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Samuel Pitcairn, Bryson Lesniak, William Anderst
BACKGROUND: The patellofemoral (PF) joint is a common site for non-specific anterior knee pain. The pathophysiology of patellofemoral pain may be related to abnormal motion of the patella relative to the femur, leading to increased stress at the patellofemoral joint. Patellofemoral motion cannot be accurately measured using conventional motion capture. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a biplane radiography system for measuring in vivo PF motion during walking and stair ascent...
June 18, 2018: Gait & Posture
Eric A Josephs, Piotr E Marszalek
DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways coordinate the excision and re-synthesis of newly-replicated DNA if a mismatched base-pair has been identified by protein MutS or MutS homologues (MSHs) after replication. DNA excision during MMR is initiated at single-strand breaks (SSBs) in vitro, and several redundant processes have been observed in reconstituted systems which either require a pre-formed SSB in the DNA or require a mismatch-activated nicking endonuclease to introduce a SSB in order to initiate MMR. However, the conditions under which each of these processes may actually occur in living cells have remained obscured by the limitations of current MMR assays...
June 12, 2018: DNA Repair
Huan Zhang, Liurong Fang, Xinyu Zhu, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Protein lysine ubiquitination is a dynamic reversible post-translational modification that plays key roles in modulating different cellular processes. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a notorious pathogen, causing tremendous economic losses for the global swine industry. The possible involvement of ubiquitination in PRRSV infection is unclear. So anti-ubiquitination-based enrichment and LC-MS were performed to investigate the global ubiquitination events triggered by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Daniil A Korenkov, Karen L Laurie, Patrick C Reading, Louise A Carolan, Kok Fei Chan, Irina I Isakova-Sivak, Tatiana A Smolonogina, Kanta Subbarao, Ian G Barr, Julie Villanueva, Svetlana Shcherbik, Tatiana Bousse, Larisa G Rudenko
Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are promising tools for the induction of broad protection from influenza due to their ability to stimulate cross-reactive T cells against influenza pathogens. One of the major targets for cytotoxic T-cell immunity is viral nucleoprotein (NP), which is relatively conserved among antigenically distant influenza viruses. Nevertheless, a diversity of epitope composition has been found in the NP protein of different lineages of influenza A viruses. The H2N2 master donor virus which is currently used as a backbone for the LAIV and donor of the six genomic segments encoding the internal proteins, A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (MDV Len/17), was isolated 60 years ago...
June 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sarah R Horn, Madison M Long, Benjamin W Nelson, Nicholas B Allen, Philip A Fisher, Michelle L Byrne
One of the most common inflammatory markers examined in depression is C-reactive protein (CRP). However, the magnitude of the association between CRP and depression when controlling for potentially confounding factors such as age, sex, socio-economic status, body mass index, medication and other substance use, and medical illness, is unclear. Inconsistencies in other methodological practices, such as sample collection, assaying, and data cleaning and transformation, may contribute to variations in results. We aggregate studies that examined the association between CRP and depression in two ways...
June 18, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Hana F Zickgraf, Anjeli Elkins
This study explores the relationships among anxiety, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and picky eating (PE). An earlier study in 95 children ages 5-10 found that sensory sensitivity fully mediated the relationship between anxiety and picky eating. We replicated this finding in a sample of 158 children, ages 8-17, and in 813 young adult college students. As in the previous child sample, the relationship between anxiety and picky eating appears to be mediated by sensory sensitivity. This relationship extends into adolescence and young adulthood and holds even in a sample of children with obsessive-compulsive-spectrum and anxiety disorders...
June 18, 2018: Appetite
Ahmed M Eissa, Flavio S V Barros, Pavle Vrljicak, Jan J Brosens, Neil R Cameron
Novel approaches for culturing primary human cells in vitro are increasingly needed to study cell and tissue physiology and to grow replacement tissue for regenerative medicine. Conventional 2D monolayer cultures of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells fail to replicate the complex 3D architecture of tissue. A fully synthetic scaffold that mimics the microenvironment of the human endometrium can ultimately provide a robust platform for investigating tissue physiology and, hence, take significant steps towards tackling female infertility and IVF failure...
June 21, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Tariq Shah, Balaji Krishnamachary, Flonne Wildes, Jannie P Wijnen, Kristine Glunde, Zaver M Bhujwalla
Elevated phosphoethanolamine (PE) is frequently observed in MRS studies of human cancers and xenografts. The role of PE in cell survival and the molecular causes underlying this increase are, however, relatively underexplored. In this study, we investigated the roles of ethanolamine kinases (Etnk-1 and 2) and choline kinases (Chk-α and β) in contributing to increased PE in human breast and pancreatic cancer cells. We investigated the effect of silencing Etnk-1 and Etnk-2 on cell viability as a potential therapeutic strategy...
June 21, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Callum G Brownstein, Paul Ansdell, Jakob Škarabot, Ash Frazer, Dawson Kidgell, Glyn Howatson, Stuart Goodall, Kevin Thomas
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? In order to discern information about testing modalities when assessing neuroplastic responses to squat resistance training, the present study investigated whether corticospinal and intracortical function was different between a joint-angle matched isometric squat, and isometric knee extension. What is the main finding and its importance? The present data shows poor agreement of corticospinal and intracortical function between the isometric squat and isometric knee extension...
June 21, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Hongyan He, Xiyan Nan, Shuang Liu, Liangren Zhang, Zhenjun Yang, Yun Wu, Lihe Zhang
In the present study, the anti-tumor effects of combination treatment with an siRNA targeting B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF)V600E and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway inhibitors was investigated in melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E . Human melanoma A375 and WM115 cells were treated with siRNA targeting to BRAF or BRAFV600E , combined with treatment with PI3K signaling pathway inhibitors. CCK-8 and EdU proliferation assays were performed to assess cell viability and proliferation, respectively, following treatment...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Jian Qin, Qingyun Li, Zhi Zeng, Ping Wu, Yanping Jiang, Tao Luo, Xiang Ji, Qiuping Zhang, Yarong Hao, Lang Chen
Euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (G9A), the primary histone methyltransferase for histone H3 Lys9 , has been identified to be upregulated in numerous types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical significance of G9A, and preliminarily explore its function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An increased expression level of G9A was demonstrated in the HCC samples and also in 5 publically available datasets. By analyzing GSE14520, it was revealed that its expression level was significantly associated with serum α-fetoprotein level of patients with HCC, and may serve as a potential prognostic indicator for patients with multinodular HCC...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Isabelle Roskam, Maria-Elena Brianda, Moïra Mikolajczak
So far, the conceptualization and measurement of parental burnout have been deduced from those of job burnout. As a result, it is unclear whether current measures of parental burnout constitute the best representation of the parental burnout construct/syndrome: the possibility cannot be excluded that some dimensions ought to be added, which would change the structure and definition of parental burnout. In this study, the conceptualization and measurement of parental burnout were approached using an inductive method, in which the parental burnout phenomenon was (re)constructed based solely on the testimonies of burned-out parents...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kouichi Kitamura, Lusheng Que, Miyuki Shimadu, Miki Koura, Yuuki Ishihara, Kousho Wakae, Takashi Nakamura, Koichi Watashi, Takaji Wakita, Masamichi Muramatsu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the major etiological pathogens for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic HBV infection is a key factor in these severe liver diseases. During infection, HBV forms a nuclear viral episome in the form of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). Current therapies are not able to efficiently eliminate cccDNA from infected hepatocytes. cccDNA is a master template for viral replication that is formed by the conversion of its precursor, relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA)...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Stefanie Huhn, Miguel I da Silva Filho, Tharmila Sanmuganantham, Tica Pichulik, Calogerina Catalano, Barbara Pardini, Alessio Naccarati, Veronika Polakova-Vymetálkova, Katerina Jiraskova, Ludmila Vodickova, Pavel Vodicka, Markus W Löffler, Lioba Courth, Jan Wehkamp, Farhat V N Din, Maria Timofeeva, Susan M Farrington, Lina Jansen, Kari Hemminki, Jenny Chang-Claude, Hermann Brenner, Michael Hoffmeister, Malcolm G Dunlop, Alexander N R Weber, Asta Försti
Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are important innate pattern recognition receptors and regulators of inflammation or play a role during development. We systematically analysed 41 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 NLR genes in a Czech discovery cohort of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) (1237 cases, 787 controls) for their association with CRC risk and survival. Five SNPs were found to be associated with CRC risk and eight with survival at 5% significance level. In a replication analysis using data of two large genome-wide association studies (GWASs) from Germany (DACHS: 1798 cases and 1810 controls) and Scotland (2210 cases and 9350 controls) the associations found in the Czech discovery set were not confirmed...
2018: PloS One
Elizaveta Katorcha, Nuria Gonzalez-Montalban, Natallia Makarava, Gabor G Kovacs, Ilia V Baskakov
The main risk of emergence of prion diseases in humans is associated with a cross-species transmission of prions of zoonotic origin. Prion transmission between species is regulated by a species barrier. Successful cross-species transmission is often accompanied by strain adaptation and result in stable changes of strain-specific disease phenotype. Amino acid sequences of host PrPC and donor PrPSc as well as strain-specific structure of PrPSc are believed to be the main factors that control species barrier and strain adaptation...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Gomti Grover, Achla Sharma, Harsimar S Gill, Puja Srivastava, N S Bains
Optimizing wheat height to maximize yield has been an important aspect which is evident from a successful example of green revolution. Dwarfing genes (Rht) are known for yield gains due to lodging resistance and partitioning of assimilates into ear. The available and commercially exploited sources of dwarfism in Indian spring wheat are Rht1 and Rht2 genes inspite of availability of over 20 dwarfing genes. Rht8 a Gibberellic acid sensitive dwarfing gene is another reduced height gene commercially exploited in some Mediterranean countries...
2018: PloS One
Antonio Aguilera, Javier Rodríguez-Calviño, Carmen de Mendoza, Vincent Soriano
BACKGROUND: The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) causes the most aggressive form of chronic viral hepatitis. As HDV replication requires hepatitis B virus (HBV), HDV screening is limited to HBsAg+ carriers. To date, individuals with HDV-antibodies and markers of resolved hepatitis B are considered cured. However, a subset shows elevated liver enzymes and hepatic fibrosis. Could they represent HBsAg-seronegative occult HDV infections? METHODS: We tested for HDV-antibodies 406 individuals with markers of past HBV exposure...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mengzhe Li, Yanqiu Jin, Hong Lin, Jingxue Wang, Xiuping Jiang
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important foodborne pathogen that is generally transmitted via raw or undercooked seafood. Endolysins originating from bacteriophages offer a new way to control bacterial pathogens. The objectives of this study were to sequence a novel lytic V. parahaemolyticus phage VPp1 and determine the antibacterial activities of the recombinant endolysin (LysVPp1) derived from this phage. The complete VPp1 genome contained a double-stranded DNA of 50,431 bp with a total G+C content of 41.35%...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Ernest R Blatchley, John Cullen, Brian Petri, Keith Bircher, Nicholas Welschmeyer
The shipping industry is critical to international commerce; however, contemporary shipping practices involve uptake and discharge of ballast water, which introduces the potential for transfer of non-indigenous, invasive species among geographically distinct habitats. To counteract this hazard, regulations for ballast water management have been implemented by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and by regulatory agencies such as the United States Coast Guard (USCG). IMO and USCG discharge standards are numerically identical, but involve different definitions of treatment endpoints, which are based on fundamentally-different biological assays for quantification of ballast water treatment effectiveness...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Nathan T Kearns, Heidemarie Blumenthal, Prathiba Natesan, Byron L Zamboanga, Lindsay S Ham, Renee M Cloutier
Caffeine is the most widely available and consumed psychoactive substance in the United States. Extant work indicates that across substances, use expectancies play a marked role in the development and maintenance of consumption patterns. Despite a burgeoning line of etiological and intervention-oriented research focused on expectancies (e.g., alcohol), there is a limited literature regarding caffeine use effect expectancies, specifically. To facilitate this work, the Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire (CaffEQ) was developed and psychometrically validated; however, the length of the CaffEQ (i...
June 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
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