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Elderly, productive

Corinne Ruppen, Laurent Decosterd, Parham Sendi
BACKGROUND: According to expert opinions, gentamicin should be administered as an adjunct to penicillin against severe group B streptococcal (GBS) infections. Whether the adjunct is important is of particular interest for elderly patients. Not only is the risk of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity higher in elderly persons, but their immune defence to bacterial infections may also be impaired. METHOD: Time-kill assays with human blood products, such as serum, neutrophilic granulocytes (opsonophagocytic assays) and whole blood from healthy, elderly volunteers were performed to evaluate the effect of gentamicin in combination with penicillin...
October 21, 2016: Infectious Diseases
Stanislava Stanojević, Ivana Ćuruvija, Veljko Blagojević, Raisa Petrović, Vesna Vujić, Mirjana Dimitrijević
Rats of Albino Oxford (AO) strain in our animal facility exhibit a longer average healthy life span than rats of Dark Agouit (DA) strain. Since chronic activation of macrophages contributes to chronic low level inflammation common in older age, elucidation of the changes in middle-aged rats could be useful in prevention of unbalanced inflammatory response in advanced age. We have analysed the phenotype of unelicited and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from young and middle-aged DA and AO rats and tested functions of these cells following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro...
October 15, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Felix Krenzien, Markus Quante, Timm Heinbokel, Midas Seyda, Koichiro Minami, Hirohito Uehara, Hector Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Jeroen M Schuitenmaker, Steven Gabardi, Katrin Splith, Moritz Schmelzle, Athena K Petrides, Haruhito Azuma, Johann Pratschke, Xian C Li, Abdallah ElKhal, Stefan G Tullius
Immunosuppression in elderly recipients has been underappreciated in clinical trials. Here, we assessed age-specific effects of the calcineurin inhibitor Tacrolimus (TAC) in a murine transplant model and assessed its clinical relevance on human T-cells. Old recipient mice exhibited prolonged skin graft survival when compared to young animals following TAC administration. More importantly, half of the TAC dose was sufficient in old mice to achieve comparable systemic trough levels. TAC administration was able to reduce pro-inflammatory IFN-γ cytokine production and promote IL-10 production in old CD4(+) T-cells...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Suzanne Oparil
Heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure are leading causes of death worldwide, and hypertension is a significant risk factor for each. Hypertension is less common in women, compared to men, in those younger than 45 years of age. This trend is reversed in those 65 years and older. In the US between 2011-2014, the prevalence of hypertension in women and men by age group was 6% vs 8% (18-39 years), 30% vs 35% (40-59 years), and 67% vs 63% (60 years and over). Awareness, treatment, and control rates differ between genders with women being more aware of their diagnosis (85% vs 80%), more likely to take their medications (81% vs 71%) and more frequently having controlled hypertension (55% vs 49%)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Canan Ziylan, Annemien Haveman-Nies, Stefanie Kremer, Lisette C P G M de Groot
OBJECTIVES: Sufficient protein intake can decrease undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to increase community-dwelling older adults' daily protein intake with acceptable and applicable protein-enriched bread and readymade meals at home. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized controlled trial of 2 weeks. SETTING: Senior residential center in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two community-dwelling elderly residents (≥65 years) participated, with a mean age of 74...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Jennifer L Schroeck, James Ford, Erin L Conway, Kari E Kurtzhalts, Megan E Gee, Krista A Vollmer, Kari A Mergenhagen
PURPOSE: Insomnia is problematic for older adults. After behavioral modifications fail to show adequate response, pharmacologic options are used. The pharmacokinetics of agents used to treat insomnia may be altered. This review focuses on the safety and efficacy of medications used to treat insomnia. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Embase was conducted (January 1966-June 2016). It included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and case series that had an emphasis on insomnia in an older population...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Therapeutics
Katsutoshi Miura, Hideki Katoh
The aim of this study was to reveal the pathogenesis of aortic stenosis (AS) and regurgitation (AR) by comparing differences in mechanical and biochemical alterations. We applied scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) to measure the speed of sound (SOS) through valves to estimate the elasticity and monitor sensitivity to protease treatment, as the SOS is correlated with the stiffness of materials, which is reduced after digestion by proteases. The fibrosa of both the AS and AR groups were stiffer than the fibrosa of the normal group...
2016: BioMed Research International
Marianne Hiorth
Dental caries: Dental caries and periodontitis were for many decades considered the most important global oral health burden. During the last 40 years when more focus was put on the prevention of dental caries by using products with fluoride, the problem decreased. However, our new lifestyle with more sugar has given rise to concern, and in US the amount of children being diagnosed with dental caries has increased [1]. In addition the increasing amount of elderly in the population using many different types of medicines giving dry mouth has a negative impact of the status of their teeth [2]...
October 13, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Daisuke Koya
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to atherosclerosis is the main cause of death in both the elderly and patients with metabolic diseases, including diabetes. Aging processes contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Calorie restriction (CR) is recognized as a dietary intervention for promoting longevity and delaying age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis. Sirt1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, is considered an anti-aging molecule and is induced during CR. Sirt1 deacetylates target proteins and is linked to cellular metabolism, the redox state and survival pathways...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Santosh Kumar Singh, Seema Kumari, Minakshi Gupta
Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infection has been reported to be most prevalent among patients of different class, gender and ages. Currently, multidrug resistant E. coli harboring several virulence factors are most perilous threats for patients especially for elders. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern, co-resistance and phenotypic virulence factors present in uropathogenic E. coli isolates from aged patients. Thirty-nine E. coli isolates were collected during May-June 2014 from patients aged 50-80 years...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Mei-Chi Chang, Yi-Jane Chen, Eric Jein-Wein Liou, Wan-Yu Tseng, Chiu-Po Chan, Hseuh-Jen Lin, Wan-Chuen Liao, Ya-Ching Chang, Po-Yuan Jeng, Jiiang-Huei Jeng
Cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis, stroke, myocardiac infarction etc.) are the major systemic diseases of elder peoples in the world. This is possibly due to increased levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) such as 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) that damage vascular endothelial cells, induce inflammatory responses, to elevate the risk of cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However the toxic effects of 7-KC on endothelial cells are not known...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Lennard Schröder, Dagmar Ulrike Richter, Birgit Piechulla, Mareike Chrobak, Christina Kuhn, Sandra Schulze, Sybille Abarzua, Udo Jeschke, Tobias Weissenbacher
Hereinwe investigated the effect of elderflower extracts (EFE) and of enterolactone/enterodiol on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumor cell lines JEG-3 and BeWo, as well as MCF7 breast cancer cells. The EFE was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Cells were incubated with various concentrations of EFE. Untreated cells served as controls. Supernatants were tested for estradiol production with an ELISA method. Furthermore, the effect of the EFE on ER/ER/PR expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry...
October 8, 2016: Nutrients
Sara Ferreira, Marco Amorim, Antonio Couto
OBJECTIVE: Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, named the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC...
October 13, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Yu-Liang Zhan, Bin Zou, Ting Kang, Ling-Bing Xiong, Jin Zou, Yun-Feng Wei
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that increased red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were both poor prognostic factors for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the multiplicative interaction between RDW and MCV has been observed for predicting mortality in elderly patients without anemia; however, the relationship between the product of RDW-MCV and hypertension-induced target organ damage (TOD) has not been evaluated. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in 1115 hypertensive patients...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Zikria Saleem, Mobasher Ahmad, Furqan Khurshid Hashmi, Hamid Saeed, Muhammad Tahir Aziz
Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (AC protocol) combination is usually considered as a first line therapy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Thus, a retrospective observational study was conducted to monitor the effect of AC protocol on liver synthetic functions and production of plasma proteins in breast cancer patients, reporting to specialized cancer care hospital of Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 75 patients (n=75) on AC protocol with breast cancer were observed in this study. The patient data including age, gender, body surface area, dosage, disease status and laboratory biochemical values were recorded by reviewing historical treatment records...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Thomas Volken, Andreas Buser, Damiano Castelli, Stefano Fontana, Beat M Frey, Ilka Rüsges-Wolter, Amira Sarraj, Jörg Sigle, Jutta Thierbach, Tina Weingand, Behrouz Mansouri Taleghani
BACKGROUND: Several studies have raised concerns that future demand for blood products may not be met. The ageing of the general population and the fact that a large proportion of blood products is transfused to elderly patients has been identified as an important driver of blood shortages. The aim of this study was to collect, for the first time, nationally representative data regarding blood donors and transfusion recipients in order to predict the future evolution of blood donations and red blood cell (RBC) use in Switzerland between 2014 and 2035...
September 30, 2016: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Elodie Martin, Céline Boucher, Bertrand Fontaine, Cécile Delarasse
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by formation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, activated microglia, and neuronal cell death leading to progressive dementia. Recent data indicate that microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) are key players in the initiation and progression of AD, yet their respective roles remain to be clarified. As AD occurs mostly in the elderly and aging impairs myeloid functions, we addressed the inflammatory profile of microglia and MDM during aging in TgAPP/PS1 and TgAPP/PS1dE9, two transgenic AD mouse models, compared to WT littermates...
October 8, 2016: Aging Cell
Ravendra Garg, Michael Theaker, Elisa C Martinez, Sylvia van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious respiratory illness in infants and elderly. RSV infection induces short-lived immunity, which leaves people prone to re-infection. In contrast, the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with a novel adjuvant (∆F/TriAdj) elicits long term protective immunity. A comparison of RSV-immunized mice to mice vaccinated with a single dose of ∆F/TriAdj showed no difference in IgG1 and IgG2a production; however, local IgA secreting memory B cell development and B cell IgA production were significantly lower in RSV vaccinated mice than in ∆F/TriAdj-immunized mice...
October 6, 2016: Virology
Zhi-Yuan Li, Zhao-Li Chen, Ting Zhang, Chao Wei, Wei-Yun Shi
The corneal epithelium plays important roles in the maintenance of corneal transparency for good vision, and acts as a protective barrier against foreign insults. Structural and functional changes with aging in the corneal epithelium have been documented. Here we found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is highly expressed in the elderly donor corneal epithelium, as are senescence-associated genes, such as p16 and p21. In human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) models, TGF-β induces cellular senescence, characterized by increased SA-β-gal positive cells and elevated expression of p16 and p21...
October 6, 2016: Aging
Daigo Morita, Yoshihiro Nishida, Yoshitoshi Higuchi, Taisuke Seki, Kunihiro Ikuta, Hideki Asano, Naoki Ishiguro
Impairment of the activities of daily living (ADL) by osteoporosis is an important concern in developed countries with a super-aging population. Vitamin D, which is a crucial molecule in bone metabolism and mainly produced endogenously with ultraviolet (UV) light exposure, is known to be insufficient in the elderly population. We used an UV Light-Emitting Diode (UV-LED) instrument generating a narrow-range wavelength to analyze the efficacy of endogenous vitamin D production. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of UV irradiation at various narrow-range wavelengths using UV-LED on vitamin D supplementation...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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