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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220874/evolution-of-larval-competitiveness-and-associated-life-history-traits-in-response-to-host-shifts-in-a-seed-beetle
#1
Charles W Fox, Frank J Messina
Resource competition is frequently strong among parasites that feed within small discrete resource patches, such as seeds or fruits. The properties of a host can influence the behavioral, morphological, and life history traits of associated parasites, including traits that mediate competition within the host. For seed parasites, host size may be an especially important determinant of competitive ability. Using the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, we performed replicated, reciprocal host shifts to examine the role of seed size in determining larval competitiveness and associated traits...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220723/gold-nanoparticles-enhance-radiation-sensitization-and-suppress-colony-formation-in-a-feline-injection-site-sarcoma-cell-line-in-vitro
#2
J Z Benton, R J Williams, A Patel, K Meichner, J Tarigo, K Nagata, T D Pethel, R M Gogal
Injection Site Sarcomas (ISS) are highly invasive feline malignant tumors that are frequently associated with routine vaccination. Current treatment modalities include chemotherapy, radiation, and radical surgery. ISS have been shown to be one of the most treatment resistant of feline cancers with high rates of recurrence. Previous studies have shown that gold and other high atomic number nanoparticles have the ability to increase the dose of radiation deposited into tissue by generating secondary electrons...
December 2, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220721/novel-effect-of-methionine-enkephalin-against-influenza-a-virus-infection-through-inhibiting-tlr7-myd88-traf6-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-signaling-pathway
#3
Jing Tian, Xue Jiao, Xiaonan Wang, Jin Geng, Reizhe Wang, Ning Liu, Xinhua Gao, Noreen Griffin, Fengping Shan
The morbidity and mortality associated with influenza A virus infections, have stimulated the search for novel prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of synthetic methionine enkephalin (MENK) on mice infected by A/PR/8/34 influenza virus (H1N1) in vivo. The results showed that MENK could exert both prophylactic and therapeutic influences on infected mice, significantly improve the survival rate, relieve acute lung injury and decrease cytokine (IFN-α, IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) levels...
December 5, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220685/parental-psychopathology-adult-attachment-and-risk-of-12-month-suicidal-behaviours
#4
David Boyda, Danielle Mc Feeters, Katie Dhingra, Niall Galbraith, Danny Hinton
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which parental psychopathology and vulnerability to suicide is transmitted to offspring is not well understood. parental psychopathology and behaviour may impact upon the normal emotional and psychological adjustment of their offspring in various ways. Research shows attachment insecurities may also be a key factor in the facilitation of suicidal behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To examine adult attachment insecurities as a potential mediating pathway between parental psychopathology and 12-month suicidality...
December 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220651/replication-fork-reversal-players-and-guardians
#5
REVIEW
Annabel Quinet, Delphine Lemaçon, Alessandro Vindigni
Replication fork reversal is a rapidly emerging and remarkably frequent mechanism of fork stabilization in response to genotoxic insults. Here, we summarize recent findings that uncover key molecular determinants for reversed fork formation and describe how the homologous recombination factors BRCA1, BRCA2, and RAD51 protect these structures from extended nucleolytic degradation.
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220624/godly-homonormativity-christian-lgbt-organizing-in-contemporary-poland
#6
Magdalena Mikulak
This article discusses the emergence of Christian LGBT organizing in Poland and the production of what I term 'godly homonormativity' via a particular strand of organizing exemplified by Wiara i Tęcza (WiT; Faith and Rainbow). I argue that despite being an important initiative representing people - LGBT Christians - whose voices are often excluded from the mainstream LGBT movement, WiT's project is a largely assimilationist one, seeking acceptance within the existing, patriarchal and highly inequitable power relationship of the Catholic Church...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220522/meta-analysis-of-genome-wide-association-studies-identifies-8-novel-loci-involved-in-shape-variation-of-human-head-hair
#7
Fan Liu, Yan Chen, Gu Zhu, Pirro G Hysi, Sijie Wu, Kaustubh Adhikari, Krystal Breslin, Ewelina Pospiech, Merel A Hamer, Fuduan Peng, Charanya Muralidharan, Victor Acuna-Alonzo, Samuel Canizales-Quinteros, Gabriel Bedoya, Carla Gallo, Giovanni Poletti, Francisco Rothhammer, Maria Catira Bortolini, Rolando Gonzalez-Jose, Changqing Zeng, Shuhua Xu, Li Jin, André G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Cornelia M van Duijn, Tamar Nijsten, Susan Walsh, Wojciech Branicki, Sijia Wang, Andrés Ruiz-Linares, Timothy D Spector, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Manfred Kayser
Shape variation of human head hair shows striking variation within and between human populations, while its genetic basis is far from being understood. We performed a series of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and replication studies in a total of 28,964 subjects from 9 cohorts from multiple geographic origins. A meta-analysis of three European GWASs identified 8 novel loci (1p36.23 ERRFI1/SLC45A1, 1p36.22 PEX14, 1p36.13 PADI3, 2p13.3 TGFA, 11p14.1 LGR4, 12q13.13 HOXC13, 17q21.2 KRTAP, and 20q13.33 PTK6), and confirmed 4 previously known ones (1q21...
December 6, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220498/nkg2c-deletion-is-a-risk-factor-for-human-cytomegalovirus-viremia-and-disease-after-lung-transplantation
#8
Hannes Vietzen, Karin Pollak, Claudia Honsig, Peter Jaksch, Elisabeth Puchhammer-Stöckl
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication is limited by HCMV-specific natural-killer (NK) cell response. Distinct genetic polymorphisms, which are potentially involved in antiviral NK-cell response, have been described. Here, the association between polymorphisms at IgG1 GM3/17, FcγRIIIα/CD16a-158V/F, NKG2Cwt/del, CD226/rs727088 and rs763361, respectively, and HCMV-viremia and disease was investigated in 98 lung transplant recipients (LTRs), within 9 months after stop of post-transplant HCMV-prophylaxis. From all variants, only the NKG2Cwt/wt genotype was significantly associated with freedom from HCMV-viremia (P= 0...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220410/cleavage-of-osmosensitive-transcriptional-factor-nfat5-by-coxsackieviral-protease-2a-promotes-viral-replication
#9
Ye Qiu, Xin Ye, Huifang Mary Zhang, Paul Hanson, Guangze Zhao, Lei Tong, Ronald Xie, Decheng Yang
Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5)/Tonicity enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) is a transcription factor induced by hypertonic stress in the kidney. However, the function of NFAT5 in other organs has rarely been studied, even though it is ubiquitously expressed. Indeed, although NFAT5 was reported to be critical for heart development and function, its role in infectious heart diseases has remained obscure. In this study, we aimed to understand the mechanism by which NFAT5 interferes with infection of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a major cause of viral myocarditis...
December 8, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218486/interaction-study-between-hcv-ns5a-d2-and-ns5b-using-19f-nmr
#10
Marie Dujardin, François-Xavier Cantrelle, Guy Lippens, Xavier Hanoulle
The non structural protein 5A (NS5A) regulates the replication of the hepatitis C viral RNA through a direct molecular interaction of its domain 2 (NS5A-D2) with the RNA dependent RNA polymerase NS5B. Because of conflicting data in the literature, we study here this molecular interaction using fluorinated versions of the NS5A-D2 protein derived from the JFH1 Hepatitis C Virus strain. Two methods to prepare fluorine-labelled NS5A-D2 involving the biosynthetic incorporation of a 19F-tryptophan using 5-fluoroindole and the posttranslational introduction of fluorine by chemical conjugation of 2-iodo-N-(trifluoromethyl)acetamide with the NS5A-D2 cysteine side chains are presented...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218035/characterization-of-two-cryptic-plasmids-isolated-in-haiti-from-clinical-vibrio-cholerae-non-o1-non-o139
#12
Daniela Ceccarelli, Geneviève Garriss, Seon Y Choi, Nur A Hasan, Ramunas Stepanauskas, Mihai Pop, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
We report the complete sequence of two novel plasmids, pSDH-1 and pSDH-2, isolated from clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 during the early phase of the 2010 Haitian cholera epidemic. Plasmids were revealed by employing single-cell genomics and their genome content suggests self-mobilization and, for pSDH-2, a toxin-antitoxin (TA) system for plasmid stabilization was identified. The putative origin of replication of pSDH-2 was mapped suggesting it replicates following the ColE1 model of plasmid replication...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218034/replication-of-staphylococcal-resistance-plasmids
#13
REVIEW
Stephen M Kwong, Joshua P Ramsay, Slade O Jensen, Neville Firth
The currently widespread and increasing prevalence of resistant bacterial pathogens is a significant medical problem. In clinical strains of staphylococci, the genetic determinants that confer resistance to antimicrobial agents are often located on mobile elements, such as plasmids. Many of these resistance plasmids are capable of horizontal transmission to other bacteria in their surroundings, allowing extraordinarily rapid adaptation of bacterial populations. Once the resistance plasmids have been spread, they are often perpetually maintained in the new host, even in the absence of selective pressure...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217996/switching-between-multiple-codes-of-snarc-like-associations-two-conceptual-replication-attempts-with-anodal-tdcs-in-sham-controlled-cross-over-design
#14
Philipp A Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
In societies with left-to-right reading direction, left-side vs. right-side behavioral decisions are faster for relatively small vs. large number magnitudes, and vice versa, a phenomenon termed Spatial-Numerical Associations of Response Codes (SNARC) effect. But also for non-numerical sequential items, SNARC-like effects were observed, suggesting a common neurocognitive mechanism based on the ordinal structures of both numbers and sequences. Modulation of prefrontal networks that are involved in providing spatial associations during cognitive behavior can contribute to elaborate their neuropsychological theoretical foundations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217835/bayesian-prediction-intervals-for-assessing-p-value-variability-in-prospective-replication-studies
#15
Olga Vsevolozhskaya, Gabriel Ruiz, Dmitri Zaykin
Increased availability of data and accessibility of computational tools in recent years have created an unprecedented upsurge of scientific studies driven by statistical analysis. Limitations inherent to statistics impose constraints on the reliability of conclusions drawn from data, so misuse of statistical methods is a growing concern. Hypothesis and significance testing, and the accompanying P-values are being scrutinized as representing the most widely applied and abused practices. One line of critique is that P-values are inherently unfit to fulfill their ostensible role as measures of credibility for scientific hypotheses...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217771/rad52-is-required-for-rna-templated-recombination-repair-in-post-mitotic-neurons
#16
Starr Welty, Yaqun Teng, Zhuobin Liang, Weixing Zhao, Laurie Sanders, J Timothy Greenamyre, Maria Eulalia Rubio, Amantha Thathiah, Ravindra Kodali, Ronald Wetzel, Arthur S Levine, Li Lan
It has been long assumed that post-mitotic neurons only utilize the error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway to repair double strand breaks (DSBs) associated with oxidative damage to DNA, given the inability of non-replicating neuronal DNA to utilize a sister chromatid template in the less error-prone homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway. However, we and others recently have found that active transcription triggers a replication-independent recombinational repair mechanism in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217524/mir-29a-a-potential-therapeutic-target-and-promising-biomarker-in-tumors
#17
Jin-Yan Wang, Qian Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Wei Yan, Huan-Huan Sha, Jian-Hua Zhao, Su-Jin Yang, He-da Zhang, Jun-Chen Hou, Han-Zi Xu, Yun-Jie He, Jia-Hua Hu, Shan-Liang Zhong, Jin-Hai Tang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNA molecules, were recognized to be associated with the incidence and development of diverse neoplasms. MiRNAs were small non-coding RNAs that could regulate post-transcription level by binding to 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Among which, miR-29a was demonstrated that it had significant impacts on oncogenicity in various neoplasms through binding to critical genes which enhanced or inhibited the progression of cancers. MiR-29a participated in kinds of physiological and pathological processes, including virus replication, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, fibrosis, angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, metastasis, drug-resistance and so on...
December 7, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217392/influence-of-traffic-on-build-up-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-urban-road-surfaces-a-bayesian-network-modelling-approach
#18
Yingxia Li, Ziliang Jia, Buddhi Wijesiri, Ningning Song, Ashantha Goonetilleke
Due to their carcinogenic effects, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposited on urban surfaces are a major concern in the context of stormwater pollution. However, the design of effective pollution mitigation strategies is challenging due to the lack of reliability in stormwater quality modelling outcomes. Current modelling approaches do not adequately replicate the interdependencies between pollutant processes and their influential factors. Using Bayesian Network modelling, this research study characterised the influence of vehicular traffic on the build-up of the sixteen US EPA classified priority PAHs...
December 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217369/influence-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-given-to-infants-in-south-india
#19
Edward P K Parker, Ira Praharaj, Anna Zekavati, Robin P Lazarus, Sidhartha Giri, Darwin J Operario, Jie Liu, Eric Houpt, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Beate Kampmann, Jacob John, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly
Oral rotavirus vaccines have consistently proven to be less immunogenic among infants in developing countries. Discrepancies in the intestinal microbiota, including a greater burden of enteropathogens and an altered commensal community composition, may contribute to this trend by inhibiting the replication of vaccine viruses. To test this possibility, we performed a nested case-control study in Vellore, India, in which we compared the intestinal microbiota of infants who responded serologically or not after two doses of Rotarix delivered at 6 and 10 weeks of age as part of a clinical trial (CTRI/2012/05/002677)...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217279/wild-type-human-coronaviruses-prefer-cell-surface-tmprss2-to-endosomal-cathepsins-for-cell-entry
#20
Kazuya Shirato, Miyuki Kawase, Shutoku Matsuyama
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) enter cells via two distinct pathways: the endosomal pathway using cathepsins to activate spike protein and the cell-surface or early endosome pathway using extracellular proteases such as transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). We previously reported that clinical isolates of HCoV-229E preferred cell-surface TMPRSS2 to endosomal cathepsin for cell entry, and that they acquired the ability to use cathepsin L by repeated passage in cultured cells and were then able to enter cells via the endosomal pathway...
December 4, 2017: Virology
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