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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909291/exercise-recovery-increases-skeletal-muscle-h-2-o-2-emission-and-mitochondrial-respiratory-capacity-following-two-weeks-of-limb-immobilization
#1
Chantal A Pileggi, Christopher P Hedges, Randall F D'Souza, Brenan R Durainayagam, James F Markworth, Anthony J R Hickey, Cameron J Mitchell, David Cameron-Smith
Extended periods of skeletal muscle disuse result in muscle atrophy. Following limb immobilization, increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may contribute to atrophy through increases in skeletal muscle protein degradation. However, the effect of skeletal muscle disuse on mitochondrial ROS production remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of immobilization, followed by two subsequent periods of restored physical activity, on mitochondrial H2 O2 emissions in adult male skeletal muscle...
June 14, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909166/nanoparticle-plant-interaction-implications-in-energy-environment-and-agriculture
#2
REVIEW
Prabhat Kumar Rai, Vanish Kumar, SangSoo Lee, Nadeem Raza, Ki-Hyun Kim, Yong Sik Ok, Daniel C W Tsang
In the recent techno-scientific revolution, nanotechnology has gained popularity at a rapid pace in different sectors and disciplines, specifically environmental, sensing, bioenergy, and agricultural systems. Controlled, easy, economical, and safe synthesis of nanomaterials is desired for the development of new-age nanotechnology. In general, nanomaterial synthesis techniques, such as chemical synthesis, are not completely safe or environmentally friendly due to harmful chemicals used or to toxic by-products produced...
June 14, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909145/microstructure-and-mechanical-property-of-ruditapes-philippinarum-shell
#3
Gang Mu, Fuhai Duan, Guochen Zhang, Xiuchen Li, Xiaofei Ding, Lei Zhang
In order to provide reference for the development of relevant dredging and processing machinery of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), the clam shell´s microstructure, phase composition, microhardness, nanoindentation hardness and elastic modulus were investigated, the quasi static compression and orthogonal compression tests of live clams were carried out as well. The shell consists of the outer, middle, and inner layer, which correspond with the composite prismatic structure, crossed-lamellar structure, and homogeneous structure, respectively...
June 14, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909133/tuberculin-skin-test-reaction-is-related-to-memory-but-not-naive-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-mycobacterial-stimuli-in-bcg-vaccinated-young-adults
#4
Magdalena Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Piotr Szpakowski, Camille Locht, Franck Biet, Paulina Kaplonek, Krzysztof T Krawczyk, Joël Pestel, Wieslawa Rudnicka
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only vaccine available against tuberculosis and the tuberculin skin test (TST) is the most widely used method to detect BCG take. However, subjects may remain TST-negative, even after several BCG administrations. To investigate some of the potential reasons underlying this inability of developing tuberculin sensitivity in response to BCG we compared the effect of different mycobacterial stimuli in the groups differently responding to tuberculin. TST was performed on 71 healthy adults aged 25-30 years, who had received BCG in their childhood, and considered TST-positive at ≥10 mm...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908798/factors-associated-with-productivity-on-automatic-milking-system-dairy-farms-in-the-upper-midwest-united-states
#5
Justin M Siewert, James A Salfer, Marcia I Endres
The objective of this study was to identify housing and management factors associated with productivity on automatic milking system (AMS) dairy farms measured as daily milk yield/AMS and daily milk yield/cow. Management, housing, and lameness prevalence data were collected from 33 AMS farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin during a farm visit. All farms in the study used free-flow cow traffic. Mixed model analysis of cross-sectional data showed that farms with automatic feed push-up via a robot produced more milk per AMS/day and per cow/day than farms where feed was pushed up manually...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908766/beyond-health-care-volunteer-work-social-participation-and-late-life-general-cognitive-status-in-taiwan
#6
Chi Chiao
SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to the complexity associated with health care coverage and its utilization by older people, I hypothesize that social engagement promotes a better later-life general cognitive status beyond health care availability as is provided by Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) system. The present study thus explores whether social engagement, specifically social participation and volunteer work, is independently associated with later-life general cognitive status after adjusting for health service utilization among older Taiwanese via the NHI system...
June 7, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908570/therapeutic-herbs-confirmed-by-evidence-based-medicine
#7
Carl R Thornfeldt
Mucocutaneous diseases and conditions, including aging, are known to be the result of multiple pathophysiologic anomalies induced by various environmental insults. Creating therapeutic products for these multifactorial diseases and conditions is challenging. Although safety testing is not required for cosmetics and cosmeceuticals, consumer expectation is for products to be effective and well tolerated while maintaining cosmetic elegance. This requires that the finished product being sold to consumers should be tested in human clinical trials for safety profile, efficacy, and scientific integrity...
May 2018: Clinics in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908347/aging-related-functional-and-structural-changes-in-the-heart-and-aorta-mitotempo-improves-aged-cardiovascular-performance
#8
Yusuf Olgar, Sinan Degirmenci, Aysegul Durak, Deniz Billur, Belgin Can, Gizem Kayki Mutlu, Ebru Arioglu Inan, Belma Turan
Aging in humans represents declining in cardio-protective systems, however its mechanisms are not known yet. We aimed to analyse how aging affects key mechanisms responsible for contractile dysfunction via comparing the improperly synchrony between electrical and mechanical activities in male aged-rats (24-month old) comparison to those of adult-rats (6-month old). We determined significantly increased systemic oxidative stress with decreased antioxidant capacity, clear insulin resistance and hypertrophy in aged-rats with normal fasting blood glucose...
June 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908226/visfatin-alters-the-cytokine-and-matrix-degrading-enzyme-profile-during-osteogenic-and-adipogenic-msc-differentiation
#9
Lali Tsiklauri, Janina Werner, Marian Kampschulte, Klaus W Frommer, Lucija Berninger, Martina Irrgang, Kristina Glenske, Dirk Hose, Thaqif El Khassawna, Jörn Pons-Kühnemann, Stefan Rehart, Sabine Wenisch, Ulf Müller-Ladner, Elena Neumann
OBJECTIVES: Age-related bone loss is associated with bone marrow adiposity. Adipokines (e.g. visfatin, resistin, leptin) are adipocyte-derived factors with immunomodulatory properties and might influence differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in osteoarthritis (OA) and osteoporosis. Thus, the presence of adipokines and MMPs in bone marrow and their effects on MSC differentiation were analyzed. METHODS: MSC and RNA were isolated from femoral heads after hip replacement surgery of OA or osteoporotic femoral neck fracture (FF) patients...
June 13, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908066/validity-of-hip-worn-inertial-measurement-unit-compared-to-jump-mat-for-jump-height-measurement-in-adolescents
#10
T Rantalainen, K D Hesketh, C Rodda, R L Duckham
Jump tests assess lower body power production capacity, and can be used to evaluate athletic ability and development during growth. Wearable inertial measurement units (IMU) seem to offer a feasible alternative to laboratory-based equipment for jump height assessments. Concurrent validity of these devices for jump height assessments has only been established in adults. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity of IMU-based jump height estimate compared to contact mat-based jump height estimate in adolescents...
June 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907624/effect-of-rectal-douching-enema-on-rectal-gonorrhoea-and-chlamydia-among-a-cohort-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-on-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#11
Adiba Hassan, Jill S Blumenthal, Michael P Dube, Eric Ellorin, Katya Corado, David J Moore, Sheldon R Morris
OBJECTIVES: Rectal douching/enema (RD) is a common practice among men who have sex with men (MSM) in preparation for sex. RD can break down the rectal mucosal barrier and potentially affect the rectal microbiome. The objective of this study was to understand if RD is associated with acquiring rectal infections (RI) with rectal gonorrhoea (NG) and/or chlamydia (CT). METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 395 adult HIV-uninfected MSM were enrolled in a randomised controlled study for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence with routine sexual risk survey and testing...
June 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907539/serum-trough-level-as-a-postmarketing-quality-measure-of-generic-vancomycin-products
#12
Ya-Wen Tsai, Yu-Chiang Wang, Shian-Sen Shie, Min-Chi Chen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Chih-Jung Chen
BACKGROUND: The vancomycin trough level (VTL) is the most widely used pharmacokinetic parameter for monitoring its clinical efficacy. Whether the VTL is affected in patients receiving different vancomycin products has not previously been determined. METHODS: From 2005 to 2015, five vancomycin products, including the innovator (designated as VAN-Lilly) and four generic versions (designated as VAN-A, VAN-B, VAN-C and VAN-D), were sequentially used in a teaching hospital...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907346/impulsivity-and-tobacco-product-use-over-time
#13
Neal Doran, Lyric Tully
Impulsivity has been consistently associated with greater likelihood and intensity of cigarette smoking, but most studies have been cross-sectional. Additionally, while some initial studies are suggestive, less is known about links between impulsivity and use of e-cigarettes or hookah tobacco. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the urgency and sensation seeking aspects of impulsivity would be prospectively associated with patterns of cigarette, e-cigarette, and hookah tobacco use over time...
June 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906861/derivation-of-the-spin-glass-order-parameter-from-stochastic-thermodynamics
#14
A Crisanti, M Picco, F Ritort
A fluctuation relation is derived to extract the order parameter function q(x) in weakly ergodic systems. The relation is based on measuring and classifying entropy production fluctuations according to the value of the overlap q between configurations. For a fixed value of q, entropy production fluctuations are Gaussian distributed allowing us to derive the quasi-FDT so characteristic of aging systems. The theory is validated by extracting the q(x) in various types of glassy models. It might be generally applicable to other nonequilibrium systems and experimental small systems...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906406/the-malignancy-index-in-plasma-samples-as-a-prostate-cancer-biomarker
#15
Antonio M Serafin, Angela Chinhengo, Pedro Fernandez, John M Akudugu
No unambiguous role of the involvement of uroplasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) in prostate cancer has emerged, with current evidence suggesting that neither biomarker is likely of significant clinical value, save as an overall contributor. In this study, we attempt to discriminate prostate cancer from non-cancer in a cohort of plasma samples, using the Imubind ELISA assay. In this cohort, PAI-1 levels are higher in prostate cancer patients than healthy donors; uPA levels are higher in healthy donors than prostate cancer patients; and the uPA/PAI-1 ratio is higher in healthy donors than in prostate cancer patients...
May 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906263/maternal-peripartum-serum-ddt-e-and-urinary-pyrethroid-metabolite-concentrations-and-child-infections-at-2-years-in-the-vhembe-birth-cohort
#16
Jonathan Huang, Brenda Eskenazi, Riana Bornman, Stephen Rauch, Jonathan Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, conducted in low- and middle-income countries to control malaria, may result in high exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or pyrethroids. Animal studies suggest in utero exposure to these chemicals may increase childhood infection frequency. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between maternal DDT/E and pyrethroid metabolite concentration and child infection associations in an IRS setting in which susceptibility factors are common and infections are leading causes of child morbidity and mortality...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906219/orofacial-function-articulation-proficiency-and-intelligibility-in-5-year-old-children-born-with-cleft-lip-and-palate
#17
Ann Malmenholt, Anita McAllister, Anette Lohmander
OBJECTIVE: To explore and describe orofacial function in 5-year-old children born with clefts affecting the palate and to investigate potential relationship with articulation proficiency and intelligibility. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of 88 consecutive patients born with cleft lip and palate (CLP) between July 2009 and June 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Excluding internationally adopted children and children with no speech production resulted in 52 children with different cleft types and additional malformations, examined at age 5...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906099/parkinson-s-disease-associated-%C3%AE-synuclein-familial-mutants-promote-dopaminergic-neuronal-death-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Ganesh M Mohite, Saumya Dwivedi, Subhadeep Das, Rakesh Kumar, Sravya Paluri, Surabhi Mehra, Neha Ruhela, Arunima S, Narendra Nath Jha, Samir K Maji
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation and amyloid formation are associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, familial mutations in α-Syn are shown to be one of the definite causes of PD. Here we have extensively studied familial PD associated α-Syn G51D, H50Q and E46K mutations using Drosophila model system. Our data showed that flies expressing α-Syn familial mutants have a shorter lifespan and exhibit more climbing defects compared to wild-type (WT) flies in an age-dependent manner...
June 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905672/alterations-in-mitochondrial-function-in-blood-cells-obtained-from-patients-with-sepsis-presenting-to-an-emergency-department
#19
David H Jang, Clinton J Orloski, Shawn Owiredu, Frances S Shofer, John C Greenwood, David M Eckmann
OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a key cellular event leading to organ dysfunction in sepsis. Our objective is to measure changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics in subjects with early presentation of sepsis to provide insight into the incompletely understood pathophysiology of the dysregulated host response in sepsis. DESIGN: Prospective observational study SETTING:: Single site tertiary academic emergency department SUBJECTS:: We enrolled a total of 48 subjects were enrolled in the study, 10 with sepsis or septic shock, 10 with infection without sepsis, 14 older and 14 younger healthy controls...
June 13, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905595/radiation-doses-from-the-norwegian-diet
#20
Mari Komperød, Lavrans Skuterud
Ingestion doses between and within countries are expected to vary significantly due to differences in dietary habits and geographical variations in radionuclide concentrations. This paper presents the most comprehensive assessment to date of the effective radiation dose from the Norwegian diet, from natural as well as anthropogenic radionuclides. Ingestion doses to the Norwegian public are calculated using national dietary statistics and the most relevant radionuclide concentration data for the various food products...
June 13, 2018: Health Physics
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