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Decisional capacity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876273/the-macarthur-competence-assessment-tools-for-assessing-decision-making-capacity-in-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis
#1
Shi-Bin Wang, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Chee H Ng, Ren-Rong Wu, Jijun Wang, Yu-Tao Xiang
OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aimed to examine the decisional capacity measured by the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tools (MacCAT) in schizophrenia. METHOD: English (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Cochrane Library databases and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register) and Chinese (Wan Fang Database and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure) databases were systematically and independently searched from 1995 until August 1, 2016. Weighted and standardized mean differences were calculated...
November 18, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874181/ags-position-statement-making-medical-treatment-decisions-for-unbefriended-older-adults
#2
Timothy W Farrell, Eric Widera, Lisa Rosenberg, Craig D Rubin, Aanand D Naik, Ursula Braun, Alexia Torke, Ina Li, Caroline Vitale, Joseph Shega
In this position statement, we define unbefriended older adults as patients who: (1) lack decisional capacity to provide informed consent to the medical treatment at hand; (2) have not executed an advance directive that addresses the medical treatment at hand and lack capacity to do so; and (3) lack family, friends or a legally authorized surrogate to assist in the medical decision-making process. Given the vulnerable nature of this population, clinicians, health care teams, ethics committees and other stakeholders working with unbefriended older adults must be diligent when formulating treatment decisions on their behalf...
November 22, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872409/complexity-analysis-of-decision-making-in-the-critically-ill
#3
Barbara J Daly, Sara L Douglas, Elizabeth O'Toole, James Rowbottom, Alan Hoffer, Amy R Lipson, Christopher Burant
RATIONALE: Despite multiple trials of interventions to improve end-of-life care of the critically ill, there is a persistent lack of understanding of factors associated with barriers to decision-making at the end of life. OBJECTIVE: To apply the principles of complexity science in examining the extent to which transitions to end-of-life care can be predicted by physician, family, or patient characteristics; outcome expectations; and the evaluation of treatment effectiveness...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806700/autonomy-of-the-child-in-the-south-african-context-is-a-12%C3%A2-year-old-of-sufficient-maturity-to-consent-to-medical-treatment
#4
Wandile Ganya, Sharon Kling, Keymanthri Moodley
BACKGROUND: A child is a developing person with evolving capacities that include autonomy, mental (decisional) capacity and capacity to assume responsibility. Hence, children are entitled to participatory (autonomy) rights in South Africa as observed in the Children's Act 38 of 2005. According to section 129 of the Act a child may consent to his or her own medical treatment provided that he or she is over the age of 12 years and is of sufficient maturity and decisional capacity to understand the various implications of the treatment including the risks and benefits thereof...
November 2, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669132/the-limits-of-informed-consent-for-an-overwhelmed-patient-clinicians-role-in-protecting-patients-and-preventing-overwhelm
#5
Johan Bester, Cristie M Cole, Eric Kodish
In this paper, we examine the limits of informed consent with particular focus on ways in which various factors can overwhelm decision-making capacity. We introduce overwhelm as a phenomenon commonly experienced by patients in clinical settings and distinguish between emotional overwhelm and informational overload. We argue that in these situations, a clinician's primary duty is prevention of harm and suggest ways in which clinicians can discharge this obligation. To illustrate our argument, we consider the clinical application of genetic sequencing testing, which involves scientific and technical information that can compromise the understanding and decisional capacity of most patients...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591409/enhancing-the-informed-consent-process-in-psychiatric-outpatients-with-a-brief-computer-based-method
#6
Inés Morán-Sánchez, Aurelio Luna, Maria D Pérez-Cárceles
Informed consent is a key element of ethical clinical research. Those with mental disorders may be at risk for impaired consent capacity. Problems with procedures may also contribute to patient's ´difficulties in understanding consent forms. The present investigation explores if a brief technologically based information presentation of the informed consent process may enhance psychiatric patients understanding and satisfaction. In this longitudinal, within-participants comparison study, patients who initially were judged to lack capacity to make research decisions (n=41) and a control group (n=47) were followed up...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27556657/nurses-perception-of-shared-decision-making-processes-quantifying-a-shared-governance-culture
#7
Sally O Gerard, Deborah L Owens, Patricia Oliver
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe how measuring the perceived and desired decision-making capacity of nurses in a model of shared governance (SG) can be beneficial. BACKGROUND: Shared governance (SG) increases nurse's control over professional practice. Engagement in SG can be impacted by how much decision-making power nurses desire. This concept related to decision making has been termed decisional involvement (DI). Few studies exist that examine the concept of DI...
September 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27551024/assessment-of-healthcare-decision-making-capacity
#8
REVIEW
Barton W Palmer, Alexandrea L Harmell
It is often necessary for neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, and other healthcare professionals to assess an individual's capacity to consent to treatment related to healthcare. This task can be challenging and requires a delicate balance of both respect for individuals' autonomy, as well as the protection of individuals with diminished capacity to make an autonomous decision. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of the conceptual model of decisional capacity as well as a brief summary of some of the currently available instruments designed to help evaluate medical decision making...
September 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506235/conceptual-models-and-guidelines-for-clinical-assessment-of-financial-capacity
#9
Daniel Marson
The ability to manage financial affairs is a life skill of critical importance, and neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to assess financial capacity across a variety of settings. Sound clinical assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of applicable clinical conceptual models and principles. However, the literature has presented relatively little conceptual guidance for clinicians concerning financial capacity and its assessment. This article seeks to address this gap. The article presents six clinical models of financial capacity : (1) the early gerontological IADL model of Lawton, (2) the clinical skills model and (3) related cognitive psychological model developed by Marson and colleagues, (4) a financial decision-making model adapting earlier decisional capacity work of Appelbaum and Grisso, (5) a person-centered model of financial decision-making developed by Lichtenberg and colleagues, and (6) a recent model of financial capacity in the real world developed through the Institute of Medicine...
September 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27430317/understanding-communication-pathways-to-foster-community-engagement-for-health-improvement-in-north-west-pakistan
#10
Monique Lhussier, Nicola Lowe, Elizabeth Westaway, Fiona Dykes, Mick McKeown, Akhtar Munir, Saba Tahir, Mukhtiar Zaman
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the community engagement process undertaken to ascertain the focus, development and implementation of an intervention to improve iodised salt consumption in rural communities in North West Pakistan. The Jirga is a traditional informal structure, which gathers men respected within their community and acts in a governing and decision-making capacity in the Pukhtoon culture. The Jirga system had a dual purpose for the study: to access men from the community to discuss the importance of iodised salt, and as an engagement process for the intervention...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27406696/can-playing-an-end-of-life-conversation-game-motivate-people-to-engage-in-advance-care-planning
#11
Lauren J Van Scoy, Michael J Green, Jean M Reading, Allison M Scott, Cynthia H Chuang, Benjamin H Levi
BACKGROUND: Advance care planning (ACP) involves several behaviors that individuals undertake to prepare for future medical care should they lose decision-making capacity. The goal of this study was to assess whether playing a conversation game could motivate participants to engage in ACP. METHODS: Sixty-eight English-speaking, adult volunteers (n = 17 games) from communities around Hershey, Pennsylvania, and Lexington, Kentucky, played a conversation card game about end-of-life issues...
July 12, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404612/decisional-capacity-to-consent-to-clinical-research-involving-placebo-in-psychiatric-patients
#12
Giovanna Parmigiani, Gabriele Mandarelli, Claudia Dacquino, Pieritalo Pompili, Giovanni Lelli Chiesa, Stefano Ferracuti
Evidence from a few studies indicates the existence of several issues related to psychiatric patients' decisional capacity to give informed consent to clinical research. Clinicians often face difficulties in acquiring valid informed consent in clinical practice and even more so in drug trials. Participants often fail to fully understand or retain information regarding the actual implications of research protocols. The Brief Assessment for Consent to Clinical Research (BACO) was developed to investigate capacity to consent to clinical trials and further compare patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparisons' decisional capacity...
March 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27371804/advanced-age-and-decisional-capacity-the-effect-of-age-on-the-ability-to-make-health-care-decisions
#13
Susanne Boettger, Meredith Bergman, Josef Jenewein, Soenke Boettger
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive disorders, including dementia, have been shown to be predictors of decisional incapacity, even more than psychotic or substance use disorders. Nonetheless, the impact of advanced age on decisional capacity remains understudied. METHOD: Out of more than 2500 consecutive psychiatric consultations performed by the Consultation-Liaison service at Bellevue Hospital Center in New York City, 266 completed decisional capacity assessments were identified and analyzed with respect to the indications for referral and the impact of age and other sociodemographic, medical and psychiatric variables on decisional capacity...
September 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260552/shared-decision-making-in-the-ed-ethical-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Chadd K Kraus, Catherine A Marco
The process of shared decision making (SDM) is an ethical imperative in the physician-patient relationship, especially in the emergency department (ED), where SDM can present unique challenges because patients and emergency physicians often have no established relationship and decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and disposition are time dependent. SDM should be guided by the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice and the related principle of stewardship of finite resources...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27185621/ethical-considerations-in-recruiting-online-and-implementing-a-text-messaging-based-hiv-prevention-program-with-gay-bisexual-and-queer-adolescent-males
#15
Michele L Ybarra, Tonya L Prescott, Gregory L Phillips, Jeffrey T Parsons, Sheana S Bull, Brian Mustanski
PURPOSE: There is a dearth of HIV prevention/healthy sexuality programs developed for adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) as young as 14 years old, in part because of the myriad ethical concerns. To address this gap, we present our ethics-related experiences implementing Guy2Guy, a text messaging-based HIV prevention/healthy sexuality program, in a randomized controlled trial of 302 14- to 18-year-old sexual minority males. METHODS: Potential risks and efforts to reduce these risks are discussed within the framework of the Belmont Report: Respect for persons, beneficence (e...
July 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157344/theory-and-practice-of-pediatric-bioethics
#16
Lainie Friedman Ross
This article examines two typical bioethics frameworks: the "Four Principles" by Beauchamp and Childress, and the "Four Boxes" by Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade. I show how they are inadequate to address the ethical issues raised by pediatrics, in part because they do not pay adequate attention to families. I then consider an alternate framework proposed by Buchanan and Brock that focuses on four questions that must be addressed for the patient who lacks decisional capacity. This model also does not give adequate respect for the family, particularly the intimate family...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27120287/there-are-all-kinds-of-rights
#17
Paul S Appelbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26984048/balancing-digital-information-sharing-and-patient-privacy-when-engaging-families-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#18
Samuel M Brown, Hanan J Aboumatar, Leslie Francis, John Halamka, Ronen Rozenblum, Eileen Rubin, Barbara Sarnoff Lee, Jeremy Sugarman, Kathleen Turner, Micah Vorwaller, Dominick L Frosch
Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may lack decisional capacity and may depend on proxy decision makers (PDMs) to make medical decisions on their behalf. High-quality information-sharing with PDMs, including through such means as health information technology, could improve communication and decision making and could potentially minimize the psychological consequences of an ICU stay for both patients and their family members. However, alongside these anticipated benefits of information-sharing are risks of unwanted disclosure of sensitive information...
September 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963803/the-beneficial-and-detrimental-effects-of-major-depression-on-intuitive-decision-making
#19
Carina Remmers, Sascha Topolinski, Alice Buxton, Detlef E Dietrich, Johannes Michalak
Intuitions play a central role in everyday life decision-making but little is known regarding this capacity during depression. Thus, in Study 1, N = 39 depressed in-patients completed two well-established tasks, assessing intuitions of visual and semantic coherence. In the semantic coherence task, patients judged whether presented words triads were coherent (e.g. SALT DEEP FOAM, related to SEA) or not (e.g. DREAM BALL BOOK, no denominator). In the visual coherence task, patients judged whether blurred pictures depicted real-life objects (coherent) or not (incoherent)...
March 10, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26956520/which-medical-and-social-decision-topics-are-important-after-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-from-the-perspectives-of-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-spouses-and-professionals
#20
Katharina Bronner, Robert Perneczky, Rose McCabe, Alexander Kurz, Johannes Hamann
BACKGROUND: The relevance of early decision making will rise with increasing availability of early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using brain imaging or biomarkers. RESULTS: Five people with mild AD, six relatives and 13 healthcare professionals with experience in the management of AD were interviewed in a qualitative study regarding medical and social decision topics that emerge after early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Medical treatment, assistance in everyday life and legal issues emerged as the main decision topics after an early diagnosis of AD...
2016: BMC Research Notes
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