, Maria Liberty P Almazan, Andrew Wilby
High resource availability can reduce anti-herbivore resistance (a plant's ability to defend against herbivores and reduce damage) in rice, Oryza sativa L, but may also increase tolerance (a plant's ability to withstand damage by, for example, compensatory growth). Through a series of greenhouse, screenhouse and field experiments, this study examines fitness (survival and development × reproduction) of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), on resistant (IR62) and susceptible (IR22) rice varieties and age-related rice tolerance to planthopper damage under varying resource (nitrogenous fertilizer) availability...
March 2018: Field Crops Research
Benjamin P T Loveday, Jennifer J Knox, Laura A Dawson, Ur Metser, Anthony Brade, Anne M Horgan, Steven Gallinger, Paul D Greig, Carol-Anne Moulton
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation and liver transplantation may be offered for unresectable perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA). This study aimed to determine the dropout rate and survival of patients who entered a national tri-modality protocol. METHOD: Patients enrolled Jan 2009-Aug 2015 were included. Enrolment criteria: ≤65 years, brush biopsy-proven unresectable pCCA <3.5 cm diameter. Conformal radiotherapy was given concurrently with Capecitabine...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Jason P Block, L Charles Bailey, Matthew W Gillman, Douglas Lunsford, Janne Boone-Heinonen, Lauren P Cleveland, Jonathan Finkelstein, Casie E Horgan, Melanie Jay, Juliane S Reynolds, Jessica L Sturtevant, Christopher B Forrest
OBJECTIVES: The National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network (PCORnet) supports observational and clinical research using health care data. The PCORnet Antibiotics and Childhood Growth Study is one of PCORnet's inaugural observational studies. We sought to describe the processes used to integrate and analyze data from children across 36 participating institutions, the cohort characteristics, and prevalence of antibiotic use. METHODS: We included children in the cohort if they had at least one same-day height and weight measured in each of 3 age periods: 1) before 12 months, 2) 12 to 30 months, and 3) after 24 months...
March 15, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
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