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Serotonin depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435083/subchronic-glucocorticoids-glutathione-depletion-and-a-postpartum-model-elevate-monoamine-oxidase-a-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-rats
#1
Sofia Raitsin, Junchao Tong, Stephen Kish, Xin Xu, Lilia Magomedova, Carolyn Cummins, Ana C Andreazza, Gustavo Scola, Glen Baker, Jeffrey H Meyer
Recent human brain imaging studies implicate dysregulation of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), in particular in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study investigates the influence of four alterations underlying important pathologies of MDD, namely, chronic elevation of glucocorticoid levels, glutathione depletion, changes in female gonadal sex hormones and serotonin concentration fluctuation, on MAO-A and MAO-B activity in rats...
April 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433458/linking-the-biological-underpinnings-of-depression-role-of-mitochondria-interactions-with-melatonin-inflammation-sirtuins-tryptophan-catabolites-dna-repair-and-oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-with-consequences-for-classification-and-cognition
#2
REVIEW
George Anderson
The pathophysiological underpinnings of neuroprogressive processes in recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are reviewed. A wide array of biochemical processes underlie MDD presentations and their shift to a recurrent, neuroprogressive course, including: increased immune-inflammation, tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), mitochondrial dysfunction, aryl hydrocarbonn receptor activation, and oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), as well as decreased sirtuins and melatonergic pathway activity. These biochemical changes may have their roots in central, systemic and/or peripheral sites, including in the gut, as well as in developmental processes, such as prenatal stressors and breastfeeding consequences...
April 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432778/cross-species-studies-of-cognition-relevant-to-drug-discovery-a-translational-approach
#3
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430979/effect-of-physical-exercise-and-acute-escitalopram-on-the-excitability-of-brain-monoamine-neurons-in-vivo-electrophysiological-study-in-rats
#4
Eliyahu Dremencov, Kristína Csatlósová, Barbora Durišová, Lucia Lapínová, Lubica Lacinová, Daniela Ježová
Background: The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running (VWR) on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Material and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428507/-opioid-therapy-and-management-of-side-effects-associated-with-opioids
#5
Toshihiko Nakatani
Opioids are very useful medications to reduce suffering of cancer patients such as refractory pain and dyspnea. We physicians have to use opioids to have good management of pain and suffering associated with cancer including management of side effects caused by opioids. Opioids couple opioid receptors and affect several pharmacological effects. Other than analgesic effect, opioids have some side effects of constipation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression. In this chapter, I take important side effects of constipation, nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression...
April 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426945/testosterone-levels-in-healthy-men-correlate-negatively-with-serotonin-4-receptor-binding
#6
Erik Perfalk, Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Klaus K Holst, Sune Keller, Claus Svarer, Gitte M Knudsen, Vibe G Frokjaer
The serotonergic system integrates sex steroid information and plays a central role in mood and stress regulation, cognition, appetite and sleep. This interplay may be critical for likelihood of developing depressive episodes, at least in a subgroup of sensitive individuals. The serotonin 4 receptor (5-HT4R) indexes central serotonergic tonus, which may be related to endogenous sex-steroid levels in the mentally healthy state even though this remains elusive. Here we evaluate if peripheral levels of estradiol and testosterone are associated with 5-HT4R binding as imaged by [(11)C]SB207145 positron emission tomography in a group of 41 healthy men...
March 22, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424070/antidepressant-use-and-cognitive-decline-in-community-dwelling-elderly-people-the-three-city-cohort
#7
Isabelle Carrière, Joanna Norton, Amandine Farré, Marilyn Wyart, Christophe Tzourio, Pernelle Noize, Karine Pérès, Annie Fourrier-Réglat, Karen Ritchie, Marie Laure Ancelin
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is very common in late-life depression, principally affecting executive skills and information processing speed. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of antidepressant treatment on cognitive performances over a 10-year period. METHODS: The community-based cohort included 7381 participants aged 65 years and above. Five cognitive domains (verbal fluency, psychomotor speed, executive function, visuospatial skills and global cognition) were assessed up to five times over 10 years of follow-up...
April 19, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423154/association-of-mental-disorders-and-related-medication-use-with-risk-for-major-osteoporotic-fractures
#8
James M Bolton, Suzanne N Morin, Sumit R Majumdar, Jitender Sareen, Lisa M Lix, Helena Johansson, Anders Odén, Eugene V McCloskey, John A Kanis, William D Leslie
Importance: Osteoporotic fractures are a leading cause of disability, costs, and mortality. FRAX is a tool used to assess fracture risk in the general population. Mental disorders and medications to treat them have been reported to adversely affect bone health, but, to date, they have not been systematically studied in relation to osteoporotic fractures. Objective: To examine the association of mental disorders and psychotropic medication use with osteoporotic fracture risk in routine clinical practice...
April 19, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421287/-age-89-years-depression-fall-with-pelvic-fracture-severe-confusion-serotonin-syndrome-differential-diagnosis-importance-of-cyp450-and-economic-considerations
#9
REVIEW
W Weinrebe, A Moutaouakil, K Risz, M Martin, K Jeckelmann, S Goetz
A case study of an 89-year-old patient is reported, who was admitted to hospital because of immobility due to pain. After the cause of the pain could initially be clarified and treated, the further clinical course in this very old woman showed an alarming symptom complex of agitation, confusion and cognitive deterioration, which took on grave forms. The work-up of this case showed a typical constellation of pain and depression in old age; however, the pharmaceutical treatment in this case is not atypical and could lead to a severe serotonin syndrome...
April 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420875/down-regulation-of-cholinergic-signaling-in-the-habenula-induces-anhedonia-like-behavior
#10
Seungrie Han, Soo Hyun Yang, Jin Yong Kim, Seojung Mo, Esther Yang, Ki Myung Song, Byung-Joo Ham, Naguib Mechawar, Gustavo Turecki, Hyun Woo Lee, Hyun Kim
Dysfunction of cholinergic signaling in the brain has long been believed to be associated with depressive disorders. However, the functional impact of habenular cholinergic signaling on the specified depressive behaviors is not well understood. Here, we demonstrated that the expression levels of cholinergic signaling genes (CHAT, VACHT, CHT, CHRNA3, CHRNB3 and CHRNB4) were down-regulated in a chronic restraint stress (CRS) rat model of depression, in which rats display depression-like behaviors such as anhedonia and mood despair...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418941/prenatal-fluoxetine-modifies-the-behavioral-and-hormonal-responses-to-stress-in-male-mice-role-for-glucocorticoid-insensitivity
#11
Ronit Avitsur
Women with major depressive disorder during pregnancy often use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressants. These drugs readily cross the placental barrier and impact the developing fetal brain. Recently, we reported that prenatal fluoxetine (FLX), an SSRI antidepressant drug, altered corticosterone and behavioral responses to stress in female mouse offspring. The present study assessed the effects of prenatal FLX on these responses in males. The results showed that prenatal FLX significantly augmented the corticosterone response to acute stress in young prepubescent mice...
April 17, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416295/depressive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-and-dopamine-and-serotonin-gene-polymorphisms
#12
Vjekoslav Peitl, Mario Štefanović, Dalibor Karlović
Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores...
April 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415022/simultaneous-determination-of-tryptophan-and-8-metabolites-in-human-plasma-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#13
Lysiane Boulet, Patrice Faure, Patrice Flore, Julien Montérémal, Véronique Ducros
Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino-acid and the precursor of many biologically active substances such as kynurenine (KYN) and serotonin (5HT). Its metabolism is involved in different physiopathological states, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, immunomodulation or depression. Hence, the quantification of Trp catabolites, from both KYN and 5HT pathways, might be usefulfor the discovery of novel diagnostic and follow-up biomarkers. We have developed a simple method for quantification of Trp and 8 of its metabolites,involved in both KYN and 5HT pathways, using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414989/role-of-cortical-alpha-2-adrenoceptors-in-alcohol-withdrawal-induced-depression-and-tricyclic-antidepressants
#14
Bruk Getachew, Sheketha R Hauser, Antonei B Csoka, Robert E Taylor, Yousef Tizabi
INTRODUCTION: Although a role for alpha-2 adrenoceptors (alpha-2 ARs) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and depression is suggested, very little information on a direct interaction between alcohol and these receptors is available. METHODS: In this study adult female Wistar and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression, were exposed to alcohol vapor 3h daily for 10days (blood alcohol concentration ∼150mg%) followed by daily injection of 10mg/kg of imipramine (IMP, a selective norepinephrine NE/serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or nomifensine (NOMI, a selective NE/dopamine reuptake inhibitor)...
April 4, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414050/a-study-of-time-and-sex-dependent-effects-of-vortioxetine-on-rat-sexual-behavior-possible-roles-of-direct-receptor-modulation
#15
Yan Li, Alan L Pehrson, Ronald S Oosting, Maria Gulinello, Berend Olivier, Connie Sanchez
Treatment-related sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of antidepressants and contributes to patient non-compliance or treatment cessation. However, the multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, demonstrates low sexual side effects in depressed patients. To investigate the mechanisms involved, sexual behavior was assessed in male and female rats after acute, and repeated (7 and 14 days) treatment with vortioxetine, flesinoxan (a 5-HT1A agonist), CP-94253 (a 5-HT1B agonist), or ondansetron (a 5-HT3 antagonist)...
April 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412602/secondary-outcomes-from-the-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-treatment-study-ii
#16
Christine A Conelea, Robert R Selles, Kristen G Benito, Michael M Walther, Jason T Machan, Abbe M Garcia, Jeffrey Sapyta, Sarah Morris, Martin Franklin, Jennifer B Freeman
The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study II (POTS II) investigated the benefit of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) augmentation with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Primary outcomes focused on OCD symptom change and indicated benefit associated with a full course of CBT. Given that the majority of youth with OCD suffer from significant comorbid symptoms and impaired quality of life, the current study examined POTS II data for effects on secondary outcomes. Participants were 124 youth ages 7-17 years with a primary diagnosis of OCD who were partial responders to an adequate SRI trial...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407526/the-impact-of-antidepressants-on-seizure-frequency-and-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-of-patients-with-epilepsy-is-it-worth-investigating
#17
Ramses Ribot, Bichun Ouyang, Andres M Kanner
PURPOSE: Depression and anxiety disorders in patients with epilepsy (PWE) remain under-recognized and under-treated, despite being the most common psychiatric co-morbidities. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are considered first-line treatment for primary depression and anxiety disorders. We performed this study to investigate if SSRIs and SNRIs could affect the seizure frequency of PWE and to assess whether such effect is independent of the response of the mood and anxiety disorders to these drugs...
April 10, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407315/drugs-with-antidepressant-properties-affect-tryptophan-metabolites-differently-in-rodent-models-with-depression-like-behavior
#18
Amanda Eskelund, Yan Li, David P Budac, Heidi K Müller, Gulinello Maria, Connie Sanchez, Gregers Wegener
The metabolism of tryptophan through kynurenine and serotonin pathways is linked to depression. Here, effects of different drugs with antidepressant properties (vortioxetine, fluoxetine and ketamine) on various tryptophan metabolites in different brain regions and plasma were examined using tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic rat model of depression, and its controls: Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Protein levels of kynurenine pathway enzymes were measured in the brains and livers of these rat strains...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406285/serotonin-and-serotonin-transporters-in-the-adrenal-medulla-a-potential-hub-for-modulation-of-the-sympathetic-stress-response
#19
Rebecca L Brindley, Mary Beth Bauer, Randy D Blakely, Kevin P M Currie
Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system where it modulates circuits involved in mood, cognition, movement, arousal, and autonomic function. The 5-HT transporter (SERT; SLC6A4) is a key regulator of 5-HT signaling, and genetic variations in SERT are associated with various disorders including depression, anxiety, and autism. This review focuses on the role of SERT in the sympathetic nervous system. Autonomic/sympathetic dysfunction is evident in patients with depression, anxiety, and other diseases linked to serotonergic signaling...
April 13, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397412/prevalence-incidence-indication-and-choice-of-antidepressants-in-patients-with-and-without-chronic-kidney-disease-a-matched-cohort-study-in-uk-clinical-practice-research-datalink
#20
Masao Iwagami, Laurie A Tomlinson, Kathryn E Mansfield, Helen I McDonald, Liam Smeeth, Dorothea Nitsch
PURPOSE: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and neuropathic pain. We examined prevalence, incidence, indication for, and choice of antidepressants among patients with and without CKD. METHODS: Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified patients with CKD (two measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73m(2) for ≥3 months) between April 2004 and March 2014...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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