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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057792/a-novel-view-of-the-adult-stem-cell-compartment-from-the-perspective-of-a-quiescent-population-of-very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Janina Ratajczak, Malwina Suszynska, Donald M Miller, Magda Kucia, Dong-Myung Shin
Evidence has accumulated that adult hematopoietic tissues and other organs contain a population of dormant stem cells (SCs) that are more primitive than other, already restricted, monopotent tissue-committed SCs (TCSCs). These observations raise several questions, such as the developmental origin of these cells, their true pluripotent or multipotent nature, which surface markers they express, how they can be efficiently isolated from adult tissues, and what role they play in the adult organism. The phenotype of these cells and expression of some genes characteristic of embryonic SCs, epiblast SCs, and primordial germ cells suggests their early-embryonic deposition in developing tissues as precursors of adult SCs...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997895/lower-expression-of-spry4-predicts-a-poor-prognosis-and-regulates-cell-proliferation-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Xiaoling Zhou, Sheng Xie, Chunluan Yuan, Li Jiang, Xiaoyan Huang, Liumei Li, Yan Chen, Lichuan Luo, Jianxuan Zhang, Daogang Wang, Lijian Liu, Wei Shi, Liang Han, Nong Tang, Yunxi Ji
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer worldwide. Sprouty proteins are modulators of mitogeninduced signal transduction processes and therefore can influence the process of cancerogenesis. The encoded protein of Sprouty homolog 4 (SPRY4) is associated with various human cancers. However, its biological role and clinical significance in CRC development and progression are unknown. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and biological role of SPRY4 in colorectal cancer...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951720/-involvement-of-piwi-interacting-rnas-in-cancerogenesis-via-the-regulation-of-gene-expression
#3
S Rybecká, K Štítkovcová, P Vychytilová-Faltejsková, O Slabý
BACKGROUND: In the past few years, a number of studies have suggested that small non-coding RNAs could be promising diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in oncology. Recently, small RNAs interacting with PIWI proteins (piRNAs) have been described. These small RNAs regulate gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels; however, they appear to be specifically involved in silencing the transposable elements LINE and SINE and are thus considered to contribute to genomic stability...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922739/tyrosine-kinase-aurora-kinase-and-leucine-aminopeptidase-as-attractive-drug-targets-in-anticancer-therapy-characterisation-of-their-inhibitors
#4
Joanna Ziemska, Jolanta Solecka
Cancers are the leading cause of deaths all over the world. Available anticancer agents used in clinics exhibit low therapeutic index and usually high toxicity. Wide spreading drug resistance of cancer cells induce a demanding need to search for new drug targets. Currently, many on-going studies on novel compounds with potent anticancer activity, high selectivity as well as new modes of action are conducted. In this work, we describe in details three enzyme groups, which are at present of extensive interest to medical researchers and pharmaceutical companies...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922023/systematic-site-directed-mutagenesis-of-the-helicobacter-pylori-cagl-protein-of-the-cag-type-iv-secretion-system-identifies-novel-functional-domains
#5
Tobias Bönig, Patrick Olbermann, Simon H Bats, Wolfgang Fischer, Christine Josenhans
The Cag Type IV secretion system, which contributes to inflammation and cancerogenesis during chronic infection, is one of the major virulence factors of the bacterial gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We have generated and characterized a series of non-marked site-directed chromosomal mutants in H. pylori to define domains of unknown function of the essential tip protein CagL of the Cag secretion system. Characterizing the CagL mutants, we determined that their function to activate cells and transport the effector CagA was reduced to different extents...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914453/myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-as-targets-for-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
K-S N Atretkhany, M S Drutskaya
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells represent a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells. Under normal conditions, these cells differentiate into macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. However, in pathological states such as inflammation, infection, or tumor growth, there is an arrest of their differentiation that results in the accumulation of immature myeloid cells in the organism. In addition, these cells acquire a suppressor phenotype, expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and suppress T-cell immune response...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892790/line-1-methylation-status-in-prostate-cancer-and-non-neoplastic-tissue-adjacent-to-tumor-in-association-with-mortality
#7
Valentina Fiano, Daniela Zugna, Chiara Grasso, Morena Trevisan, Luisa Delsedime, Luca Molinaro, Anna Gillio-Tos, Franco Merletti, Lorenzo Richiardi
Aberrant DNA methylation seems to be associated with prostate cancer behavior. We investigated LINE-1 methylation in prostate cancer and non-neoplastic tissue adjacent to tumor (NTAT) in association with mortality from prostate cancer. We selected 157 prostate cancer patients with available NTAT from 2 cohorts of patients diagnosed between 1982-1988 and 1993-1996, followed up until 2010. An association between LINE-1 hypomethylation and prostate cancer mortality in tumor was suggested [hazard ratio per 5% decrease in LINE-1 methylation levels: 1...
January 2, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888157/curcumin-use-in-pulmonary-diseases-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Diana Lelli, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Thomas P Johnston, Claudio Pedone
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a yellow pigment present in the spice turmeric (Curcuma longa). It has been used for centuries in Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine) for the treatment of several diseases. Over the last several decades, the therapeutic properties of curcumin have slowly been elucidated. It has been shown that curcumin has pleiotropic effects, regulating transcription factors (e.g., NF-kB), cytokines (e.g., IL6, TNF-alpha), adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM-1), and enzymes (e.g., MMPs) that play a major role in inflammation and cancerogenesis...
January 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847554/nrf2-and-notch-signaling-in-lung-cancer-near-the-crossroad
#9
REVIEW
Angelo Sparaneo, Federico Pio Fabrizio, Lucia Anna Muscarella
The transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 related factor 2) is a master regulator of the cell antioxidant response associated with tumor growth and resistance to cytotoxic treatments. In particular, Nrf2 induces upregulation of cytoprotective genes by interacting with the closely situated AREs (Antioxidant Response Elements) in response to endogenous or exogenous stress stimuli and takes part to several oncogenic signaling pathways. Among these, the crosstalk with Notch pathway has been shown to enhance cytoprotection and maintenance of cellular homeostasis, tissue organization by modulating cell proliferation kinetics, and stem cell self-renewal in several organs...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846716/-mechanisms-of-protein-homeostasis-regulation-in-cancer-development
#10
F Trčka, P Müller, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: The proteome of eukaryotic cells represents a complex system. Its components are exposed to various intrinsic and extrinsic stresses. Therefore, the function of the cellular proteome is dependent on the existence of compensatory mechanisms balancing the inner protein homeostasis - proteostasis. These mechanisms involve the network of molecular chaperones and transcriptional program regulating their expression. The process of cancerogenesis is accompanied by significant changes in the intracellular milieu of cancer cells - temperature, pH, availability of nutrients...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717083/t-cell-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-in-infants-has-distinct-genetic-and-epigenetic-features-compared-to-childhood-cases
#11
Mareike Doerrenberg, Andreas Kloetgen, Kebria Hezaveh, Wilhelm Wössmann, Kirsten Bleckmann, Martin Stanulla, Martin Schrappe, Alice C McHardy, Arndt Borkhardt, Jessica I Hoell
For reasons not yet understood, nearly all infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are diagnosed with the B-cell type, with T-ALL in infancy representing a very rare exception. Clinical and molecular knowledge about infant T-ALL is still nearly completely lacking and it is also still unclear whether it represents a distinct disease compared to childhood T-ALL. To address this, we performed exome sequencing of three infant cases, which enabled the detection of mutations in NOTCH2, NOTCH3, PTEN, and KRAS...
February 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688072/treatment-of-prostate-cancer-cells-with-s-adenosylmethionine-leads-to-genome-wide-alterations-in-transcription-profiles
#12
Thomas Schmidt, Andreas Leha, Gabriela Salinas-Riester
The hypomethylation of DNA may support tumor progression; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is not clear. Several studies have demonstrated that the in vitro application of the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) leads to promoter remethylation and the downregulation of proto-oncogene expression in cancer cells. It is not clear if this represents a general mechanism of SAM or is limited to selected genes. We examined this problem using new bisulfite sequencing and transcriptomic technologies...
December 31, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682157/assessment-of-braf-v600e-ve1-protein-expression-and-braf-gene-mutation-status-in-codon-600-in-benign-and-malignant-salivary-gland-neoplasms
#13
Magdalena Bodnar, Paweł Burduk, Paulina Antosik, Małgorzata Jarmuz-Szymczak, Malgorzata Wierzbicka, Andrzej Marszalek
BACKGROUND: The role of BRAF mutations in cancerogenesis has been demonstrated in several solid tumor types. However, in salivary gland tumors, this genetic alteration is very uncommon, and its role still remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze BRAF V600E (VE1) protein expression with BRAF mutation status in codon 600, in malignant and benign salivary gland tumors. METHODS: Studies were performed on archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections derived from 95 patients who underwent surgery for tumors of the salivary gland...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668646/the-role-of-6-phosphofructo-2-kinase-pfk-2-fructose-2-6-bisphosphatase-fbpase-2-in-metabolic-reprogramming-of-cancer-cells
#14
Kinga A Kocemba, Joanna Dulińska-Litewka, Karolina L Wojdyła, Przemysław A Pękala
The high rate of glucose breakdown is the fingerprint of cancer. Increased glycolysis allows tumour cells to fulfil their high energetic and biosynthetic demands. Interestingly, however, rather than metabolizing glucose in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway, cancer cells generally use glucose for aerobic glycolysis. This phenomenon is known as the Warburg effect and is considered as one of the most fundamental forms of metabolic reprogramming during cancerogenesis. Changes in the rate of glycolytic activity of cancer cells are caused mainly by the increased expression of glycolytic enzymes as a consequence of activation of oncogenes or loss of tumour suppressors...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658391/silencing-of-gata3-defines-a-novel-stem-cell-like-subgroup-of-etp-all
#15
L Fransecky, M Neumann, S Heesch, C Schlee, J Ortiz-Tanchez, S Heller, M Mossner, S Schwartz, L H Mochmann, K Isaakidis, L Bastian, U R Kees, T Herold, K Spiekermann, N Gökbuget, C D Baldus
BACKGROUND: GATA3 is pivotal for the development of T lymphocytes. While its effects in later stages of T cell differentiation are well recognized, the role of GATA3 in the generation of early T cell precursors (ETP) has only recently been explored. As aberrant GATA3 mRNA expression has been linked to cancerogenesis, we investigated the role of GATA3 in early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL). METHODS: We analyzed GATA3 mRNA expression by RT-PCR (n = 182) in adult patients with T-ALL...
2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652373/sertoli-cell-tumour-in-a-neonate-calf-an-unusual-congenital-tumour-a-case-report
#16
Théophile Vissiennon, Markus Freick, Ergin Kilic, Thomas Schmidt, Sven Dänicke, Marion Schmicke, Eckard Schneider
Congenital testicular tumours are seldom reported in bovine species. This case report describes the clinical, sonographical, haematological, pathomorphological and immunohistological features of a Sertoli cell tumour in a neonatal German Holstein calf. Microscopically, the enlarged testicle was composed of neoplastic cells, which were packed in well-formed tubules. The mostly polygonal shaped cells had round to elongated nuclei and a scanty eosinophilic cytoplasm. Some cells were arranged perpendicularly to the light PAS-positive basement membrane...
December 5, 2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637353/laryngeal-preneoplastic-lesions-and-cancer-challenging-diagnosis-qualitative-literature-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Giuditta Mannelli, Lorenzo Cecconi, Oreste Gallo
BACKGROUND: Multi-step cancerogenesis guides laryngeal cancer onset and it includes a wide variety of pre-cancerous lesions macroscopically challenging to identify and distinguish from initial cancerous foci. OBJECT: Different modalities of diagnostic techniques of laryngeal epithelial lesions exist and they do not offer a single system to make a differential diagnosis. Hence, this meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the validity of each single diagnostic tool to improve laryngeal patient management...
October 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599550/identification-of-key-player-genes-in-gene-regulatory-networks
#18
Maryam Nazarieh, Andreas Wiese, Thorsten Will, Mohamed Hamed, Volkhard Helms
BACKGROUND: Identifying the gene regulatory networks governing the workings and identity of cells is one of the main challenges in understanding processes such as cellular differentiation, reprogramming or cancerogenesis. One particular challenge is to identify the main drivers and master regulatory genes that control such cell fate transitions. In this work, we reformulate this problem as the optimization problems of computing a Minimum Dominating Set and a Minimum Connected Dominating Set for directed graphs...
September 6, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548267/alcohol-and-obesity-a-dangerous-association-for-fatty-liver-disease
#19
REVIEW
Abdo Mahli, Claus Hellerbrand
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the most frequent chronic liver disorders, and their advanced forms - alcoholic steatohepatitis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - are the most frequent conditions leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. NAFLD is considered as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. With the pandemic rise of obesity, the incidence of NAFLD is also further increasing, and considering the life style in modern societies, there is a significant overlap of (risk factors causing) NAFLD and (alcohol consumption predisposing for) ALD at least in Western countries...
2016: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546621/csn6-controls-the-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-glioblastoma-by-chip-mediated-degradation-of-egfr
#20
J Hou, Q Deng, J Zhou, J Zou, Y Zhang, P Tan, W Zhang, H Cui
CSN6, a critical subunit of the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN), has received attention as a regulator of the degradation of cancer-related proteins such as p53, c-myc and c-Jun, through the ubiquitin-proteasome system, suggesting its importance in cancerogenesis. However, the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of CSN6 in glioblastoma (GBM) remain poorly understood. Here, we report that GBM tumors overexpressed CSN6 compared with normal brain tissues and that CSN6 promoted GBM cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumorigenesis...
August 22, 2016: Oncogene
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