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Replication Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679816/poor-mental-health-among-low-income-women-in-the-u-s-the-roles-of-adverse-childhood-and-adult-experiences
#1
Joshua P Mersky, Colleen E Janczewski, Jenna C Nitkowski
RATIONALE: It is well established that exposure to a greater number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases the risk of poor physical and mental health outcomes. Given the predictive validity of ACE scores and other cumulative risk metrics, a similar measurement approach may advance the study of risk in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence and interrelations of 10 adverse adult experiences, including household events such as intimate partner violence and extrafamilial events such as crime victimization...
April 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673843/circulating-corticosterone-levels-vary-during-exposure-to-anthropogenic-stimuli-and-show-weak-correlation-with-behavior-across-an-urban-gradient-in-house-finches-haemorhous-mexicanus
#2
Melinda Weaver, Sisi Gao, Kevin J McGraw
Urban environments are rapidly expanding and presenting animal populations with novel challenges, many of which are thought to be stressors that contribute to low biodiversity. However, studies on stress responses in urban vs rural populations have produced mixed results, and many of these studies use a standard stressor that cannot be replicated in the wild (e.g. restraining an animal in a bag). Pairing physiological and behavioral measurements in response to urban-related stressors improves our understanding of the mechanism underlying animal success in human-dominated landscapes...
April 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670865/opposite-effects-of-two-human-atg10-isoforms-on-replication-of-a-hcv-sub-genomic-replicon-are-mediated-via-regulating-autophagy-flux-in-zebrafish
#3
Yu-Chen Li, Miao-Qing Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang
Autophagy is a host mechanism for cellular homeostatic control. Intracellular stresses are symptoms of, and responses to, dysregulation of the physiological environment of the cell. Alternative gene transcription splicing is a mechanism potentially used by a host to respond to physiological or pathological challenges. Here, we aimed to confirm opposite effects of two isoforms of the human autophagy-related protein ATG10 on an HCV subgenomic replicon in zebrafish. A liver-specific HCV subreplicon model was established and exhibited several changes in gene expression typically induced by HCV infection, including overexpression of several HCV-dependent genes ( argsyn, leugpcr, rasgbd , and scaf-2 ), as well as overexpression of several ER stress related genes ( atf4, chop, atf6 , and bip )...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670289/samhd1-acts-at-stalled-replication-forks-to-prevent-interferon-induction
#4
Flavie Coquel, Maria-Joao Silva, Hervé Técher, Karina Zadorozhny, Sushma Sharma, Jadwiga Nieminuszczy, Clément Mettling, Elodie Dardillac, Antoine Barthe, Anne-Lyne Schmitz, Alexy Promonet, Alexandra Cribier, Amélie Sarrazin, Wojciech Niedzwiedz, Bernard Lopez, Vincenzo Costanzo, Lumir Krejci, Andrei Chabes, Monsef Benkirane, Yea-Lih Lin, Philippe Pasero
SAMHD1 was previously characterized as a dNTPase that protects cells from viral infections. Mutations in SAMHD1 are implicated in cancer development and in a severe congenital inflammatory disease known as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. The mechanism by which SAMHD1 protects against cancer and chronic inflammation is unknown. Here we show that SAMHD1 promotes degradation of nascent DNA at stalled replication forks in human cell lines by stimulating the exonuclease activity of MRE11. This function activates the ATR-CHK1 checkpoint and allows the forks to restart replication...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669072/vitamin-a-pretreatment-protects-no-induced-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells-from-oxidative-stress-by-modulating-nrf2-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#5
H Y Shi, S M Yan, Y M Guo, B Q Zhang, X Y Guo, B L Shi
It is known that physiological overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) contributes to oxidative stress and inflammation. Our published studies indicated that vitamin A (VA) reduces NO-induced oxidative stress in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities. However, the precise mechanism is unclear. The present study was conducted to examine the protective effects of VA on NO-induced damage to BMECs in vitro using diethylenetriamine nitric oxide (DETA-NO) as the NO donor and to explore the intracellular signaling mechanisms of VA that involve nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667715/gender-differences-in-social-anxiety-disorder
#6
Maya Asher, Idan M Aderka
OBJECTIVE:  Despite the ample literature on gender differences in anxiety and mood disorders, gender differences in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have received little empirical attention. The aim of the present study is to examine gender differences in 12-months prevalence, patterns of comorbidity, clinical presentation, subjective distress and functional impairment, age of onset, and treatment seeking, and discuss their clinical implications. METHOD: We used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R; n = 652, 63...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666773/estimating-intraspecific-genetic-diversity-from-community-dna-metabarcoding-data
#7
Vasco Elbrecht, Ecaterina Edith Vamos, Dirk Steinke, Florian Leese
Background: DNA metabarcoding is used to generate species composition data for entire communities. However, sequencing errors in high-throughput sequencing instruments are fairly common, usually requiring reads to be clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), losing information on intraspecific diversity in the process. While Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) haplotype information is limited in resolving intraspecific diversity it is nevertheless often useful e.g. in a phylogeographic context, helping to formulate hypotheses on taxon distribution and dispersal...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665250/a-genome-wide-association-study-of-coping-behaviors-suggests-fbxo45-is-associated-with-emotional-expression
#8
Chisato Shimanoe, Tsuyoshi Hachiya, Megumi Hara, Yuichiro Nishida, Keitaro Tanaka, Yoichi Sutoh, Atsushi Shimizu, Asahi Hishida, Sayo Kawai, Rieko Okada, Takashi Tamura, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Etsuko Ozaki, Daisuke Matsui, Rie Ibusuki, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Naoyuki Takashima, Aya Kadota, Kokichi Arisawa, Hirokazu Uemura, Sadao Suzuki, Miki Watanabe, Kiyonori Kuriki, Kaori Endoh, Haruo Mikami, Yohko Nakamura, Yukihide Momozawa, Michiaki Kubo, Masahiro Nakatochi, Mariko Naito, Kenji Wakai
Individuals use coping behaviors to deal with unpleasant daily events. Such behaviors can moderate or mediate the pathway between psychosocial stress and health-related outcomes. However, few studies have examined the associations between coping behaviors and genetic variants. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on coping behaviors in 13,088 participants aged 35-69 years as part of the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Five coping behaviors (emotional expression, emotional support seeking, positive reappraisal, problem solving, and disengagement) were measured and analyzed...
April 17, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662610/human-cancer-cells-utilize-mitotic-dna-synthesis-to-resist-replication-stress-at-telomeres-regardless-of-their-telomere-maintenance-mechanism
#9
Özgün Özer, Rahul Bhowmick, Ying Liu, Ian D Hickson
Telomeres resemble common fragile sites (CFSs) in that they are difficult-to-replicate and exhibit fragility in mitosis in response to DNA replication stress. At CFSs, this fragility is associated with a delay in the completion of DNA replication until early mitosis, whereupon cells are proposed to switch to a RAD52-dependent form of break-induced replication. Here, we show that this mitotic DNA synthesis (MiDAS) is also a feature of human telomeres. Telomeric MiDAS is not restricted to those telomeres displaying overt fragility, and is a feature of a wide range of cell lines irrespective of whether their telomeres are maintained by telomerase or by the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) mechanism...
March 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662142/the-hepatitis-delta-virus-accumulation-requires-paraspeckle-components-and-affects-neat1-level-and-psp1-localization
#10
Yasnee Beeharry, Gabrielle Goodrum, Christian J Imperiale, Martin Pelchat
The Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) relies mainly on host proteins for its replication. We previously identified that PSF and p54nrb associate with the HDV RNA genome during viral replication. Together with PSP1, these proteins are part of paraspeckles, which are subnuclear bodies nucleated by the long non-coding RNA NEAT1. In this work, we established the requirement for PSF, p54nrb and PSP1 in HDV replication using RNAi-mediated knockdown in HEK-293 cells replicating the HDV RNA genome. We determined that HDV replication induces the delocalization of PSP1 to cytoplasmic foci containing PABP and increases NEAT1 level causing an enlargement of NEAT1 foci...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661117/sexual-victimization-and-mental-illness-prevalence-rates-among-incarcerated-women-a-literature-review
#11
Marie E Karlsson, Melissa J Zielinski
Incarcerated women evidence high rates of both interpersonal trauma and mental illness. In particular, the rates of sexual violence victimization are so high that some researchers have suggested that sexual abuse may be a pathway to prison for women, likely through the development of mental illness, including substance abuse. This review article summarizes the literature on sexual victimization ( n = 32 articles; 28 independent studies) and mental illness ( n = 11 articles; 8 independent studies) prevalence among samples of incarcerated women ( Ns ≥ 100) in context of methodological choices within included articles...
January 1, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660024/crystal-structure-of-the-novel-lesion-specific-endonuclease-pfuendoq-from-pyrococcus-furiosus
#12
Ken-Ichi Miyazono, Sonoko Ishino, Naruto Makita, Tomoko Ito, Yoshizumi Ishino, Masaru Tanokura
Because base deaminations, which are promoted by high temperature, ionizing radiation, aerobic respiration and nitrosative stress, produce mutations during replication, deaminated bases must be repaired quickly to maintain genome integrity. Recently, we identified a novel lesion-specific endonuclease, PfuEndoQ, from Pyrococcus furiosus, and PfuEndoQ may be involved in the DNA repair pathway in Thermococcales of Archaea. PfuEndoQ recognizes a deaminated base and cleaves the phosphodiester bond 5' of the lesion site...
April 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659581/an-interplay-between-multiple-sirtuins-promotes-completion-of-dna-replication-in-cells-with-short-telomeres
#13
Antoine Simoneau, Étienne Ricard, Hugo Wurtele
The evolutionarily-conserved sirtuin family of histone deacetylases regulates a multitude of DNA-associated processes. A recent genome-wide screen conducted in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified Yku70/80, which regulate nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and telomere structure, as being essential for cell proliferation in the presence of the pan-sirtuin inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM). Here, we show that sirtuin-dependent deacetylation of both histone H3 lysine 56 and H4 lysine 16 promotes growth of yku70Δ and yku80Δ cells, and that the NAM sensitivity of these mutants is not caused by defects in double-strand break repair by NHEJ, but rather by their inability to maintain normal telomere length...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659106/individual-treatment-selection-for-patients-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Anne-Katharina Deisenhofer, Jaime Delgadillo, Julian A Rubel, Jan R Böhnke, Dirk Zimmermann, Brian Schwartz, Wolfgang Lutz
BACKGROUND: Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (Tf-CBT) and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) are two highly effective treatment options for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Yet, on an individual level, PTSD patients vary substantially in treatment response. The aim of the paper is to test the application of a treatment selection method based on a personalized advantage index (PAI). METHOD: The study used clinical data for patients accessing treatment for PTSD in a primary care mental health service in the north of England...
April 16, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659065/comparing-the-reproducibility-of-commonly-used-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-techniques-to-quantify-cerebral-glutathione
#15
S Andrea Wijtenburg, Jamie Near, Stephanie A Korenic, Frank E Gaston, Hongji Chen, Mark Mikkelsen, Shuo Chen, Peter Kochunov, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
BACKGROUND: Cerebral glutathione (GSH), a marker of oxidative stress, has been quantified in neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Using a reproducible MRS technique is important, as it minimizes the impact of measurement technique variability on the study results and ensures that other studies can replicate the results. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that very short echo time (TE) acquisitions would have comparable reproducibility to a long TE MEGA-PRESS acquisition, and that the short TE PRESS acquisition would have the poorest reproducibility...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658555/membrane-containing-virus-particles-exhibit-the-mechanics-of-a-composite-material-for-genome-protection
#16
S Azinas, F Bano, I Torca, D H Bamford, G A Schwartz, J Esnaola, H M Oksanen, R P Richter, N G Abrescia
The protection of the viral genome during extracellular transport is an absolute requirement for virus survival and replication. In addition to the almost universal proteinaceous capsids, certain viruses add a membrane layer that encloses their double-stranded (ds) DNA genome within the protein shell. Using the membrane-containing enterobacterial virus PRD1 as a prototype, and a combination of nanoindentation assays by atomic force microscopy and finite element modelling, we show that PRD1 provides a greater stability against mechanical stress than that achieved by the majority of dsDNA icosahedral viruses that lack a membrane...
April 16, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658303/-i-toxoplasma-gondii-i-infection-induces-the-formation-of-host-s-nuclear-granules-containing-poly-a-binding-proteins
#17
Karlee Fischer, Mikayla Roberts, Scott Roscoe, Yasin Avci, Sirinart Ananvoranich
To gain an insight into the mechanisms by which <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> interacts with the host cells at the molecular level, human poly-(A) binding protein (PABP) is being investigated. PABP family is an indicator of translation in the cell, given its roles in mRNA stability, translational initiation and repression. Following a heat shock, the formation of PABP-containing granules was observed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of human fibroblasts. This heat shock response does not affect the progression of <i>T...
April 15, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657845/long-term-bone-remodelling-around-legendary-cementless-femoral-stems
#18
Charles Rivière, Guido Grappiolo, Charles A Engh, Jean-Pierre Vidalain, Antonia-F Chen, Nicolas Boehler, Jihad Matta, Pascal-André Vendittoli
Bone remodelling around a stem is an unavoidable long-term physiological process highly related to implant design. For some predisposed patients, it can lead to periprosthetic bone loss secondary to severe stress-shielding, which is thought to be detrimental by contributing to late loosening, late periprosthetic fracture, and thus rendering revision surgery more complicated.However, these concerns remain theoretical, since late loosening has yet to be documented among bone ingrowth cementless stems demonstrating periprosthetic bone loss associated with stress-shielding...
February 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657305/strengths-and-weaknesses-of-the-current-strategies-to-map-and-characterize-r-loops
#19
REVIEW
Vincent Vanoosthuyse
R-loops are evolutionarily conserved three-stranded structures that result from the formation of stable DNA:RNA hybrids in the genome. R-loops have attracted increasing interest in recent years as potent regulators of gene expression and genome stability. In particular, their strong association with severe replication stress makes them potential oncogenic structures. Despite their importance, the rules that govern their formation and their dynamics are still controversial and an in-depth description of their direct impact on chromatin organization and DNA transactions is still lacking...
March 27, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651790/novel-insights-for-inhibiting-mutant-heterodimer-idh1-wt-r132h-in-cancer-an-in-silico-approach
#20
Ezequiel Iván Juritz, Juan Pablo Bascur, Daniel Eduardo Almonacid, Fernando Danilo González-Nilo
BACKGROUND: Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is a dimeric enzyme responsible for supplying the cell's nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) reserves via dehydrogenation of isocitrate (ICT) and reduction of NADP+. Mutations in position R132 trigger cancer by enabling IDH1 to produce D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) and reduce inhibition by ICT. Mutant IDH1 can be found as a homodimer or a heterodimer. OBJECTIVE: We propose a novel strategy to inhibit IDH1 R132 variants as a means not to decrease the concentration of 2-HG but to provoke a cytotoxic effect, as the cell malignancy at this point no longer depends on 2-HG...
April 12, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
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