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Replication Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549174/phosphorylated-sirt1-associates-with-replication-origins-to-prevent-excess-replication-initiation-and-preserve-genomic-stability
#1
Koichi Utani, Haiqing Fu, Sang-Min Jang, Anna B Marks, Owen K Smith, Ya Zhang, Christophe E Redon, Noriaki Shimizu, Mirit I Aladjem
Chromatin structure affects DNA replication patterns, but the role of specific chromatin modifiers in regulating the replication process is yet unclear. We report that phosphorylation of the human SIRT1 deacetylase on Threonine 530 (T530-pSIRT1) modulates DNA synthesis. T530-pSIRT1 associates with replication origins and inhibits replication from a group of 'dormant' potential replication origins, which initiate replication only when cells are subject to replication stress. Although both active and dormant origins bind T530-pSIRT1, active origins are distinguished from dormant origins by their unique association with an open chromatin mark, histone H3 methylated on lysine 4...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548224/resveratrol-beneficially-affects-meat-quality-of-heat-stressed-broilers-which-is-associated-with-changes-in-muscle-antioxidant-status
#2
Cheng Zhang, Xiaohui Zhao, Li Wang, Lei Yang, Xingyong Chen, Zhaoyu Geng
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary resveratrol (Res) supplementation on serum parameters, meat quality and muscle antioxidant status of broilers under heat stress (HS). A total of 270 21-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly assigned to three treatment groups with six replicates of 15 birds each. The three treatment groups were as follows: the control group, in which birds were reared at 22 ± 1°C, and the HS and HS + Res (400 mg/kg) groups, in which birds were reared at 33 ± 1°C for 10 h (08...
May 26, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545436/thymoquinone-tq-inhibits-the-replication-of-intracellular-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-macrophages-and-modulates-nitric-oxide-production
#3
Hafij Al Mahmud, Hoonhee Seo, Sukyung Kim, Md Imtiazul Islam, Kung-Woo Nam, Hyun-Deuk Cho, Ho-Yeon Song
BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis, which is caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a major public health concern. Increasing drug resistance poses a threat of disease resurgence and continues to cause considerable mortality worldwide, which necessitates the development of new drugs with improved efficacy. Thymoquinone (TQ), an essential compound of Nigella sativa, was previously reported as an active anti-tuberculosis agent. METHODS: In this study, the effects of TQ on intracellular mycobacterial replication are examined in macrophages...
May 25, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545059/uggt1-enhances-enterovirus-71-pathogenicity-by-promoting-viral-rna-synthesis-and-viral-replication
#4
Peng-Nien Huang, Jia-Rong Jheng, Jamie J Arnold, Jen-Ren Wang, Craig E Cameron, Shin-Ru Shih
Positive-strand RNA virus infections can induce the stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) in host cells. This study found that enterovirus A71 (EVA71) utilizes host UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1), a key endoplasmic reticulum protein (ER) involved in UPR, to enhance viral replication and virulence. EVA71 forms replication complexes (RCs) on cellular membranes that contain a mix of host and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication, but the components and processes involved in the assembly and function of RCs are not fully understood...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543539/dna-damage-marker-%C3%AE-h2ax-is-a-potential-predictive-marker-for-progression-of-epithelial-dysplasia-of-the-oral-cavity
#5
E Y Leung, J D McMahon, D McLellan, N Syyed, C E McCarthy, C Nixon, C Orange, C Brock, K Hunter, P D Adams
AIMS: To evaluate the relationships between immunohistochemical markers related to cellular senescence, cell proliferation and histological grade of epithelial dysplasia of the oral cavity (OD). In addition, the predictive value of these markers for progression of OD was assessed. METHODS: Retrospective immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 86 formalin fixed and paraffin embedded specimens of OD and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) for Ki67, γH2AX, p53, p16, H3K9me3 and CycD1...
May 19, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542382/uv-b-induced-fibrillization-of-crystallin-protein-mixtures
#6
Sibel Cetinel, Valentyna Semenchenko, Jae-Young Cho, Mehdi Ghaffari Sharaf, Karim F Damji, Larry D Unsworth, Carlo Montemagno
Environmental factors, mainly oxidative stress and exposure to sunlight, induce the oxidation, cross-linking, cleavage, and deamination of crystallin proteins, resulting in their aggregation and, ultimately, cataract formation. Various denaturants have been used to initiate the aggregation of crystallin proteins in vitro. All of these regimens, however, are obviously far from replicating conditions that exist in vivo that lead to cataract formation. In fact, it is our supposition that only UV-B radiation may mimic the observed in vivo cause of crystallin alteration leading to cataract formation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539439/contribution-of-human-lung-parenchyma-and-leukocyte-influx-to-oxidative-stress-and-immune-mediated-pathology-following-nipah-infection
#7
Olivier Escaffre, Tais B Saito, Terry L Juelich, Tetsuro Ikegami, Jennifer K Smith, David D Perez, Colm Atkins, Corri B Levine, Matthew B Huante, Rebecca J Nusbaum, Janice J Endsley, Alexander N Freiberg, Barry Rockx
Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic emerging paramyxovirus that can cause a fatal respiratory illness or encephalitis in humans. Despite many efforts, the molecular mechanisms of NiV-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remain unclear. We previously showed that NiV replicates to high titers in human lung grafts in NOD scid gamma mice, resulting in a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, these mice can undergo human immune system reconstitution by the Bone marrow, Liver, and Thymus (BLT) reconstitution method, in addition to lung tissue engraftment, giving altogether a realistic model to study human respiratory viral infections...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536474/gcn2-phosphorylates-hiv-1-integrase-and-decreases-hiv-1-replication-by-limiting-viral-integration
#8
A Jaspart, C Calmels, O Cosnefroy, P Bellecave, P Pinson, S Claverol, V Guyonnet-Dupérat, B Dartigues, M S Benleulmi, E Mauro, P A Gretteau, V Parissi, M Métifiot, M L Andreola
GCN2 is a serine/threonine kinase involved in cellular stress response related to amino acid starvation. Previously, we showed that GCN2 interacts with HIV-1 integrase and is activated during HIV-1 infection. Herein, we identified HIV-1 integrase as a previously unknown substrate of GCN2 in vitro with a major site of phosphorylation at residue S255 located in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 integrase. The underlying mechanism was investigated and it appeared that the integrase active site was required in order for GCN2 to target the integrase residue S255...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535855/japanese-encephalitis-virus-activates-autophagy-through-xbp1-and-atf6-er-stress-sensors-in-neuronal-cells
#9
Manish Sharma, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Kiran Bala Sharma, Shailendra Chauhan, Suramya Asthana, Malik Zainul Abdin, Sudhanshu Vrati, Manjula Kalia
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy are key cellular responses to RNA virus infection. Recent studies have shown that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced autophagy negatively influences virus replication in mouse neuronal cells and embryonic fibroblasts, and delays virus-induced cell death. Here, we evaluated the role of ER stress pathways in inducing autophagy during JEV infection. We observed that JEV infection of neuronal cells led to activation of all three sensors of ER stress mediated by eIF2α/PERK, IRE1/XBP1 and ATF6...
May 23, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535365/leukocyte-telomere-length-in-postmenopausal-women
#10
Holly J Jones, Susan L Janson, Kathryn A Lee
OBJECTIVE: To compare leukocyte telomere length (LTL) by race and describe demographic, health, and psychosocial factors associated with LTL in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Descriptive study with comparative analyses and correlations. SETTING: Data were collected at the University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco Clinical and Translational Science Institute. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-nine African American and White postmenopausal women between 58 and 65 years of age (mean age = 61...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535155/elevated-apobec3b-expression-drives-a-kataegic-like-mutation-signature-and-replication-stress-related-therapeutic-vulnerabilities-in-p53-defective-cells
#11
Jenni Nikkilä, Rahul Kumar, James Campbell, Inger Brandsma, Helen N Pemberton, Fredrik Wallberg, Kinga Nagy, Ildikó Scheer, Beata G Vertessy, Artur A Serebrenik, Valentina Monni, Reuben S Harris, Stephen J Pettitt, Alan Ashworth, Christopher J Lord
BACKGROUND: Elevated APOBEC3B expression in tumours correlates with a kataegic pattern of localised hypermutation. We assessed the cellular phenotypes associated with high-level APOBEC3B expression and the influence of p53 status on these phenotypes using an isogenic system. METHODS: We used RNA interference of p53 in cells with inducible APOBEC3B and assessed DNA damage response (DDR) biomarkers. The mutational effects of APOBEC3B were assessed using whole-genome sequencing...
May 23, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530346/-seeds-of-mindfulness-in-the-desert-preliminary-results-from-a-clinical-trial-in-the-mindfulness-clinic-mental-health-center-beer-sheva
#12
Lee Tibi Cohen, Keren Reiner Noy, Ayelet Shmulevich, Oded Arbel
INTRODUCTION: Mindfulness-based therapies are rooted in the Buddhist tradition, and promote cultivation of qualities such as open awareness, acceptance and compassion. While various studies have demonstrated the efficacy of integrating mindfulness in therapeutic practice for people suffering from clinical conditions such as depression and anxiety as well as the non-clinical population, this was rarely replicated in Israel. In the Mindfulness Clinic, located in the Mental Health Center, Beer Sheva, mindfulness workshops are now available for diverse populations dealing with various challenges such as daily stress, chronic pain, and depression...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529503/response-of-methanogenic-microbial-communities-to-desiccation-stress-in-flooded-and-rain-fed-paddy-soil-from-thailand
#13
Andreas Reim, Marcela Hernández, Melanie Klose, Amnat Chidthaisong, Monthira Yuttitham, Ralf Conrad
Rice paddies in central Thailand are flooded either by irrigation (irrigated rice) or by rain (rain-fed rice). The paddy soils and their microbial communities thus experience permanent or arbitrary submergence, respectively. Since methane production depends on anaerobic conditions, we hypothesized that structure and function of the methanogenic microbial communities are different in irrigated and rain-fed paddies and react differently upon desiccation stress. We determined rates and relative proportions of hydrogenotrophic and aceticlastic methanogenesis before and after short-term drying of soil samples from replicate fields...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528978/multimodal-control-of-transcription-factor-pap1-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-under-nitrosative-stress
#14
Puranjoy Kar, Pranjal Biswas, Sanjay Ghosh
Schizosaccharomyces pombe Pap1, a bZIP transcription factor, is highly homologous to the mammalian c-Jun protein that belongs to the AP1 family of transcriptional regulators. The role of transcription factor Pap1 has been extensively studied under oxidative stress. Two cysteine residues in Pap1p namely, C278 and C501 form disulfide linkage under oxidative stress resulting in nuclear accumulation. We first time showed the involvement of Pap1 in the protection against nitrosative stress. In the present study we show that pap1 deletion makes growth of S...
May 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518126/techniques-to-induce-and-quantify-cellular-senescence
#15
Nicole Noren Hooten, Michele K Evans
In response to cellular stress or damage, proliferating cells can induce a specific program that initiates a state of long-term cell-cycle arrest, termed cellular senescence. Accumulation of senescent cells occurs with organismal aging and through continual culturing in vitro. Senescent cells influence many biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair and regeneration, tumor suppression, and aging. Hallmarks of senescent cells include, but are not limited to, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity (SA-β-gal); p16(INK4A), p53, and p21 levels; higher levels of DNA damage, including γ-H2AX; the formation of Senescence-associated Heterochromatin Foci (SAHF); and the acquisition of a Senescence-associated Secretory Phenotype (SASP), a phenomenon characterized by the secretion of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling molecules...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514656/endogenous-replication-stress-in-mother-cells-leads-to-quiescence-of-daughter-cells
#16
Mansi Arora, Justin Moser, Harsha Phadke, Ashik Akbar Basha, Sabrina L Spencer
Mammalian cells have two fundamentally different states, proliferative and quiescent, but our understanding of how and why cells switch between these states is limited. We previously showed that actively proliferating populations contain a subpopulation that enters quiescence (G0) in an apparently stochastic manner. Using single-cell time-lapse imaging of CDK2 activity and DNA damage, we now show that unresolved endogenous replication stress in the previous (mother) cell cycle prompts p21-dependent entry of daughter cells into quiescence immediately after mitosis...
May 16, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513097/evidence-for-a-peptidoglycan-like-structure-in-orientia-tsutsugamushi
#17
Sharanjeet Atwal, Suparat Giengkam, Suwittra Chaemchuen, Jack Dorling, Nont Kosaisawe, Michael VanNieuwenhze, Somponnat Sampattavanich, Peter Schumann, Jeanne Salje
Bacterial cell walls are composed of the large cross-linked macromolecule peptidoglycan, which maintains cell shape and is responsible for resisting osmotic stresses. This is a highly conserved structure and the target of numerous antibiotics. Obligate intracellular bacteria are an unusual group of organisms that have evolved to replicate exclusively within the cytoplasm or vacuole of a eukaryotic cell. They tend to have reduced amounts of peptidoglycan, likely due to the fact that their growth and division takes place within an osmotically protected environment, and also due to a drive to reduce activation of the host immune response...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511243/-emotional-arousal-voice-stress-and-posttraumatic-growth-as-well-as-relationship-satisfaction-of-partners-of-women-with-breast-cancer-in-the-context-of-social-support
#18
Tanja Zimmermann, Jan H Krüger, Sarah Weusthoff
Introduction Breast cancer is associated with significant psychosocial strains for both patients and partners. Constructive social support and positive communication behavior have been shown to be protective against the burdens associated with breast cancer. Individual levels of emotional arousal during social support interactions with one's spouse are an important aspect of couples' support behaviors and can be assessed via vocal fundamental frequency (f0). Methods N=44 couples had standardized seven-minute long interactions asking the male partner to describe his thoughts and feelings with regard to their wives' breast cancer...
May 16, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511132/activity-and-in-vivo-dynamics-of-bacillus-subtilis-disa-are-affected-by-rada-sms-and-by-holliday-junction-processing-proteins
#19
Carolina Gándara, Daniella K C de Lucena, Rubén Torres, Ester Serrano, Stephan Altenburger, Peter L Graumann, Juan C Alonso
Bacillus subtilis c-di-AMP synthase DisA and RecA-related RadA/Sms are involved in the repair of DNA damage in exponentially growing cells. We provide genetic evidence that DisA or RadA/Sms is epistatic to the branch migration translocase (BMT) RecG and the Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase RecU in response to DNA damage. We provide genetic evidence damage. Functional DisA-YFP formed dynamic foci in exponentially growing cells, which moved through the nucleoids at a speed compatible with a DNA-scanning mode...
May 5, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506645/multiple-roles-of-glyoxalase-1-mediated-suppression-of-methylglyoxal-glycation-in-cancer-biology-involvement-in-tumour-suppression-tumour-growth-multidrug-resistance-and-target-for-chemotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Naila Rabbani, Mingzhan Xue, Martin O Weickert, Paul J Thornalley
Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is part of the glyoxalase system in the cytoplasm of all human cells. It catalyses the glutathione-dependent removal of the endogenous reactive dicarbonyl metabolite, methylglyoxal (MG). MG is formed mainly as a side product of anaerobic glycolysis. It modifies protein and DNA to form mainly hydroimidazolone MG-H1 and imidazopurinone MGdG adducts, respectively. Abnormal accumulation of MG, dicarbonyl stress, increases adduct levels which may induce apoptosis and replication catastrophe. In the non-malignant state, Glo1 is a tumour suppressor protein and small molecule inducers of Glo1 expression may find use in cancer prevention...
May 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
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