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Decisional capacity physicians

Irene Tuffrey-Wijne, Leopold Curfs, Ilora Finlay, Sheila Hollins
BACKGROUND: Euthanasia and assisted suicide (EAS) have been legally possible in the Netherlands since 2001, provided that statutory due care criteria are met, including: (a) voluntary and well-considered request; (b) unbearable suffering without prospect of improvement; (c) informing the patient; (d) lack of a reasonable alternative; (e) independent second physician's opinion. 'Unbearable suffering' must have a medical basis, either somatic or psychiatric, but there is no requirement of limited life expectancy...
March 5, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Elissa Kolva, Barry Rosenfeld, Rebecca Saracino
OBJECTIVE: Despite the clinical, ethical, and legal magnitude of end-of-life decision-making, the capacity of terminally ill patients to make the medical decisions they often face is largely unknown. In practice, clinicians are responsible for determining when their patients are no longer competent to make treatment decisions, yet the accuracy of these assessments is unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore decision-making capacity and its assessment in terminally ill cancer patients...
December 27, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Erick H Cheung, Jonathan Heldt, Thomas Strouse, Paul Schneider
BACKGROUND: Medically hospitalized patients who lack decisional capacity may request, demand, or attempt to leave the hospital despite grave risk to themselves. The treating physician in this scenario must determine how to safeguard such patients, including whether to attempt to keep them in the hospital. However, in many jurisdictions, there are no laws that address this matter directly. In this absence, psychiatrists are often called upon to issue an involuntary psychiatric hold (civil commitment) to keep the patient from leaving...
March 2018: Psychosomatics
Tobias Luck, Francisca S Rodriguez, Birgitt Wiese, Carolin van der Leeden, Kathrin Heser, Horst Bickel, Jürgen In der Schmitten, Hans-Helmut Koenig, Siegfried Weyerer, Silke Mamone, Tina Mallon, Michael Wagner, Dagmar Weeg, Angela Fuchs, Christian Brettschneider, Jochen Werle, Martin Scherer, Wolfgang Maier, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
BACKGROUND: Completion of advance directives (ADs) and power of attorney (POA) documents may protect a person's autonomy in future health care situations when the individual lacks decisional capacity. As such situations become naturally much more common in old age, we specifically aimed at providing information on (i) the frequency of ADs/POA in oldest-old individuals and (ii) factors associated with having completed ADs/POA. METHODS: We analyzed data of oldest-old primary care patients (85+ years; including community-dwelling and institutionalized individuals) within the German AgeQualiDe study...
April 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
Muneer Abu Snineh, Richard Camicioli, Janis M Miyasaki
INTRODUCTION: Physician Orders for Life Sustaining Therapies (POLST) or Goals of Care (GOC) are legal documents to guide intensity of interventions (ICU, resuscitation, hospitalization or comfort care) completed by healthcare professionals following counseling of patients or their designated medical decision makers. Capacity (understanding, appreciation, reasoning and expressing a choice) to consent to POLST or GOC has not been determined among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to assess GOC PD decisional capacity for those with cognitive complaints but not dementia...
March 8, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
JinShil Kim, Shinmi Kim, Mi-Seung Shin, Jae Ok Jin, Yunmi Kim, Mee-Ok Lee
BACKGROUND: Access to consultation or referral for decisions about advance care planning (ACP) is limited, particularly for nonmalignant models pertinent to palliative care in heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to solicit professional opinions about the feasibility of using an exemplary context-oriented communication algorithm for ACP discussions. METHODS: Using a panel of expert physicians and nurses in cardiovascular care, a 3-round Delphi study was conducted to evaluate the proposed model...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Barbara J Daly, Sara L Douglas, Elizabeth O'Toole, James Rowbottom, Alan Hoffer, Amy R Lipson, Christopher Burant
RATIONALE: Despite multiple trials of interventions to improve end-of-life care of the critically ill, there is a persistent lack of understanding of factors associated with barriers to decision-making at the end of life. OBJECTIVE: To apply the principles of complexity science in examining the extent to which transitions to end-of-life care can be predicted by physician, family, or patient characteristics; outcome expectations; and the evaluation of treatment effectiveness...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Chadd K Kraus, Catherine A Marco
The process of shared decision making (SDM) is an ethical imperative in the physician-patient relationship, especially in the emergency department (ED), where SDM can present unique challenges because patients and emergency physicians often have no established relationship and decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and disposition are time dependent. SDM should be guided by the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice and the related principle of stewardship of finite resources...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Daniel Brudney, Mark Siegler
It is a clinician's cliché that a physician only challenges a patient's capacity to make a treatment decision if that decision is not what the physician wants. Agreement is proof of decisional capacity; disagreement is proof or at least evidence of capacity's absence. It is assumed that this asymmetry cannot be justified, that the asymmetry must be a form of physicians' paternalism. Instead what is at issue when patient and physician disagree are usually two laudable impulses. The first is physicians' commitment to patients' well-being: physicians have a professional obligation as well as, ideally, a personal commitment to take care of patients--to do their best to bring about a positive medical outcome...
2015: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Xuemei Cai, Jennifer Robinson, Susanne Muehlschlegel, Douglas B White, Robert G Holloway, Kevin N Sheth, Liana Fraenkel, David Y Hwang
In the neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU), most patients lack the capacity to make their own preferences known. This fact leads to situations where surrogate decision makers must fill the role of the patient in terms of making preference-based treatment decisions, oftentimes in challenging situations where prognosis is uncertain. The neurointensivist has a large responsibility and role to play in this shared decision-making process. This review covers how NICU patient preferences are determined through existing advance care documentation or surrogate decision makers and how the optimum roles of the physician and surrogate decision maker are addressed...
August 2015: Neurocritical Care
Allison Tong, Shilpa Jesudason, Jonathan C Craig, Wolfgang C Winkelmayer
BACKGROUND: Achieving parenthood in women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is challenging due to reduced fertility and the risk of adverse outcomes. We aimed to describe women's perspectives of pregnancy in CKD. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to April 2014. Studies were synthesized thematically. RESULTS: From 15 studies (n = 257) we identified seven themes. 'Pursuing motherhood' was fulfilling an innate or social desire to have a child...
April 2015: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Helena Hermann, Manuel Trachsel, Christine Mitchell, Nikola Biller-Andorno
OBJECTIVE: Decision-making capacity (DMC) is an indispensable prerequisite for patients' informed consent and therefore directly related to the right to self-determination. In view of this ethical implication, valid and reliable assessment of DMC is essential to best practice. In general, and with particular regard to the Swiss context, little is known about healthcare practitioners' knowledge of and attitudes to the concept of DMC, or about their assessment practice. The present study aims to close this gap...
2014: Swiss Medical Weekly
Linda E Weinberger, Shoba Sreenivasan, Thomas Garrick
In recent years, assisted suicide has been legalized in four states for those who are terminally ill and wish to end their lives with the assistance of lethal doses of medications prescribed by a physician. The ethics-related and legal questions raised by end-of-life suicide and decisional capacity to refuse treatment assessments are complex. In treating patients with end-stage medical conditions or disorders that severely affect the future quality of their lives, clinicians tend to engage in suicide prevention at all costs...
2014: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
Marshall B Kapp
Issues frequently arise concerning the cognitive and emotional ability of older individuals to make certain legally significant decisions. In confronting these issues, the professional involvement of both attorneys and physicians (and other health care professionals), acting both individually and collaboratively, is desirable. This article describes the possible contributions of public policy in developing, through fostering innovations in medical and legal education, core competencies for physicians and attorneys that are essential to improving interprofessional collaboration on behalf of older individuals suspected of being compromised in their ability to make certain significant decisions...
2014: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
Romain Beitinger, Werner Kissling, Johannes Hamann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Shared decision-making (SDM) is a model of how doctors and patients make medical decisions, which is seen as very applicable to mental health. This review addresses the following issues: Do patients and professionals see the need for SDM? Does SDM actually take place for patients with schizophrenia? What are facilitators and barriers of SDM in schizophrenia treatment? What are the outcomes of SDM? RECENT FINDINGS: Publications in the last 18 months showed the following: Both patients and providers acknowledge the desirability of SDM...
May 2014: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Noriko Nagao, Yasuhiro Kadooka, Atsushi Asai
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals must make decisions for patients based on ethical considerations. However, they rely on clinical ethics consultations (CEC) to review ethical justifications of their decisions. CEC consultants support the cases reviewed and guide medical care. When both healthcare professionals and CEC consultants face ethical problems in medical care, how is their judgment derived? How do medical judgments differ from the ethical considerations of CECs? This study examines CECs in Japan to identify differences in the ethical judgment of clients and CEC consultants...
2014: BMC Medical Ethics
Alexia M Torke, Greg A Sachs, Paul R Helft, Kianna Montz, Siu L Hui, James E Slaven, Christopher M Callahan
IMPORTANCE: Hospitalized older adults often lack decisional capacity, but outside of the intensive care unit and end-of-life care settings, little is known about the frequency of decision making by family members or other surrogates or its implications for hospital care. OBJECTIVE: To describe the scope of surrogate decision making, the hospital course, and outcomes for older adults. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective, observational study conducted in medicine and medical intensive care unit services of 2 hospitals in 1 Midwestern city in 1083 hospitalized older adults identified by their physicians as requiring major medical decisions...
March 2014: JAMA Internal Medicine
Raj D Shah, Kenneth A Rasinski, G Caleb Alexander
PURPOSE: Intensive care unit patients rarely have decisional capacity and often surrogates make clinical decisions on their behalf. Little is known about how surrogate characteristics may influence end-of-life decision making for these patients. This study sought to determine how surrogate characteristics impact physicians' approach to end-of-life decision making. METHODS: From March 2011 to August 2011, a survey was fielded to 1000 randomly sampled critical care physicians using a modified Dillman approach...
July 2015: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Patrick P Coll, Kate McEvoy
Laws pertain to almost every aspect of our lives. How a law applies to a person or one situation is dependent on many variables. One important variable is the capacity of a person to understand the ramifications of their actions. One of the most common reasons for permanent loss of decisional capacity is the development of dementia. Dementia is primarily a disease of old age. As the population of Connecticut ages and the prevalence of dementiaincreases, physicians will be presented with an increasing number of difficult decisions, where the interface between the law and medical practice will have an impact on their approach to the patient and their medical care...
May 2013: Connecticut Medicine
Fadi Abou-Mrad, Charbel Mourad, Catherine Najem
Surrogate decision making is advocated to protect the vulnerable patient. Family members of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are prone to develop depressive symptoms which may undermine their decisional capacity. Lebanon is a multicultural country where paternalism still dominates the physician-patient relationship and ethics are far from being the subject of research and studies. This multicenter observational study in the Greater Beirut area attempts to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among surrogates deciding on behalf of ICU patients and to correlate their severity with sociodemographic factors...
April 2012: Functional Neurology
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