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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227818/detecting-divisions-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-using-wearables
#1
Annamalai Natarajan, Kevin S Xu, Brian Eriksson, Annamalai Natarajan, Kevin S Xu, Brian Eriksson, Kevin S Xu, Brian Eriksson, Annamalai Natarajan
The ability to assess a user's emotional reaction from biometrics has applications in personalization, recommendation, and enhancing user experiences, among other areas. Unfortunately, understanding the connection between biometric signals and user reactions has previously focused on black box techniques that are opaque to the underlying physiology of the user. In this paper, we explore a novel user study connecting biometric reaction to external stimuli and changes in the user's autonomic nervous system. Specifically, we focus on two competing responses, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, and how differing activations are related to different user responses...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227772/the-chronnectome-evaluating-replicability-of-dynamic-connectivity-patterns-in-7500-resting-fmri-datasets
#2
Anees Abrol, Charlotte Chaze, Eswar Damaraju, Vince D Calhoun, Anees Abrol, Charlotte Chaze, Eswar Damaraju, Vince D Calhoun, Vince D Calhoun, Eswar Damaraju, Anees Abrol, Charlotte Chaze
Functional fMRI data are typically analyzed under the assumption that participants experience one long, continuous connectivity state throughout rest scan sessions. The chronnectome is a model that takes into account the temporal variance in connectivity throughout a scan session. In this work, we evaluate the repeatability of properties of functional network connectivity (FNC) dynamics assessed using sliding-windowed correlations in 28 independent age-matched large samples of 250 subjects. This approach revealed that multiple discrete, reoccurring connectivity states arise during rest, and that subjects tend to remain in one connectivity state for long periods of time before transitioning to another...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227607/a-silicon-neural-probe-fabricated-using-drie-on-bonded-thin-silicon
#3
Xiao Chuan Ong, Amanda Willard, Mats Forssell, Aryn Gittis, Gary K Fedder, Xiao Chuan Ong, Amanda Willard, Mats Forssell, Aryn Gittis, Gary K Fedder, Mats Forssell, Aryn Gittis, Gary K Fedder, Amanda Willard, Xiao Chuan Ong
A silicon neural probe fabricated using a deep reactive ion etching based process on 250 μm thin silicon wafers was developed. The fabricated probes replicate the design of soft parylene-C based probes embedded in dissolvable needles and can therefore also be used to test the encapsulation properties of parylene-C in-vivo without introducing additional effects introduced by the dissolvable gel. The process also demonstrates the possibility of performing conventional photolithography on substrates bonded to a handle wafer using a backgrinding liquid wax (BGL7080) as an adhesive...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227540/a-preliminary-study-for-quantitative-assessment-of-upper-limb-proprioception
#4
Sara Contu, Asif Hussain, Lorenzo Masia, Domenico Campolo, Sara Contu, Asif Hussain, Lorenzo Masia, Domenico Campolo, Asif Hussain, Lorenzo Masia, Sara Contu, Domenico Campolo
Proprioception, or sense of position and movement of the body, strongly correlates with motor recovery of the hemiplegic arm. The evaluation of the awareness of the location of joints in space involves measuring the accuracy of joint-angle replication. Robotic devices allow an accurate manipulation of joint movements necessary to assess proprioceptive status. This study evaluated the proprioceptive performance of healthy subjects by mean of the H-Man, a planar robot designed for upper-limb rehabilitation to gather preliminary normative data for neurorehabilitation applications...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227368/pulsecam-high-resolution-blood-perfusion-imaging-using-a-camera-and-a-pulse-oximeter
#5
Mayank Kumar, James Suliburk, Ashok Veeraraghavan, Ashutosh Sabharwal, Mayank Kumar, James Suliburk, Ashok Veeraraghavan, Ashutosh Sabharwal, Mayank Kumar, James Suliburk, Ashok Veeraraghavan, Ashutosh Sabharwal
Measuring blood perfusion is important in medical care as an indicator of injury and disease. However, currently available devices to measure blood perfusion like laser Doppler flowmetry are bulky, expensive, and cumbersome to use. An alternative low-cost and portable camera-based blood perfusion measurement system has recently been proposed, but such camera-only system produces noisy low-resolution blood perfusion maps. In this paper, we propose a new multi-sensor modality, named PulseCam, for measuring blood perfusion by combining a traditional pulse oximeter with a video camera in a unique way to provide low noise and high-resolution blood perfusion maps...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226828/a-mathematical-model-of-ultradian-sleep-wake-regulation-in-rodents
#6
Hao Wang, Farid Yaghouby, Sridhar Sunderam, Hao Wang, Farid Yaghouby, Sridhar Sunderam, Sridhar Sunderam, Farid Yaghouby, Hao Wang
Rodent models are widely used for the experimental analysis of sleep. While this is motivated by similarities in brain circuitry and electrophysiological rhythms, unlike the circadian sleep-wake cycle in humans, rodent sleep is polyphasic, containing multiple bouts of sleep and wake minutes to hours in duration over the course of a day. Each sleep bout is punctuated by several brief arousals several seconds to minutes long. Physiologically motivated mathematical models replicate the shorter timescale of arousal within sleep, but not the longer one representing prolonged wakefulness...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226774/modeling-non-clinical-and-clinical-drug-tests-in-gaucher-disease
#7
Clyde F Phelix, Allen K Bourdon, Greg Villareal, Richard G LeBaron, Clyde F Phelix, Allen K Bourdon, Greg Villareal, Richard G LeBaron, Richard G LeBaron, Clyde F Phelix, Allen K Bourdon, Greg Villareal
There is need for modeling biological systems to accelerate drug pipelines for treating metabolic diseases. The eliglustat treatment for Gaucher disease is approved by the FDA with a companion genomic test. The Transcriptome-To-Metabolome™ biosimulation technology was used to model, in silico, a standard non-clinical eliglustat test with an in vitro canine kidney cell system over-expressing a human gene; and a clinical test using human fibroblasts from control and Gaucher disease subjects. Protein homology modeling and docking studies were included to gather affinity parameters for the kinetic metabolic model...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226615/support-vectors-machine-classification-of-surface-electromyography-for-non-invasive-naturally-controlled-hand-prostheses
#8
Karina O A Moura, Gabriela W Favieiro, Alexandre Balbinot, Karina O A Moura, Gabriela W Favieiro, Alexandre Balbinot, Karina O A Moura, Gabriela W Favieiro, Alexandre Balbinot
The scientific researches in human rehabilitation techniques have continually evolved to offer again the mobility and freedom lost to disability. Many systems managed by myoelectric signals intended to mimic the movement of the human arm still have results considered partial, which makes it subject of many researches. The use of Natural Interfaces Signal Processing methods makes possible to design systems capable of offering prosthesis in a more natural and intuitive way. This paper presents a study investigating the use of forearm surface electromyography (sEMG) signals for classification of specific movements of hand using 12 sEMG channels and support vector machine (SVM)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226428/a-model-based-exploration-of-the-role-of-pattern-generating-circuits-during-locomotor-adaptation
#9
Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley, Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley, Ali Marjaninejad, James M Finley
In this study, we used a model-based approach to explore the potential contributions of central pattern generating circuits (CPGs) during adaptation to external perturbations during locomotion. We constructed a neuromechanical modeled of locomotion using a reduced-phase CPG controller and an inverted pendulum mechanical model. Two different forms of locomotor adaptation were examined in this study: split-belt treadmill adaptation and adaptation to a unilateral, elastic force field. For each simulation, we first examined the effects of phase resetting and varying the model's initial conditions on the resulting adaptation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226409/effects-of-xylanase-supplementation-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-blood-parameters-fecal-microbiota-fecal-score-and-fecal-noxious-gas-emission-of-weaning-pigs-fed-corn-soybean-meal-based-diet
#10
Ruixia Lan, Tianshui Li, Inho Kim
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial...
February 22, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226404/the-effect-of-cortex-medulla-proportions-on-molecular-diagnoses-in-kidney-transplant-biopsies-rejection-and-injury-can-be-assessed-in-medulla
#11
Katelynn S Madill-Thomsen, Roger C Wiggins, Farsad Eskandary, Georg A Böhmig, Philip F Halloran
Histologic assessment of kidney transplant biopsies relies on cortex rather than medulla, but for microarray studies, the proportion cortex in a biopsy is typically unknown and could affect the molecular readings. The present study aimed to develop a molecular estimate of proportion cortex in biopsies and examine its effect on molecular diagnoses. Microarrays from 26 kidney transplant biopsies divided into cortex and medulla components and processed separately showed that many of the most significant differences were in glomerular genes e...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226276/different-associations-of-albuminuria-with-total-and-cardiovascular-mortality-by-concentrations-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-the-elderly
#12
Hyun-Woo Kim, Jung-Hyun Kim, Dong-Won Lee, Sang-Hyun Cho, Ji-Hoon Jung, Ki-Su Kim, Duk-Hee Lee
Epidemiologic studies have indicated that albuminuria is associated with mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), with substantial heterogeneity. We evaluated if the associations of urine albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) with all-cause and CVD mortality differed depending on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), strong lipophilic chemical mixtures with very long half-lives, which are recently linked to many degenerative diseases. Study subjects were participants of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 who were 60 years or older at baseline (n=1215 and 1067 for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and other POPs, respectively)...
February 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226239/structural-basis-for-the-hijacking-of-endosomal-sorting-nexin-proteins-by-chlamydia-trachomatis
#13
Blessy Paul, Hyun Sung Kim, Markus C Kerr, Wilhelmina M Huston, Rohan D Teasdale, Brett M Collins
During infection chlamydial pathogens form an intracellular membrane-bound replicative niche termed the inclusion, which is enriched with bacterial transmembrane proteins called Incs. Incs bind and manipulate host cell proteins to promote inclusion expansion and provide camouflage against innate immune responses. Sorting nexin (SNX) proteins that normally function in endosomal membrane trafficking are a major class of inclusion-associated host proteins, and are recruited by IncE/CT116. Crystal structures of the SNX5 phox-homology (PX) domain in complex with IncE define the precise molecular basis for these interactions...
February 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226235/plant-mitochondrial-genomes-dynamics-and-mechanisms-of-mutation
#14
José M Gualberto, Kathleen J Newton
The large mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms are unusually dynamic because of recombination activities involving repeated sequences. These activities generate subgenomic forms and extensive genomic variation even within the same species. Such changes in genome structure are responsible for the rapid evolution of plant mitochondrial DNA and for the variants associated with cytoplasmic male sterility and abnormal growth phenotypes. Nuclear genes modulate these processes, and over the past decade, several of these genes have been identified...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226201/genomewide-association-study-of-alcohol-dependence-identifies-risk-loci-altering-ethanol-response-behaviors-in-model-organisms
#15
Amy E Adkins, Laura M Hack, Tim B Bigdeli, Vernell S Williamson, G Omari McMichael, Mohammed Mamdani, Alexis Edwards, Fazil Aliev, Robin F Chan, Poonam Bhandari, Richard C Raabe, Joseph T Alaimo, GinaMari G Blackwell, Arden A Moscati, Ryan S Poland, Benjamin Rood, Diana G Patterson, Dermot Walsh, John B Whitfield, Gu Zhu, Grant W Montgomery, Anjali K Henders, Nicholas G Martin, Andrew C Heath, Pamela A F Madden, Josef Frank, Monika Ridinger, Norbert Wodarz, Michael Soyka, Peter Zill, Marcus Ising, Markus M Nöthen, Falk Kiefer, Marcella Rietschel, Joel Gelernter, Richard Sherva, Ryan Koesterer, Laura Almasy, Hongyu Zhao, Henry R Kranzler, Lindsay A Farrer, Brion S Maher, Carol A Prescott, Danielle M Dick, Silviu A Bacanu, Laura D Mathies, Andrew G Davies, Vladimir I Vladimirov, Mike Grotewiel, M Scott Bowers, Jill C Bettinger, Bradley T Webb, Michael F Miles, Kenneth S Kendler, Brien P Riley
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Dependence (AD) shows evidence for genetic liability, but genes influencing risk remain largely unidentified. METHODS: We conducted a genomewide association study in 706 related AD cases and 1748 unscreened population controls from Ireland. We sought replication in 15,496 samples of European descent. We used model organisms to assess the role of orthologous genes in ethanol response behaviors. We tested one primate-specific gene for expression differences in case/control post-mortem brain tissue...
February 22, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225830/ex-vivo-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-from-donors-on-suppressive-art-can-lead-to-sustained-production-of-infectious-hiv-1-from-a-subset-of-infected-cells
#16
John K Bui, Elias K Halvas, Elizabeth Fyne, Michele D Sobolewski, Dianna Koontz, Wei Shao, Brian Luke, Feiyu F Hong, Mary F Kearney, John W Mellors
The fate of HIV-infected cells after reversal of proviral latency is not well characterized. Simonetti, et al. recently showed that CD4+ T-cells containing intact proviruses can clonally expand in vivo and produce low-level infectious viremia. We hypothesized that reversal of HIV latency by activation of CD4+ T-cells can lead to the expansion of a subset of virus-producing cells rather than their elimination. We established an ex vivo cell culture system involving stimulation of CD4+ T-cells from donors on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PMA/ionomycin (day 1-7), followed by rest (day 7-21), and then repeat stimulation (day 21-28), always in the presence of high concentrations of raltegravir and efavirenz to effectively block new cycles of viral replication...
February 22, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225781/chronic-pain-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease-linked-through-a-shared-genetic-predisposition-analysis-of-a-family-based-cohort-and-twin-study
#17
Oliver van Hecke, Lynne J Hocking, Nicola Torrance, Archie Campbell, Sandosh Padmanabhan, David J Porteous, Andrew M McIntosh, Andrea V Burri, Haruka Tanaka, Frances M K Williams, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Depression and chronic pain are the two most important causes of disability (Global Burden of Disease Study 2013). They occur together more frequently than expected and both conditions have been shown to be co-morbid with cardiovascular disease. Although shared socio-demographic risk factors (e.g. gender, deprivation) might explain the co-morbidity of these three conditions, we hypothesised that these three long-term, highly prevalent conditions co-occur and may be due to shared familial risk, and/or genetic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225575/25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-suppresses-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-and-contributes-to-rapid-virological-response-of-treatment-efficacy
#18
Jee-Fu Huang, Yu-Min Ko, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Chia-Yen Dai, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Ching-I Huang, Hua-Ling Yang, Shu-Chi Wang, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Chern Chen, Ming-Lung Yu, Wan-Long Chuang
AIM: 25-hydroxy vitamin D (Vit D) plays a role in treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (CHC). We aimed to clarify HCV replication is inhibited by Vit D in HCV replicon cells. Clinical implication was assessed for rapid virological response (RVR) and sustained virological response (SVR) among those patients receiving anti-viral therapy. METHODS: Cell survival and viral loads were observed in Con1 (genotype-1b) and J6/JFH (genotype-2a) cells treated with different doses of Vit D...
February 22, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225519/a-cytokine-pattern-that-differentiates-preseroconversion-from-postseroconversion-phases-of-primary-hiv-infection
#19
Lucia Pastor, Erica Parker, Jorge Carrillo, Victor Urrea, Laura Fuente-Soro, Durval Respeito, Chenjerai Jairoce, Inacio Mandomando, Julià Blanco, Denise Naniche
BACKGROUND: During acute HIV infection, HIV actively replicates but seroconversion has not yet occurred. Primary HIV infection (PHI) is characterized by a transient nonspecific febrile illness, a massive inflammatory response, and the progressive appearance of anti-HIV-specific antibodies. In this study, we have identified patterns of inflammatory biomarkers associated with the innate immunological reaction before completion of a full humoral response. METHODS: A symptom-based screening was used to identify acute HIV infection in the Manhiça District Hospital in Mozambique...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225210/prophylactic-drug-management-for-febrile-seizures-in-children
#20
REVIEW
Martin Offringa, Richard Newton, Martinus A Cozijnsen, Sarah J Nevitt
BACKGROUND: Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate primarily the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures; but also to evaluate any other drug intervention where there was a sound biological rationale for its use...
February 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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