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Replication Stress

Adi Lausen, Annekathrin Schacht
The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Bryan L Benson, Lucy Li, Jay T Myers, R Dixon Dorand, Umut A Gurkan, Alex Y Huang, Richard M Ransohoff
Leukocyte adhesion and extravasation are maximal near the transition from capillary to post-capillary venule, and are strongly influenced by a confluence of scale-dependent physical effects. Mimicking the scale of physiological vessels using in vitro microfluidic systems allows the capture of these effects on leukocyte adhesion assays, but imposes practical limits on reproducibility and reliable quantification. Here we present a microfluidic platform that provides multiple (54-512) technical replicates within a 15-minute sample collection time, coupled with an automated computer vision analysis pipeline that captures leukocyte adhesion probabilities as a function of shear and extensional stresses...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jennifer L Stewart, John J B Allen
This longitudinal pilot study examined whether baseline resting frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry correlates with depressive symptoms during the most impaired two-week period in the following year. Current-source-density (CSD) transformed resting frontal EEG asymmetry, severity of depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory - II), and stress (indexed by negative life events; NLE) were recorded in never-depressed young adults with no current DSM-IV diagnosis (38 women, 16 men) at baseline. One year later, depression symptoms and NLEs experienced during the interim were assessed...
June 16, 2018: Biological Psychology
Denisse Carvajal-Maldonado, Andrea K Byrum, Jessica Jackson, Sarah Wessel, Delphine Lemaçon, Laure Guitton-Sert, Annabel Quinet, Stephanie Tirman, Simona Graziano, Jean-Yves Masson, David Cortez, Susana Gonzalo, Nima Mosammaparast, Alessandro Vindigni
Pds5 is required for sister chromatid cohesion, and somewhat paradoxically, to remove cohesin from chromosomes. We found that Pds5 plays a critical role during DNA replication that is distinct from its previously known functions. Loss of Pds5 hinders replication fork progression in unperturbed human and mouse cells. Inhibition of MRE11 nuclease activity restores fork progression, suggesting that Pds5 protects forks from MRE11-activity. Loss of Pds5 also leads to double-strand breaks, which are again reduced by MRE11 inhibition...
June 18, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Zhen Lu, Qingyang Huang, Tong Zhang, Baozhong Hu, Ying Chang
BACKGROUND: Dryopteris fragrans (D. fragrans) is a potential medicinal fern distributed in volcanic magmatic rock areas under tough environmental condition. Sporangia are important organs for fern reproduction. This study was designed to characterize the transcriptome characteristics of the wild D. fragrans sporangia in three stages (stage A, B, and C) with the aim of uncovering its molecular mechanism of growth and development. RESULTS: Using a HiSeq 4000, 79.81 Gb clean data (each sample is at least 7...
June 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
Constanza P Silva, William J Horton, Michael J Caruso, Aswathy Sebastian, Laura C Klein, Istvan Albert, Helen M Kamens
Nicotine and alcohol are often co-abused. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the initiation of both nicotine and alcohol use, which can lead to subsequent neurodevelopmental and behavioral alterations. It is possible that during this vulnerable period, use of one drug leads to neurobiological alterations that affect subsequent consumption of the other drug. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of nicotine exposure during adolescence on ethanol intake, and the effect of these substances on brain gene expression...
2018: PloS One
K L Knopp, C Stenfors, C Baastrup, A W Bannon, M Calvo, O Caspani, G Currie, N B Finnerup, W Huang, J D Kennedy, I Lefevre, I Machin, M Macleod, H Rees, A S C Rice, K Rutten, M Segerdahl, J Serra, R Wodarski, O-G Berge, R-D Treedef
Background and aims Pain is a subjective experience, and as such, pre-clinical models of human pain are highly simplified representations of clinical features. These models are nevertheless critical for the delivery of novel analgesics for human pain, providing pharmacodynamic measurements of activity and, where possible, on-target confirmation of that activity. It has, however, been suggested that at least 50% of all pre-clinical data, independent of discipline, cannot be replicated. Additionally, the paucity of "negative" data in the public domain indicates a publication bias, and significantly impacts the interpretation of failed attempts to replicate published findings...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Leighton H Daigh, Chad Liu, Mingyu Chung, Karlene A Cimprich, Tobias Meyer
Faithful DNA replication is challenged by stalling of replication forks during S phase. Replication stress is further increased in cancer cells or in response to genotoxic insults. Using live single-cell image analysis, we found that CDK2 activity fluctuates throughout an unperturbed S phase. We show that CDK2 fluctuations result from transient ATR signals triggered by stochastic replication stress events. In turn, fluctuating endogenous CDK2 activity causes corresponding decreases and increases in DNA synthesis rates, linking changes in stochastic replication stress to fluctuating global DNA replication rates throughout S phase...
June 4, 2018: Cell Systems
Levent Dikbas, Riza Dur, İsmail Hakkı Tas, Ömer Erkan Yapça, Neslihan Dikbas
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress has been reported to be associated with various pregnancy complications and to play key roles in many of them. An inadequate level of antioxidant defense may eventually lead to an early pregnancy loss. There is a lack of information about the roles of the PON2 and PON3 enzymes in the etiology of the cases of unexplained recurrent abortus. The aim of our study is to determine and present the data regarding the roles of these enzymes for the first time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured the transcriptional levels of the PON2 and PON3 enzymes in the curettage materials obtained from the patients with unexplained recurrent abortus (n=25) and compared the results with those measured in the abortus materials from healthy pregnant women (n=50) who had undergone a voluntary abortion...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Gynecology Obstetrics and Human Reproduction
Young-Su Kim, Soo-Kyoung Lee
This study established a network related to nurses' job stress by conducting a social network analysis of titles, keywords, and abstracts, and it identified emerging topics of research. NetMiner 4.0 visualized an interconnection between critical keywords and investigated their frequency of appearance to construe the trends in nurses' job stress measures used in studies conducted over 55 years (1960-2015). Text Rank Analyzer examined a collection of 9,218 keywords from 2,662 studies. The analysis revealed four groups of newly emerging keywords in the research...
June 1, 2018: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Gabrielle do Amaral E Silva Müller, Karim Hahn Lüchmann, Guilherme Razzera, Guilherme Toledo-Silva, Maria João Bebianno, Maria Risoleta Freire Marques, Afonso Celso Dias Bainy
Diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction (diesel-WAF) is a complex mixture of organic compounds that may cause harmful effects to marine invertebrates. Expression of microsomal proteins can be changed by oil exposure, causing functional alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The aim of this study was to investigate changes in protein expression signatures in microsomes of oysterl Crassostrea brasiliana (=C.gasar) gill after exposure to 10% diesel-WAF for 24 and 72 h. Protein expression signatures of gills of oysters exposed to diesel-WAF were compared to those of unexposed oysters using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify differentially expressed proteins...
June 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ryan Holliday, Nicholas Holder, Lindsey L Monteith, Alina Surís
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal self-directed violence (SDV). Military sexual trauma (MST) is a common precursor to PTSD among veterans. Survivors of MST are more likely to be diagnosed with PTSD and are at greater risk for SI than survivors of other forms of trauma. Suicide-specific beliefs (e.g., unlovability, unbearability, unsolvability) have been shown to be strong predictors of SI and future suicidal SDV. Suicide-specific beliefs were examined over the course of treatment and follow-up in 32 veterans (23 women, 9 men) who received cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for MST-related PTSD...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Nicola Alessio, Caterina Pipino, Domitilla Mandatori, Pamela Di Tomo, Angela Ferone, Marco Marchiso, Mariarosa A B Melone, Gianfranco Peluso, Assunta Pandolfi, Umberto Galderisi
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be an excellent source in regenerative medicine. They contain several cell subtypes, including multipotent stem cells. MSCs are of particular interest as they are currently being tested using cell and gene therapies for a number of human diseases. They represent a rare population in tissues; for this reason, they require, before being transplanted, an in vitro amplification. This process may induce replicative senescence, thus affecting differentiation and proliferative capacities...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Narender Kumar, Renee Dale, Daniel Kemboi, Elizabeth A Zeringue, Naohiro Kato, John C Larkin
Endoreplication, a modified cell cycle in which DNA is replicated without subsequent cell division, plays an important but poorly understood role in plant growth and in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress. The Arabidopsis thaliana SIAMESE (SIM) gene encodes the first identified member of the SIAMESE-RELATED (SMR) family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. SIM controls endoreplication during trichome development, and sim mutant trichomes divide several times instead of endoreplicating their DNA. The SMR family is defined by several short linear amino acid sequence motifs of largely unknown function, and family members have little sequence similarity to any known protein functional domains...
June 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Fabiana Terra Cunha Belache, Cíntia Pereira de Souza, Jessica Fernandez, Julia Castro, Paula Dos Santos Ferreira, Elizana Rodrigues de Sousa Rosa, Nathalia Cristina Gimenez de Araújo, Felipe José Jandre Reis, Renato Santos de Almeida, Leandro Alberto Calazans Nogueira, Luís Cláudio Lemos Correia, Ney Meziat-Filho
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain is a public health problem, and there is strong evidence that it is associated with a complex interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Cognitive functional therapy is an intervention that deals with potentially modifiable multidimensional aspects of pain (eg, provocative cognitive, movement and lifestyle behaviours). There is evidence (from a single randomised, controlled trial) that cognitive functional therapy is better than combined manual therapy and motor control exercise...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Physiotherapy
Randi P Proffitt Leyva, Sarah E Hill
OBJECTIVE: The current research examined whether cognitive schemas that emerge in the context of early life stress predict psychological and behavioral outcomes that increase obesity risk. Three studies tested this hypothesis, predicting that having an unpredictability schema-which is a mindset characterized by the belief that the world and the people in it are unpredictable and unreliable-would predict low body awareness and eating in the absence of hunger. METHOD: Self-report measures of early life environment, unpredictability schema, body awareness, and eating habits were used in Studies 1-3...
July 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Emilio Lecona, Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo
The chemical treatment of cancer started with the realization that DNA damaging agents such as mustard gas present notable antitumoural properties. Consequently, early drug development focused on genotoxic chemicals, some of which are still widely used in the clinic. However, the efficacy of such therapies is often limited by the side effects of these drugs on healthy cells. A refinement to this approach is to use compounds that can exploit the presence of DNA damage in cancer cells. Given that replication stress (RS) is a major source of genomic instability in cancer, targeting the RS-response kinase ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) has emerged as a promising alternative...
June 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Michael Charles Lanz, Susannah Oberly, Ethan James Sanford, Sushma Sharma, Andrei Chabes, Marcus Bustamante Smolka
The Mec1/ATR kinase coordinates multiple cellular responses to replication stress. In addition to its canonical role in activating the checkpoint kinase Rad53, Mec1 also plays checkpoint-independent roles in genome maintenance that are not well understood. Here we used a combined genetic-phosphoproteomic approach to manipulate Mec1 activation and globally monitor Mec1 signaling, allowing us to delineate distinct checkpoint-independent modes of Mec1 action. Using cells in which endogenous Mec1 activators were genetically ablated, we found that expression of "free" Mec1 activation domains (MADs) can robustly activate Mec1 and rescue the severe DNA replication and growth defects of these cells back to wild-type levels...
June 13, 2018: Genes & Development
Claudia Winkler, Raphael Rouget, Dan Wu, Monique Beullens, Aleyde Van Eynde, Mathieu Bollen
The ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein NIPP1 recruits phosphoproteins for regulated dephosphorylation by associated protein phosphatase PP1. To bypass PP1 titration artifacts of NIPP1 overexpression we have engineered covalently linked fusions of PP1 and NIPP1, and demonstrate their potential to selectively explore the function of the PP1:NIPP1 holoenzyme. Using inducible stable cell lines we show that PP1-NIPP1 fusions cause replication stress in a manner that requires both PP1 activity and substrate recruitment via the ForkHead Associated domain of NIPP1...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Y X Wang, X Xiao, X A Zhan
Fluorosis can induce oxidative stress through leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Selenium (Se) can eliminate ROS by direct and indirect manners. In this study, therefore, we investigated the possible protective effects of sodium selenite (SS) and selenomethionine (Se-Met) on fluorine (F)-induced oxidative stress in broilers. A total of 720 1-day-old Lingnan Yellow broilers were allotted to 4 groups (6 replicates of 30 birds each group) and fed with basal diet (control group), 800 mg/kg F (high F group), 800 mg/kg F+0...
June 11, 2018: Poultry Science
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