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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058121/multiple-system-atrophy-experimental-models-and-reality
#1
REVIEW
Cassia Overk, Edward Rockenstein, Elvira Valera, Nadia Stefanova, Gregor Wenning, Eliezer Masliah
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rapidly progressing fatal synucleinopathy of the aging population characterized by parkinsonism, dysautonomia, and in some cases ataxia. Unlike other synucleinopathies, in this disorder the synaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), predominantly accumulates in oligodendroglial cells (and to some extent in neurons), leading to maturation defects of oligodendrocytes, demyelination, and neurodegeneration. The mechanisms through which α-syn deposits occur in oligodendrocytes and neurons in MSA are not completely clear...
October 20, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058059/correlates-of-level-and-loss-of-grip-strength-in-later-life-findings-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing-and-the-hertfordshire-cohort-study
#2
H E Syddall, L D Westbury, S C Shaw, E M Dennison, C Cooper, C R Gale
Characterisation of grip strength (GS) using isometric dynamometry is central to the definition of sarcopenia. Determinants of low GS include: older age, shorter stature, low physical activity, poor nutrition, socioeconomic disadvantage and multimorbidity. Less is known about risk factors for accelerated loss of GS. We investigated determinants of level and 8-year loss of GS in 3703 men and women (aged 52-82 years) in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Four hundred and forty-one men and women (aged 59-71 years) who participated in a 10-year follow-up of the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS) were used for replication...
October 22, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058049/bayesian-estimation-and-use-of-high-throughput-remote-sensing-indices-for-quantitative-genetic-analyses-of-leaf-growth
#3
Robert L Baker, Wen Fung Leong, Nan An, Marcus T Brock, Matthew J Rubin, Stephen Welch, Cynthia Weinig
We develop Bayesian function-valued trait models that mathematically isolate genetic mechanisms underlying leaf growth trajectories by factoring out genotype-specific differences in photosynthesis. Remote sensing data can be used instead of leaf-level physiological measurements. Characterizing the genetic basis of traits that vary during ontogeny and affect plant performance is a major goal in evolutionary biology and agronomy. Describing genetic programs that specifically regulate morphological traits can be complicated by genotypic differences in physiological traits...
October 20, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057994/effects-of-herpes-simplex-virus-vectors-encoding-poreless-trpv1-or-protein-phosphatase-1%C3%AE-in-a-rat-cystitis-model-induced-by-hydrogen-peroxide
#4
S Takai, T Majima, B Reinhart, W F Goins, Y Funahashi, M Gotoh, P Tyagi, J C Glorioso, N Yoshimura
Enhanced afferent excitability is considered to be an important pathophysiological basis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). In addition, transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors are known to be involved in afferent sensitization. Animals with hydrogen peroxide (HP)-induced cystitis have been used as a model exhibiting pathologic characteristics of chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder. This study investigated the effect of gene therapy with replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors encoding poreless TRPV1 (PL) or protein phosphatase 1 α (PP1α), a negative regulator of TRPV1, using a HP-induced rat model of cystitis...
October 20, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057986/hippurate-as-a-metabolomic-marker-of-gut-microbiome-diversity-modulation-by-diet-and-relationship-to-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Tess Pallister, Matthew A Jackson, Tiphaine C Martin, Jonas Zierer, Amy Jennings, Robert P Mohney, Alexander MacGregor, Claire J Steves, Aedin Cassidy, Tim D Spector, Cristina Menni
Reduced gut microbiome diversity is associated with multiple disorders including metabolic syndrome (MetS) features, though metabolomic markers have not been investigated. Our objective was to identify blood metabolite markers of gut microbiome diversity, and explore their relationship with dietary intake and MetS. We examined associations between Shannon diversity and 292 metabolites profiled by the untargeted metabolomics provider Metabolon Inc. in 1529 females from TwinsUK using linear regressions adjusting for confounders and multiple testing (Bonferroni: P < 1...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057806/emodin-inhibition-of-influenza-a-virus-replication-and-influenza-viral-pneumonia-via-the-nrf2-tlr4-p38-jnk-and-nf-kappab-pathways
#6
Jian-Ping Dai, Qian-Wen Wang, Yun Su, Li-Ming Gu, Ying Zhao, Xiao-Xua Chen, Cheng Chen, Wei-Zhong Li, Ge-Fei Wang, Kang-Sheng Li
Lasting activations of toll-like receptors (TLRs), MAPK and NF-κB pathways can support influenza A virus (IAV) infection and promote pneumonia. In this study, we have investigated the effect and mechanism of action of emodin on IAV infection using qRT-PCR, western blotting, ELISA, Nrf2 luciferase reporter, siRNA and plaque inhibition assays. The results showed that emodin could significantly inhibit IAV (ST169, H1N1) replication, reduce IAV-induced expressions of TLR2/3/4/7, MyD88 and TRAF6, decrease IAV-induced phosphorylations of p38/JNK MAPK and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65...
October 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057566/diminished-socially-selective-neural-processing-in-5-month-old-infants-at-high-familial-risk-for-autism
#7
Ricarda Braukmann, Sarah Lloyd-Fox, Anna Blasi, Mark H Johnson, Harold Bekkering, Jan K Buitelaar, Sabine Hunnius
The social and communicative difficulties that characterize Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are considered the most striking feature of the disorder. Research has reported that individuals with ASD show abnormalities in the brain regions associated with the processing of social information. Importantly, a recent study using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) found the first evidence of atypicalities in the neural processing of social information in four to six-month-old infants at high familial risk for ASD...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057527/exploring-the-genomic-basis-of-early-childhood-caries-a-pilot-study
#8
Jami L Ballantine, Jenna C Carlson, Andrea G Ferreira Zandoná, Cary Agler, Leslie P Zeldin, Richard Gary Rozier, Michael W Roberts, Patricia V Basta, Jason Luo, Mikafui E Antonio-Obese, Daniel W McNeil, Robert J Weyant, Richard J Crout, Rebecca L Slayton, Steven M Levy, John R Shaffer, Mary L Marazita, Kari E North, Kimon Divaris
OBJECTIVE: A genetic component in early childhood caries (ECC) is theorized, but no genome-wide investigations of ECC have been conducted. This pilot study is part of a long-term research program aimed to: (1) determine the proportion of ECC variance attributable to the human genome and (2) identify ECC-associated genetic loci. METHODS: The study's community-based sample comprised 212 children (mean age=39 months; range = 30-52 months; males = 55%; Hispanic/Latino = 35%, African-American = 32%; American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry definition of ECC prevalence = 38%)...
October 23, 2017: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057498/acetylation-and-methylation-of-sperm-histone-3-lysine-27-h3k27ac-and-h3k27me3-are-associated-with-bull-fertility
#9
N A Kutchy, E S B Menezes, A Chiappetta, W Tan, R W Wills, A Kaya, E Topper, A A Moura, A D Perkins, E Memili
Epigenetic modifications in histones are crucial for proper sperm physiology, egg activation and reproductive development of males. The objectives of this study were to determine the conservation and interactomes of histone three (H3) and ascertain the expression dynamics of acetylated and methylated H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac and H3K27me3) in spermatozoa from Holstein bulls with different fertility. Methods in immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the expression dynamics of H3K27ac and H3K27me3 in spermatozoa from 10 bulls with different in vivo fertility...
October 23, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057490/when-cars-hit-trucks-and-girls-hug-boys-the-effect-of-animacy-on-word-order-in-gestural-language-creation
#10
Annemarie Kocab, Hannah Lam, Jesse Snedeker
A well-known typological observation is the dominance of subject-initial word orders, SOV and SVO, across the world's languages. Recent findings from gestural language creation paradigms offer possible explanations for the prevalence of SOV. When asked to gesture transitive events with an animate agent and inanimate patient, gesturers tend to produce SOV order, regardless of their native language biases. Interestingly, when the patient is animate, gesturers shift away from SOV to use of other orders, like SVO and OSV...
October 23, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057328/cancer-prevention-and-treatment-by-wholistic-nutrition
#11
T Colin Campbell
Cancer is traditionally considered a genetic disease. It starts with a gene mutation, often caused by environmental carcinogens that are enzymatically activated to metabolites that covalently bind to DNA. If these now-damaged carcinogen-DNA adducts are not repaired before the cell replicates, they result in a mutation, which is inherited by daughter cells and their subsequent progeny. Still more mutations are added that are thought to advance cellular independence, metastasis, and drug resistance, among other characteristics typically observed for advanced cancer...
October 2017: Journal of Nature and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057080/the-role-of-mir-29a-in-hiv-1-replication-and-latency
#12
EDITORIAL
Giacomo Frattari, Lars Aagaard, Paul W Denton
The development of an effective HIV-1 eradication strategy relies upon a clear understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in HIV-1 latency. Among such cellular processes, microRNA activities affect HIV-1 production by regulating viral transcripts as well as host cell HIV-1 dependency factors. miR-29a stands apart from other relevant microRNAs as a potential therapeutic target in HIV-1 eradication. In vitro experiments have shown that miR-29a binds to a sequence in the 3'UTR of viral transcripts and inhibits their expression...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056941/nicotiana-benthamiana-elicitor-inducible-leucine-rich-repeat-receptor-like-protein-assists-bamboo-mosaic-virus-cell-to-cell-movement
#13
I-Hsuan Chen, Ying-Ping Huang, Ching-Han Tseng, Jian-Tang Ni, Chung-Han Tsai, Yau-Heiu Hsu, Ching-Hsiu Tsai
For successful infection, a virus requires various host factors at different stages such as translation, targeting, replication, and spreading. One of the host genes upregulated after Nicotiana benthamiana infection with Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA potexvirus, assists in viral movement. To understand how this host protein is involved in BaMV movement, we cloned its full-length cDNA by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene has 3199 nt and encodes a 969-amino acid polypeptide...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056898/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-is-altered-in-fibroblasts-from-patients-with-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
María J Pérez, Daniela P Ponce, Cesar Osorio-Fuentealba, Maria I Behrens, Rodrigo A Quintanilla
The identification of an early biomarker to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a challenge. Neuropathological studies in animal and AD patients have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of the development of the disease. Current studies suggest the use of peripheral tissues, like skin fibroblasts as a possibility to detect the early pathological alterations present in the AD brain. In this context, we studied mitochondrial function properties (bioenergetics and morphology) in cultured fibroblasts obtained from AD, aged-match and young healthy patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056740/the-use-of-recombinant-feline-interferon-omega-therapy-as-an-immune-modulator-in-cats-naturally-infected-with-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-new-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Rodolfo Oliveira Leal, Solange Gil
Type I interferons (IFNs) are well-known cytokines that, among their main functions, are key components of the host immune response against viral infections. Due to its immune modulation properties, they are commonly used in the therapeutic approach of various retroviral infections, namely human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In HIV infection, it has been shown that IFN therapy limits early viral replication, particularly useful on post-exposure prophylaxis. In veterinary medicine, recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) was the first interferon licensed for use in cats...
October 27, 2016: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056610/problem-based-peer-to-peer-global-mental-health-e-learning-between-the-uk-and-somaliland-a-pilot-study
#16
Roberta Murphy, Elliot Clissold, Roxanne C Keynejad
BACKGROUND: WHO's mental health gap action programme intervention guide (mhGAP-IG) is an evidence-based tool aimed at front-line health workers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Its potential to improve global mental health education, especially through digital technologies, has been little studied. Problem-based learning (PBL) is usually conducted face-to-face, but its remote application could facilitate cross-cultural education. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate PBL, applied to peer-to-peer global mental health e-learning (Aqoon), using mhGAP-IG...
October 22, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056547/porcine-serum-amyloid-a3-is-expressed-in-extrahepatic-tissues-and-facilitates-viral-replication-during-porcine-respiratory-and-reproductive-syndrome-virus-infection
#17
Beili Huan, Ke Liu, Yuming Li, Jianchao Wei, Donghua Shao, Yuanyuan Shi, Yafeng Qiu, Beibei Li, Zhiyong Ma
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein that is expressed rapidly in response to infection and inflammation in vertebrates. Here, we detected the expression of porcine SAA3, an isoform of porcine SAA, during porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, which is a major threat to the pig industry. In response to PRRSV infection, porcine SAA3 expression was upregulated significantly in porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages and in extrahepatic tissues, including the lungs and inguinal, mandibular, and hilar lymph nodes, which were affected mainly by PRRSV infection, demonstrating that porcine SAA3 is a tissue-derived isoform that is induced in extrahepatic tissues during the acute phase response...
October 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056542/inhibition-of-rabies-virus-replication-by-interferon-stimulated-gene-15-and-its-activating-enzyme-uba7
#18
Pingsen Zhao, Tianqi Jiang, Lili Zhao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
It was reported that ISG15 and its activating enzyme UBA7 have antiviral functions. However, there is no study to demonstrate whether ISG15 and UBA7 have anti-rabies virus function. In the current study, In vivo and in vitro anti-rabies virus function of ISG15 and UBA7 were investigated using RNAi technology. The results showed that shRNA knock-down of expression of ISG15 and UBA7 increased the titers of RABV in neuroblastoma cell line NA and microglial cell line BV-2 cells and shRNA knockdown of ISG15 conjugation alleviates the IFN-induced inhibition of RABV gene expression in vitro...
October 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056482/solution-structure-and-membrane-interaction-of-the-cytoplasmic-tail-of-hiv-1-gp41-protein
#19
R Elliot Murphy, Alexandra B Samal, Jiri Vlach, Jamil S Saad
The cytoplasmic tail of gp41 (gp41CT) remains the last HIV-1 domain with an unknown structure. It plays important roles in HIV-1 replication such as mediating envelope (Env) intracellular trafficking and incorporation into assembling virions, mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here, we present the solution structure of gp41CT in a micellar environment and characterize its interaction with the membrane. We show that the N-terminal 45 residues are unstructured and not associated with the membrane. However, the C-terminal 105 residues form three membrane-bound amphipathic α helices with distinctive structural features such as variable degree of membrane penetration, hydrophobic and basic surfaces, clusters of aromatic residues, and a network of cation-π interactions...
October 13, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056474/next-generation-organoids-for-biomedical-research-and-applications
#20
REVIEW
Yan-Ru Lou, Alan W Leung
Organoids are in vitro cultures of miniature fetal or adult organ-like structures. Their potentials for use in tissue and organ replacement, disease modeling, toxicology studies, and drug discovery are tremendous. Currently, major challenges facing human organoid technology include (i) improving the range of cellular heterogeneity for a particular organoid system, (ii) mimicking the native micro- and matrix-environment encountered by cells within organoids, and (iii) developing robust protocols for the in vitro maturation of organoids that remain mostly fetal-like in cultures...
October 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
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