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Cognitive testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30007354/an-attention-assessment-for-informing-older-drivers-crash-risks-in-various-hazardous-situations
#1
HeeSun Choi, Jonathan Kasko, Jing Feng
Background and Objectives : Mobility is a critical factor that influences older adults' independence and well-being. Older drivers may experience increased crash risks due to age-related cognitive declines. Ensuring safe driving practices among older drivers is important to maintain their mobility without sacrificing safety. Investigations for an effective assessment technology that can inform older drivers' risks associated with cognitive declines are warranted. This study aims to identify attentional deteriorations that may underlie crashes in various situations...
July 10, 2018: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006952/arterial-damage-and-cognitive-decline-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#2
Despina Karasavvidou, Pierre Boutouyrie, Rigas Kalaitzidis, Hakim Kettab, Kosmas Pappas, Dimitrios Stagikas, Nikolaos Antonakis, Dimitrios Tsalikakis, Moses Elisaf, Stephane Laurent
In the general population aortic stiffening, assessed by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), is associated with cognitive dysfunction (CO/DY). Data in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited. This study tests the hypothesis that large artery stiffness and microvascular damage in CKD patients are related to the damage of brain microcirculation reflected by impaired cognitive function. A cross-sectional study enrolled 151 patients (mean age 58.4 years; 64.5% males; 44 patients with CKD stage 1; 47 with stage 2; 25 with stage 3; and 35 with stage 4)...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006530/integrated-deep-visual-and-semantic-attractor-neural-networks-predict-fmri-pattern-information-along-the-ventral-object-processing-pathway
#3
Barry J Devereux, Alex Clarke, Lorraine K Tyler
Recognising an object involves rapid visual processing and activation of semantic knowledge about the object, but how visual processing activates and interacts with semantic representations remains unclear. Cognitive neuroscience research has shown that while visual processing involves posterior regions along the ventral stream, object meaning involves more anterior regions, especially perirhinal cortex. Here we investigate visuo-semantic processing by combining a deep neural network model of vision with an attractor network model of semantics, such that visual information maps onto object meanings represented as activation patterns across features...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006323/carotid-circumferential-wall-stress-is-not-associated-with-cognitive-performance-among-individuals-in-late-middle-age-the-maastricht-study
#4
Stefan Lc Geijselaers, Simone Js Sep, Miranda T Schram, Martin Pj van Boxtel, Thomas T van Sloten, Jos Op Het Roodt, Ronald Ma Henry, Koen D Reesink, Nicolaas C Schaper, Pieter C Dagnelie, Carla Jh van der Kallen, Geert Jan Biessels, Coen DA Stehouwer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Arterial remodelling aims at normalising circumferential wall stress (CWS). Greater CWS in the carotid artery has previously been associated with the prevalence and severity of cerebral small vessel disease, a major cause of ageing-related cognitive decline. Here we test the hypothesis that greater carotid CWS is associated with poorer cognitive performance. METHODS: We studied 722 individuals (60 ± 8 years, 55% men, 42.5% highly educated, blood pressure 137 ± 19/77 ± 11 mmHg, n = 197 with type 2 diabetes) who completed a neuropsychological assessment and underwent vascular ultrasound to measure the intima-media thickness (IMT) and interadventitial diameter (IAD) of the left common carotid artery at a plaque-free site...
July 4, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006294/the-recovery-from-transient-cognitive-dysfunction-induced-by-propofol-was-associated-with-enhanced-autophagic-flux-in-normal-healthy-adult-mice
#5
Sooyoung Cho, Yeon Joo Jung, Eun Cheng Suh, Hee Jung Baik, Jong In Han, Guie Yong Lee, Kyung Eun Lee
Propofol is the most widely accepted intravenous anesthetic available for clinical use. However, neurotoxicity of propofol in the developing brain has been reported. This study investigated the effects of propofol on cognitive function in normal healthy adult mice. Thirty-three GFP-LC3 adult mice were included. Propofol was injected for anesthesia (n= 22). The sham control (n= 11) received intralipid injections. The mice completed a Y-maze test on 3 and 7 days after being anesthetized. Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining, and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses were performed with their hippocampi...
July 10, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006211/changes-in-objectively-measured-outdoor-time-and-physical-psychological-and-cognitive-function-among-older-adults-with-cognitive-impairments
#6
Kazuhiro Harada, Sangyoon Lee, Sungchul Lee, Seongryu Bae, Kenji Harada, Hiroyuki Shimada
BACKGROUND: Older adults with cognitive impairment are at higher risk for various health problems. Although previous studies have suggested going outdoors more frequently might be effective to promote health, no longitudinal studies have examined objectively measured outdoor time in this population. This study examined the relationships between changes in objectively measured outdoor time and physical, psychological, and cognitive functions among older adults with cognitive impairments...
June 11, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006209/the-relation-between-gain-in-cognition-during-rehabilitation-on-functional-outcome-among-hip-fracture-adult-patients-with-and-without-pre-hip-fracture-dementia
#7
E H Mizrahi, N Harel, A D Heymann, E Lubart, A Leibovitz, E Malik Gadot, R B Barkan
The purpose of the present study was focused on the relationship between change in cognition and the functional outcome during rehabilitation in demented and non-demented adult hip fracture patients. We studied seventy consecutive adult patients with hip fracture admitted to our rehabilitation wards. Functional outcome was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The gain in cognition during the rehabilitation process was measured by the difference in Mini Mental State Examination scores at admission and discharge...
June 30, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005926/motivation-dynamically-increases-noise-resistance-by-internal-feedback-during-movement
#8
Sanjay Manohar, Kinan Muhammed, Sean J Fallon, Masud Husain
Motivation improves performance, pushing us beyond our normal limits. One general explanation for this is that the effects of neural noise can be reduced, at a cost. If this were possible, reward would promote investment in resisting noise. But how could the effects of noise be attenuated, and why should this be costly? Negative feedback may be employed to compensate for disturbances in a neural representation. Such feedback would increase the robustness of neural representations to internal signal fluctuations, producing a stable attractor...
July 10, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005757/what-characteristics-of-nursing-homes-are-most-valued-by-consumers-a-discrete-choice-experiment-with-residents-and-family-members
#9
Rachel Milte, Julie Ratcliffe, Gang Chen, Maria Crotty
OBJECTIVES: To generate a scoring algorithm weighted on the preferences of consumers for assessing the quality of care in nursing homes (i.e., aged care homes or institutions) in six key domains. METHODS: A discrete choice experiment was undertaken with residents of nursing homes (n = 126) or family member proxies (n = 416) in cases where severe cognitive impairment precluded resident participation. Analysis was undertaken using conditional and mixed logit regression models to determine preferences for potential attributes...
July 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005578/recent-advancements-toward-therapeutic-vaccines-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Krystal Herline, Eleanor Drummond, Thomas Wisniewski
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by protein aggregates of amyloid β (Aβ) and tau. These proteins have normal physiological functions, but in AD they undergo a conformational change and aggregate as toxic oligomeric and fibrillar species with a high β-sheet content. Areas covered: Active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches are among the most attractive methods for targeting misfolded Aβ and tau. Promising preclinical testing of various immunotherapeutic approaches have yet to translate to cognitive benefits in human clinical trials...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005311/socio-cognitive-functioning-in-stimulant-polysubstance-users
#11
Sara L Kroll, Michael D Wunderli, Matthias Vonmoos, Lea M Hulka, Katrin H Preller, Oliver G Bosch, Markus R Baumgartner, Boris B Quednow
BACKGROUND: Using more than one psychotropic substance is accompanied by increased risks for psychiatric and physical disorders. Accordingly, deficits in basal cognitive functions have been consistently associated with polysubstance use (PSU), whereas little is known about potential impairments in more complex socio-cognitive skills, which are relevant for daily-life functioning. Therefore, we investigated the effects of toxicological validated stimulant PSU on social cognition under consideration of potential cumulative effects...
June 30, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004994/relationship-between-cerebral-microbleeds-location-and-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-ischemic-cerebrovascular-disease
#12
Jianjun Yang, Yongtao Lyu, Yue Ma, Yan Chen
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) have been identified as an important manifestation and diagnostic marker of cerebrovascular disease, but there are also some controversies about the impact of CMBs on cognition. The current cross-sectional study aimed to clarify the relationship between CMBs and cognitive impairment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. One hundred and fifty patients with lacunar infarction or transient ischemic attack were screened, and all of them were scanned by brain MRI. In the end, 125 patients who were divided into a CMBs group and a non-CMBs group were selected and completed the cognitive tests...
July 12, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004619/validation-of-the-haemophilia-exercise-project-test-questionnaire-hep-test-q-an-instrument-for-the-assessment-of-subjective-physical-functioning-in-children-with-haemophilia
#13
S von Mackensen, T Hilberg, L A Valentino, K Kurnik, K Khair
INTRODUCTION: Contemporary haemophilia management recommends sport and physical activity in children with haemophilia. Assessment of subjective physical functioning requires standardized and validated instruments. AIMS: To adapt and psychometrically test the adult Haemophilia & Exercise Project-Test-Questionnaire (HEP-Test-Q) for children (aged 6-17 years). METHODS: In discussion rounds with children, single items of the adult HEP-Test-Q were reformulated to make them understandable without changing the item concept...
July 13, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004615/the-effect-of-xenon-augmented-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-intraoperative-hemodynamics-and-early-postoperative-neurocognitive-function-in-children-undergoing-cardiac-catheterization-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#14
Sarah Devroe, Jurgen Lemiere, Laura Van Hese, Marc Gewillig, Derize Boshoff, Koen Poesen, Marc Van de Velde, Steffen Rex
BACKGROUND: In adults, xenon has only minimal hemodynamic side effects when compared with other anesthetics. Moreover, in preclinical experiments, xenon has been demonstrated to possess cardio- and neuroprotective properties. Altogether, the favorable hemodynamic profile combined with its potential for organ-protection could render xenon an attractive option for anesthesia in children with cardiovascular compromise. AIMS: The aim of this study was to explore safety and feasibility of sevoflurane-augmented xenon anesthesia in school-aged children and to assess early postoperative neurocognitive effects of xenon-sevoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia when compared to a control group that did not have anesthesia...
July 13, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004021/the-effect-of-pain-on-major-cognitive-impairment-in-older-adults
#15
Guusje van der Leeuw, Emmeline Ayers, Suzanne G Leveille, Annette H Blankenstein, Henriette E van der Horst, Joe Verghese
Older adults frequently report pain; cross-sectional studies have shown that pain is associated with worse cognitive function. However, longitudinal studies are lacking. We prospectively studied 441 participants without dementia, including 285 with pain, aged 65 years and older, enrolled in the Central Control of Mobility in Aging Study, a prospective cohort study. We analyzed the longitudinal association between pain (Medical Outcomes Study pain severity scale) and major cognitive impairment (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status and the Trail Making Test Delta) using Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and education...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003977/low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-inhibits-the-development-of-methamphetamine-induced-conditioned-place-preference
#16
Xue-Qing Wu, Gui-Ying Zan, Yun-Yue Ju, Tian-Zhen Chen, Liu-Bin Guo, Dong-Liang Jiao, Hai-Feng Jiang, Ying-Zhi Deng, Jing-Gen Liu, Min Zhao
The abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) has become a global public health issue in recent years, these new-type drugs can cause addiction and serious cognitive impairment. However, there are no effective methods for the prevention and treatment of ATS addiction at present. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a painless and non-invasive new therapeutic approach that has been used for the treatment of depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders, but whether it can be used to treat drug addiction is unclear...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003976/saccade-latency-delays-in-young-apolipoprotein-e-apoe-epsilon-4-carriers
#17
Ewa Niechwiej-Szwedo, Anthony Tapper, David Gonzalez, Ryan M Bradley, Robin Duncan
The apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 isoform has been associated with a significantly greater risk of developing late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the negative effects of APOE-ε4 allele on cognitive function vary across the lifespan: reduced memory and executive function have been found in older individuals but, paradoxically, young APOE-ε4 carriers perform better on cognitive tests and show higher neural efficiency. This study aimed to assess the association between APOE genotype and saccade latency using a prosaccade and antisaccade task in young individuals (N = 97, age: 17-35 years)...
July 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003550/long-term-neurocognitive-functioning-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-patients-with-late-life-depression
#18
J Obbels, E Verwijk, K Vansteelandt, A Dols, F Bouckaert, S Schouws, M Vandenbulcke, L Emsell, M Stek, P Sienaert
OBJECTIVE: There is ongoing concern about the possible negative impact of ECT on neurocognitive functioning in older patients. In this study, we aimed to characterize the long-term cognitive effects of ECT in patients with late-life depression, using an extensive neuropsychological battery. METHODS: A total of 110 patients aged 55 years and older with unipolar depression, referred for ECT were included. The neuropsychological test battery was assessed prior to ECT and 6 months after the last ECT session...
July 12, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003519/encouraging-parenting-behaviors-that-promote-early-childhood-development-among-caregivers-from-low-income-urban-communities-a-randomized-static-group-comparison-trial-of-a-primary-care-based-parenting-program
#19
Reshma Shah, Ashley Isaia, Alan Schwartz, Marc Atkins
Objectives Encouraging key parenting behaviors in early infancy may help decrease income-related developmental disparities. In this study we assessed whether a brief, primary care-based program (Sit Down and Play; SDP) could be successful in impacting key parenting behaviors that promote early childhood development. Methods An ethnically diverse group of predominantly low-income caregivers of children 2-6 months of age were enrolled, interviewed, and randomized to intervention (n = 20) or control (n = 20) groups...
July 12, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30003438/sexual-arousal-and-implicit-and-explicit-determinants-of-condom-use-intentions
#20
Kenny Wolfs, Arjan E R Bos, Fraukje E F Mevissen, Gjalt-Jorn Y Peters, Jacques J D M van Lankveld
Being sexually aroused may be an important risk factor contributing to sexual decision making. Dual-process cognitive models, such as the reflective-impulsive model of Strack and Deutsch (2004), could be used to explain the effect of sexual arousal on intentions to use a condom. In this study, we investigated whether explicit and implicit attitudes toward condom use can predict intentions to use a condom when participants are sexually aroused and not aroused. In a within-subjects experimental design, male participants (N = 27) watched both a neutral and an erotic movie clip in counterbalanced order...
July 12, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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