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TREM2 CX3CR1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26806371/differential-detection-of-impact-site-versus-rotational-site-injury-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-microglial-morphology-in-an-unrestrained-mild-closed-head-injury-model
#1
Alfredo Hernandez, Virgina Donovan, Yelena Y Grinberg, Andre Obenaus, Monica J Carson
Seventy-five percent of all traumatic brain injuries are mild and do not cause readily visible abnormalities on routine medical imaging making it difficult to predict which individuals will develop unwanted clinical sequelae. Microglia are brain-resident macrophages and early responders to brain insults. Their activation is associated with changes in morphology or expression of phenotypic markers including P2Y12 and major histocompatibility complex class II. Using a murine model of unrestrained mild closed head injury (mCHI), we used microglia as reporters of acute brain injury at sites of impact versus sites experiencing rotational stress 24 h post-mCHI...
January 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25574134/a-comprehensive-profile-of-chip-seq-based-pu-1-spi1-target-genes-in-microglia
#2
Jun-Ichi Satoh, Naohiro Asahina, Shouta Kitano, Yoshihiro Kino
Microglia are resident mononuclear phagocytes that play a principal role in the maintenance of normal tissue homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia, rapidly activated in response to proinflammatory stimuli, are accumulated in brain lesions of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. The E26 transformation-specific (ETS) family transcription factor PU.1/Spi1 acts as a master regulator of myeloid and lymphoid development. PU.1-deficient mice show a complete loss of microglia, indicating that PU...
2014: Gene Regulation and Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24725889/microglial-activation-mediates-host-neuronal-survival-induced-by-neural-stem-cells
#3
Hui-Mei Wu, Li-Feng Zhang, Pei-Shang Ding, Ya-Jing Liu, Xu Wu, Jiang-Ning Zhou
The rational of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the therapy of neurological disease is either to replace dead neurons or to improve host neuronal survival, the latter of which has got less attention and the underlying mechanism is as yet little known. Using a transwell co-culture system, we reported that, in organotypic brain slice cultures, NSCs significantly improved host neuronal viability. Interestingly, this beneficial effect of NSCs was abrogated by a microglial inhibitor minocycline, while it was mimicked by a microglial agonist, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) ligand CpG-ODN, which supports the pro-vital mediation by microglia on this NSCs-improved neuronal survival...
July 2014: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23630462/factors-regulating-microglia-activation
#4
Katrin Kierdorf, Marco Prinz
Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that display high functional similarities to other tissue macrophages. However, it is especially important to create and maintain an intact tissue homeostasis to support the neuronal cells, which are very sensitive even to minor changes in their environment. The transition from the "resting" but surveying microglial phenotype to an activated stage is tightly regulated by several intrinsic (e.g., Runx-1, Irf8, and Pu.1) and extrinsic factors (e...
2013: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23301011/attenuated-inflammatory-response-in-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-2-trem2-knock-out-mice-following-stroke
#5
Matthias W Sieber, Nadine Jaenisch, Martin Brehm, Madlen Guenther, Bettina Linnartz-Gerlach, Harald Neumann, Otto W Witte, Christiane Frahm
BACKGROUND: Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) is a microglial surface receptor involved in phagocytosis. Clearance of apoptotic debris after stroke represents an important mechanism to re-attain tissue homeostasis and thereby ensure functional recovery. The role of TREM2 following stroke is currently unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: As an experimental stroke model, the middle cerebral artery of mice was occluded for 30 minutes with a range of reperfusion times (duration of reperfusion: 6 h/12 h/24 h/2 d/7 d/28 d)...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21087476/genome-wide-promoter-analysis-of-histone-modifications-in-human-monocyte-derived-antigen-presenting-cells
#6
Liina Tserel, Raivo Kolde, Ana Rebane, Kai Kisand, Tõnis Org, Hedi Peterson, Jaak Vilo, Pärt Peterson
BACKGROUND: Monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are important in inflammatory processes and are often used for immunotherapeutic approaches. Blood monocytes can be differentiated into macrophages and DCs, which is accompanied with transcriptional changes in many genes, including chemokines and cell surface markers. RESULTS: To study the chromatin modifications associated with this differentiation, we performed a genome wide analysis of histone H3 trimethylation on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and 27 (H3K27me3) as well as acetylation of H3 lysines (AcH3) in promoter regions...
2010: BMC Genomics
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