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Replication Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470740/effect-of-supplementing-germinated-sprouts-of-pulses-on-performance-carcass-variables-immune-and-oxidative-stress-indicators-in-broiler-chickens-reared-during-tropical-summer-season
#1
S V Rama Rao, B Prakash, U Rajkumar, M V L N Raju, T Srilatha, E P K Reddy
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementing sprouts of pulses on performance, carcass variables, immune responses, and anti-oxidant variables in broiler chicken (day 1 to 6 weeks of age) reared during summer season in tropical region. Sprouts of black gram (BG, Vigna mungo), green gram (GG, Vigna radiata), and wild gram (WG, Vigna trilobata) were produced by soaking the pulses in water for 16 h and incubating at 37 °C for 24 h. Total phenolic content in sprouts of WG, BG, and GG was 102, 96...
February 22, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470608/bacterial-communities-inhabiting-the-sponge-biemna-fortis-sediment-and-water-in-marine-lakes-and-the-open-sea
#2
Daniel F R Cleary, Ana R M Polónia, Nicole J de Voogd
Marine lakes are small bodies of landlocked seawater that are isolated from the open sea and have been shown to house numerous rare and unique taxa. The environmental conditions of the lakes are also characterised by lower pH and salinity and higher temperatures than generally found in the open sea. In the present study, we used a 16S rRNA gene barcoded pyrosequencing approach and a predictive metagenomic approach (PICRUSt) to examine bacterial composition and function in three distinct biotopes (sediment, water and the sponge species Biemna fortis) in three habitats (two marine lakes and the open sea) of the Berau reef system, Indonesia...
February 22, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470542/functional-fine-tuning-between-bacterial-dna-recombination-initiation-and-quality-control-systems
#3
Veronika Ferencziová, Gábor M Harami, Julianna B Németh, Tibor Vellai, Mihály Kovács
Homologous recombination (HR) is crucial for the error-free repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the restart of stalled replication. However, imprecise HR can lead to genome instability, highlighting the importance of HR quality control. After DSB formation, HR proceeds via DNA end resection and recombinase loading, whereas helicase-catalyzed disruption of a subset of subsequently formed DNA invasions is thought to be essential for maintaining HR accuracy via inhibiting illegitimate (non-allelic) recombination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468596/an-in-vitro-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-model-for-studying-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-neuronal-cells
#4
Myoung-Gwi Ryou, Robert T Mallet
Ischemia-reperfusion syndromes of the heart and brain are the leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Development of effective treatments for myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac arrest and their sequelae requires preclinical models that replicate specific features of ischemia-reperfusion. The complexities of intact animals, including the integrated function of organ systems, autonomic innervation and endocrine factors, often preclude detailed study of specific components of ischemia-reperfusion injury cascades...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468197/genomewide-transcriptional-responses-of-iron-starved-chlamydia-trachomatis-reveal-prioritization-of-metabolic-precursor-synthesis-over-protein-translation
#5
Amanda J Brinkworth, Mark R Wildung, Rey A Carabeo
Iron is essential for growth and development of Chlamydia . Its long-term starvation in cultured mammalian cells leads to production of aberrant noninfectious chlamydial forms, also known as persistence. Immediate transcriptional responses to iron limitation have not been characterized, leaving a knowledge gap of how Chlamydia regulates its response to changes in iron availability. We used the fast-chelating agent 2,2'-bipyridyl (BPDL) to homogeneously starve Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 of iron, starting at 6 or 12 h postinfection...
January 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466729/a-cell-intrinsic-interferon-like-response-links-replication-stress-to-cellular-aging-caused-by-progerin
#6
Ray Kreienkamp, Simona Graziano, Nuria Coll-Bonfill, Gonzalo Bedia-Diaz, Emily Cybulla, Alessandro Vindigni, Dale Dorsett, Nard Kubben, Luis Francisco Zirnberger Batista, Susana Gonzalo
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease caused by a truncated lamin A protein (progerin) that drives cellular and organismal decline. HGPS patient-derived fibroblasts accumulate genomic instability, but its underlying mechanisms and contribution to disease remain poorly understood. Here, we show that progerin-induced replication stress (RS) drives genomic instability by eliciting replication fork (RF) stalling and nuclease-mediated degradation. Rampant RS is accompanied by upregulation of the cGAS/STING cytosolic DNA sensing pathway and activation of a robust STAT1-regulated interferon (IFN)-like response...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466532/association-of-hippocampal-atrophy-with-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-molecular-biomarkers-during-initial-antipsychotic-treatment-of-first-episode-psychosis
#7
Donald C Goff, Botao Zeng, Babak A Ardekani, Erica D Diminich, Yingying Tang, Xiaoduo Fan, Isaac Galatzer-Levy, Chenxiang Li, Andrea B Troxel, Jijun Wang
Importance: Duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been associated with poor outcomes in schizophrenia, but the mechanism responsible for this association is not known. Objectives: To determine whether hippocampal volume loss occurs during the initial 8 weeks of antipsychotic treatment and whether it is associated with DUP, and to examine molecular biomarkers in association with hippocampal volume loss and DUP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A naturalistic longitudinal study with matched healthy controls was conducted at Shanghai Mental Health Center...
February 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466444/analysis-of-aluminum-toxicity-in-hordeum-vulgare-roots-with-an-emphasis-on-dna-integrity-and-cell-cycle
#8
Joanna Jaskowiak, Oliver Tkaczyk, Michal Slota, Jolanta Kwasniewska, Iwona Szarejko
Barley is one of the cereals that are most sensitive to aluminum (Al). Al in acid soils limits barley growth and development and, as a result, its productivity. The inhibition of root growth is a widely accepted indicator of Al stress. Al toxicity is affected by many factors including the culture medium, pH, Al concentration and the duration of the treatment. However, Al can act differently in different species and still Al toxicity in barley deserves study. Since the mechanism of Al toxicity is discussed we cytogenetically describe the effects of different doses of bioavailable Al on the barley nuclear genome-mitotic activity, cell cycle profile and DNA integrity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466339/intragenic-origins-due-to-short-g1-phases-underlie-oncogene-induced-dna-replication-stress
#9
Morgane Macheret, Thanos D Halazonetis
Oncogene-induced DNA replication stress contributes critically to the genomic instability that is present in cancer. However, elucidating how oncogenes deregulate DNA replication has been impeded by difficulty in mapping replication initiation sites on the human genome. Here, using a sensitive assay to monitor nascent DNA synthesis in early S phase, we identified thousands of replication initiation sites in cells before and after induction of the oncogenes CCNE1 and MYC. Remarkably, both oncogenes induced firing of a novel set of DNA replication origins that mapped within highly transcribed genes...
February 21, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465287/the-exoribonuclease-xrn1-is-a-post-transcriptional-negative-regulator-of-autophagy
#10
Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Emma Abernathy, Nicholas J Lennemann, Amélie Bernard, Aileen Ariosa, Carolyn B Coyne, Karla Kirkegaard, Daniel J Klionsky
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that promotes survival during stress. Autophagic dysfunction is associated with pathologies such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, autophagy must be strictly modulated at multiple levels (transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational) to prevent deregulation. Relatively little is known about the post-transcriptional control of autophagy. Here we report that the exoribonuclease Xrn1/XRN1 functions as a negative autophagy factor in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in mammalian cells...
February 21, 2018: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463846/alteration-of-rocks-by-endolithic-organisms-is-one-of-the-pathways-for-the-beginning-of-soils-on-earth
#11
Nikita Mergelov, Carsten W Mueller, Isabel Prater, Ilya Shorkunov, Andrey Dolgikh, Elya Zazovskaya, Vasily Shishkov, Victoria Krupskaya, Konstantin Abrosimov, Alexander Cherkinsky, Sergey Goryachkin
Subaerial endolithic systems of the current extreme environments on Earth provide exclusive insight into emergence and development of soils in the Precambrian when due to various stresses on the surfaces of hard rocks the cryptic niches inside them were much more plausible habitats for organisms than epilithic ones. Using an actualistic approach we demonstrate that transformation of silicate rocks by endolithic organisms is one of the possible pathways for the beginning of soils on Earth. This process led to the formation of soil-like bodies on rocks in situ and contributed to the raise of complexity in subaerial geosystems...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463544/gene-expression-of-pneumocystis-murina-after-treatment-with-anidulafungin-results-in-strong-signals-for-sexual-reproduction-cell-wall-integrity-and-cell-cycle-arrest-indicating-a-requirement-for-asci-formation-for-proliferation
#12
Melanie T Cushion, Alan Ashbaugh, Keeley Hendrix, Michael J Linke, Nikeya Tisdale, Steven G Sayson, Aleksey Porollo
The echinocandins are a class of anti-fungal agents that target β-1,3-D-glucan (BG) biosynthesis. In the ascigerous Pneumocystis species, treatment with these drugs deplete the asci life cycle stage which contain BG, but large numbers of forms which do not express BG remain in the infected lungs. In the present study, the gene expression profiles of Pneumocystis murina were compared between infected untreated mice and those treated with anidulafungin for 2 weeks to understand the metabolism of the persisting forms...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463541/verapamil-targets-membrane-energetics-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
Chao Chen, Susana Gardete, Robert Sander Jansen, Annanya Shetty, Thomas Dick, Kyu Y Rhee, Véronique Dartois
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills more people than any other bacterial pathogen and is becoming increasingly untreatable due to the emergence of resistance. Verapamil, an FDA-approved calcium channel blocker, potentiates the effect of several anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs in vitro and in vivo. This potentiation is widely attributed to inhibition of Mtb's efflux pumps, resulting in intrabacterial drug accumulation. Here, we confirm and quantify verapamil's synergy with several anti-TB drugs, including bedaquiline and clofazimine, but find that this effect is not due to increased intrabacterial drug accumulation...
February 20, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462466/effect-of-pre-slaughter-shackling-and-wing-flapping-on-plasma-parameters-postmortem-metabolism-ampk-and-meat-quality-of-broilers
#14
J C Huang, J Yang, M Huang, Z S Zhu, X B Sun, B H Zhang, X L Xu, W G Meng, K J Chen, B C Xu
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of shackling and wing flapping on stress, postmortem metabolism, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and quality of broiler pectoralis major. Before slaughter, a total of 80 Arbor Acres broilers was randomly categorized into 2 replicate pens (40 broilers per pen) and each pen randomly divided into 2 groups (shackling, T; control, C). Corticosterone, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were determined on blood plasma parameters. Pectoralis major were removed after evisceration and used for determination of energy metabolism, meat quality, and AMPK phosphorylation...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462399/mendelian-disease-associations-reveal-novel-insights-into-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Lichy Han, Mateusz Maciejewski, Christoph Brockel, Lovisa Afzelius, Russ B Altman
Background: Monogenic diseases have been shown to contribute to complex disease risk and may hold new insights into the underlying biological mechanism of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Methods: We analyzed Mendelian disease associations with IBD using over 55 million patients from the Optum's deidentified electronic health records dataset database. Using the significant Mendelian diseases, we performed pathway enrichment analysis and constructed a model using gene expression datasets to differentiate Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and healthy patient samples...
February 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460984/a-laboratory-high-throughput-glass-chamber-using-dynamic-headspace-td-gc-ms-method-for-the-analysis-of-whole-brassica-napus-l-plantlet-volatiles-under-cadmium-related-abiotic-stress
#16
Bastien Durenne, Alodie Blondel, Philippe Druart, Marie-Laure Fauconnier
INTRODUCTION: The dynamic headspace sampling technique using thermal desorption, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) is a powerful method for analysing plant emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and experiments performed in sterile and controlled conditions can be useful for VOC metabolism investigations. OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to set up a laboratory high-throughput glass chamber for whole plant volatiles analysis. Brassica napus L...
February 20, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459202/inhibition-of-non-homologous-end-joining-in-fanconi-anemia-cells-results-in-rescue-of-survival-after-interstrand-crosslinks-but-sensitization-to-replication-associated-double-strand-breaks
#17
Laura J Eccles, Andrew C Bell, Simon N Powell
When Fanconi Anemia (FA) proteins were depleted in human U2OS cells with integrated DNA repair reporters, we observed decreases in homologous recombination (HR), decreases in mutagenic non-homologous end joining (m-NHEJ) and increases in canonical NHEJ, which was independently confirmed by measuring V(D)J recombination. Furthermore, depletion of FA proteins resulted in reduced HR protein foci and increased NHEJ protein recruitment to replication-associated DSBs, consistent with our observation that the use of canonical NHEJ increases after depletion of FA proteins in cycling cells...
February 10, 2018: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458130/impact-of-rna-polymerase-i-inhibitor-cx-5461-on-viral-kinase-dependent-and-independent-cytomegalovirus-replication
#18
Kristen N Westdorp, Scott S Terhune
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections cause congenital birth defects and disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Antiviral compounds can control infection yet their use is restricted due to concerns of toxicity and the emergence of drug resistant strains. We have evaluated the impact of an RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) inhibitor, CX-5461 on HCMV replication. CX-5461 inhibits Pol I-mediated ribosomal DNA transcription by binding G-quadruplex DNA structures and also activates cellular stress response pathways. The addition of CX-5461 at both early and late stages of the HCMV infection inhibited viral DNA synthesis and virus production...
February 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454655/neurogenetic-approaches-to-stress-and-fear-in-humans-as-pathophysiological-mechanisms-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Frauke Nees, Stephanie H Witt, Herta Flor
In this review article, genetic variation associated with brain responses related to acute and chronic stress reactivity and fear learning in humans is presented as an important mechanism underlying posttraumatic stress disorder. We report that genes related to the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as well as genes that modulate serotonergic, dopaminergic, and neuropeptidergic functions or plasticity, play a role in this context. The strong overlap of the genetic targets involved in stress and fear learning suggests that a dimensional and mechanistic model of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder based on these constructs is promising...
January 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452566/near-tetraploid-cancer-cells-show-chromosome-instability-triggered-by-replication-stress-and-exhibit-enhanced-invasiveness
#20
Darawalee Wangsa, Isabel Quintanilla, Keyvan Torabi, Maria Vila-Casadesús, Amaia Ercilla, Gregory Klus, Zeynep Yuce, Claudia Galofré, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Juan José Lozano, Neus Agell, Daniela Cimini, Antoni Castells, Thomas Ried, Jordi Camps
A considerable proportion of tumors exhibit aneuploid karyotypes, likely resulting from the progressive loss of chromosomes after whole-genome duplication. Here, by using isogenic diploid and near-tetraploid (4N) single-cell-derived clones from the same parental cell lines, we aimed at exploring how polyploidization affects cellular functions and how tetraploidy generates chromosome instability. Gene expression profiling in 4N clones revealed a significant enrichment of transcripts involved in cell cycle and DNA replication...
February 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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