Read by QxMD icon Read

Decisional capacity

Johan Bester, Cristie M Cole, Eric Kodish
In this paper, we examine the limits of informed consent with particular focus on ways in which various factors can overwhelm decision-making capacity. We introduce overwhelm as a phenomenon commonly experienced by patients in clinical settings and distinguish between emotional overwhelm and informational overload. We argue that in these situations, a clinician's primary duty is prevention of harm and suggest ways in which clinicians can discharge this obligation. To illustrate our argument, we consider the clinical application of genetic sequencing testing, which involves scientific and technical information that can compromise the understanding and decisional capacity of most patients...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Inés Morán-Sánchez, Aurelio Luna, Maria D Pérez-Cárceles
Informed consent is a key element of ethical clinical research. Those with mental disorders may be at risk for impaired consent capacity. Problems with procedures may also contribute to patient's ´difficulties in understanding consent forms. The present investigation explores if a brief technologically based information presentation of the informed consent process may enhance psychiatric patients understanding and satisfaction. In this longitudinal, within-participants comparison study, patients who initially were judged to lack capacity to make research decisions (n=41) and a control group (n=47) were followed up...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Sally O Gerard, Deborah L Owens, Patricia Oliver
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe how measuring the perceived and desired decision-making capacity of nurses in a model of shared governance (SG) can be beneficial. BACKGROUND: Shared governance (SG) increases nurse's control over professional practice. Engagement in SG can be impacted by how much decision-making power nurses desire. This concept related to decision making has been termed decisional involvement (DI). Few studies exist that examine the concept of DI...
September 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
Barton W Palmer, Alexandrea L Harmell
It is often necessary for neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, and other healthcare professionals to assess an individual's capacity to consent to treatment related to healthcare. This task can be challenging and requires a delicate balance of both respect for individuals' autonomy, as well as the protection of individuals with diminished capacity to make an autonomous decision. The purpose of the present review is to provide an overview of the conceptual model of decisional capacity as well as a brief summary of some of the currently available instruments designed to help evaluate medical decision making...
September 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Daniel Marson
The ability to manage financial affairs is a life skill of critical importance, and neuropsychologists are increasingly asked to assess financial capacity across a variety of settings. Sound clinical assessment of financial capacity requires knowledge and appreciation of applicable clinical conceptual models and principles. However, the literature has presented relatively little conceptual guidance for clinicians concerning financial capacity and its assessment. This article seeks to address this gap. The article presents six clinical models of financial capacity : (1) the early gerontological IADL model of Lawton, (2) the clinical skills model and (3) related cognitive psychological model developed by Marson and colleagues, (4) a financial decision-making model adapting earlier decisional capacity work of Appelbaum and Grisso, (5) a person-centered model of financial decision-making developed by Lichtenberg and colleagues, and (6) a recent model of financial capacity in the real world developed through the Institute of Medicine...
September 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Monique Lhussier, Nicola Lowe, Elizabeth Westaway, Fiona Dykes, Mick McKeown, Akhtar Munir, Saba Tahir, Mukhtiar Zaman
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the community engagement process undertaken to ascertain the focus, development and implementation of an intervention to improve iodised salt consumption in rural communities in North West Pakistan. The Jirga is a traditional informal structure, which gathers men respected within their community and acts in a governing and decision-making capacity in the Pukhtoon culture. The Jirga system had a dual purpose for the study: to access men from the community to discuss the importance of iodised salt, and as an engagement process for the intervention...
2016: BMC Public Health
Lauren J Van Scoy, Michael J Green, Jean M Reading, Allison M Scott, Cynthia H Chuang, Benjamin H Levi
BACKGROUND: Advance care planning (ACP) involves several behaviors that individuals undertake to prepare for future medical care should they lose decision-making capacity. The goal of this study was to assess whether playing a conversation game could motivate participants to engage in ACP. METHODS: Sixty-eight English-speaking, adult volunteers (n = 17 games) from communities around Hershey, Pennsylvania, and Lexington, Kentucky, played a conversation card game about end-of-life issues...
July 12, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Giovanna Parmigiani, Gabriele Mandarelli, Claudia Dacquino, Pieritalo Pompili, Giovanni Lelli Chiesa, Stefano Ferracuti
Evidence from a few studies indicates the existence of several issues related to psychiatric patients' decisional capacity to give informed consent to clinical research. Clinicians often face difficulties in acquiring valid informed consent in clinical practice and even more so in drug trials. Participants often fail to fully understand or retain information regarding the actual implications of research protocols. The Brief Assessment for Consent to Clinical Research (BACO) was developed to investigate capacity to consent to clinical trials and further compare patients with schizophrenia and healthy comparisons' decisional capacity...
March 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Susanne Boettger, Meredith Bergman, Josef Jenewein, Soenke Boettger
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive disorders, including dementia, have been shown to be predictors of decisional incapacity, even more than psychotic or substance use disorders. Nonetheless, the impact of advanced age on decisional capacity remains understudied. METHOD: Out of more than 2500 consecutive psychiatric consultations performed by the Consultation-Liaison service at Bellevue Hospital Center in New York City, 266 completed decisional capacity assessments were identified and analyzed with respect to the indications for referral and the impact of age and other sociodemographic, medical and psychiatric variables on decisional capacity...
September 2016: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Chadd K Kraus, Catherine A Marco
The process of shared decision making (SDM) is an ethical imperative in the physician-patient relationship, especially in the emergency department (ED), where SDM can present unique challenges because patients and emergency physicians often have no established relationship and decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and disposition are time dependent. SDM should be guided by the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice and the related principle of stewardship of finite resources...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Michele L Ybarra, Tonya L Prescott, Gregory L Phillips, Jeffrey T Parsons, Sheana S Bull, Brian Mustanski
PURPOSE: There is a dearth of HIV prevention/healthy sexuality programs developed for adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) as young as 14 years old, in part because of the myriad ethical concerns. To address this gap, we present our ethics-related experiences implementing Guy2Guy, a text messaging-based HIV prevention/healthy sexuality program, in a randomized controlled trial of 302 14- to 18-year-old sexual minority males. METHODS: Potential risks and efforts to reduce these risks are discussed within the framework of the Belmont Report: Respect for persons, beneficence (e...
July 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Lainie Friedman Ross
This article examines two typical bioethics frameworks: the "Four Principles" by Beauchamp and Childress, and the "Four Boxes" by Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade. I show how they are inadequate to address the ethical issues raised by pediatrics, in part because they do not pay adequate attention to families. I then consider an alternate framework proposed by Buchanan and Brock that focuses on four questions that must be addressed for the patient who lacks decisional capacity. This model also does not give adequate respect for the family, particularly the intimate family...
2016: Perspectives in Biology and Medicine
Paul S Appelbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2016: Hastings Center Report
Samuel M Brown, Hanan J Aboumatar, Leslie Francis, John Halamka, Ronen Rozenblum, Eileen Rubin, Barbara Sarnoff Lee, Jeremy Sugarman, Kathleen Turner, Micah Vorwaller, Dominick L Frosch
Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may lack decisional capacity and may depend on proxy decision makers (PDMs) to make medical decisions on their behalf. High-quality information-sharing with PDMs, including through such means as health information technology, could improve communication and decision making and could potentially minimize the psychological consequences of an ICU stay for both patients and their family members. However, alongside these anticipated benefits of information-sharing are risks of unwanted disclosure of sensitive information...
September 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Carina Remmers, Sascha Topolinski, Alice Buxton, Detlef E Dietrich, Johannes Michalak
Intuitions play a central role in everyday life decision-making but little is known regarding this capacity during depression. Thus, in Study 1, N = 39 depressed in-patients completed two well-established tasks, assessing intuitions of visual and semantic coherence. In the semantic coherence task, patients judged whether presented words triads were coherent (e.g. SALT DEEP FOAM, related to SEA) or not (e.g. DREAM BALL BOOK, no denominator). In the visual coherence task, patients judged whether blurred pictures depicted real-life objects (coherent) or not (incoherent)...
March 10, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Katharina Bronner, Robert Perneczky, Rose McCabe, Alexander Kurz, Johannes Hamann
BACKGROUND: The relevance of early decision making will rise with increasing availability of early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using brain imaging or biomarkers. RESULTS: Five people with mild AD, six relatives and 13 healthcare professionals with experience in the management of AD were interviewed in a qualitative study regarding medical and social decision topics that emerge after early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Medical treatment, assistance in everyday life and legal issues emerged as the main decision topics after an early diagnosis of AD...
2016: BMC Research Notes
Joseph R Sweigart, Bruce Bradley, Alla Y Grigorian
The care of patients with advanced liver disease is often complicated by episodes of acute decline in alertness and cognition, termed hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hospitalists must be familiar with HE, as it is a common reason for hospitalization in this population and is associated with significantly increased mortality. This narrative review addresses common issues related to diagnosis and classification, precipitants, inpatient management, and transitions of care for patients with HE. The initial presentation can be variable, and HE remains a clinical diagnosis...
August 2016: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Katie L Doyle, Steven Paul Woods, Erin E Morgan, Jennifer E Iudicello, Marizela V Cameron, Paul E Gilbert, Jessica Beltran
Individuals living with HIV show moderate decision-making deficits, though no prior studies have evaluated the ability to make optimal health-related decisions across the HIV healthcare continuum. Forty-three HIV+ individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND+), 50 HIV+ individuals without HAND (HAND-), and 42 HIV- participants were administered two measures of health-related decision-making as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery: (1) The Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS), and (2) The Modified UCSD Brief Assessment for Capacity to Consent (UBACC-T)...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Douglas P Olsen
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) represent a shift from more coercive to more recovery-oriented care and hold the promise of empowering patients while helping fill the gap in treatment of non-dangerous patients lacking decision-making capacity. Advance directives for end-of-life and psychiatric care share an underlying rationale of extending respect for patient autonomy and preventing the harm of unwanted treatment for patients lacking the decision-making capacity to participate meaningfully in planning their care...
January 2016: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Samuel Maiser, Ashish Kabir, David Sabsevitz, Wendy Peltier
Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a rare neurologic disorder rendering an individual quadriplegic and anarthric with preserved self-awareness and normal if not near-normal cognition. A lesion to the ventral pons causes the classic form of LIS, and patients can typically interact with their environment with eye/eyelid movements. LIS patients may live for years with preserved quality of life (QoL) and cognitive function, but with severe disability. However, medical providers and family often underestimate the patient's QoL, and choose less aggressive care...
April 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"