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Wen-I Liao, Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Jen-Chun Wang, Tzu-Tsao Chung, Shi-Jye Chu, Shih-Hung Tsai
Background: To determine whether the use of valproic acid (VPA) is associated with a decreased risk of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to analyze all patients newly diagnosed with SAH from 2000 to 2010. The VPA users were matched for age, gender and index date in 1:2 ratios with randomly selected non-VPA users as a comparison group. Multivariate Cox regression was used to identify the predictors of ARF and to compare the incidence rates of ARF among SAH patients using and not using VPA...
October 18, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Rui Lü, Xingna Yu, Hailing Jia, Sihan Xiao
Ground-based characteristics (optical, type, size, and radiative properties) of aerosols measured between 2005 and 2012 were investigated over the Taihu rim region, which encompasses the cities of Shanghai, Suzhou, Wuxi, and Changzhou. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed a distinct seasonal variation with the highest value in summer and the lowest AOD in winter. There was broadest frequency distribution with a multimodal structure in summer. The Ångström exponent (AE) showed high values during spring; the relative frequency of AE in the range of 0-0...
September 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Jiang-Li Wang, Jiang-Hong Wu, Cai Hong, Ya-Nong Wang, Ye Zhou, Zi-Wen Long, Ying Zhou, Hai-Shu Qin
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted in order to explore the role that Bmi-1 plays during the development of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) by regulation of the p16(Ink4A) and p14(ARF) expressions. METHODS: Eighty-six patients diagnosed with GIST were selected to take part in this experiment. The Bmi-1 protein expressions in GIST and adjacent normal tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry and further analyzed by using photodensitometry. To monitor and track the progression of the GIST, a 3-year follow-up was conducted for all affected patients...
September 18, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
Dan Song, Jiabao Zhao, Chen Su, Ying Jiang, Jingjing Hou
Lung carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. The N-Myc and STATs interactor (NMI) has been reported to take participate in lots of physiological processes, but the involvement and functional mechanisms of NMI in lung carcinoma are poorly understood. In this study, we found that etoposide induces proliferation suppression, cell apoptosis and increases caspase-3 activity in A549 cells. Furthermore, etoposide treatment up-regulates the expression of NMI and ARF, enhances the interaction of NMI and ARF and promotes the p53 transcriptional activities...
October 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Motahareh Boozari, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a life-threating disease with high mortality percentage. Two important mechanisms of ARF are inflammation and oxidative stress. Plants are rich source of antioxidant compounds and have a strong anti-inflammatory activity, so they may be useful for the treatment of ARF. Some herbal medicines are effective against different models of experimentally induced ARF such as cisplatin, gentamicin, glycerol, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Some of these plants such as ginseng, black seed, ginger, garlic, grape, pomegranate, saffron, and green tea are so famous and are effective against various models of ARF...
October 13, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Bola F Ekezue, Gayathri Sridhar, Richard A Forshee, Hector S Izurieta, Nandini Selvam, Paul D Mintz, Steven A Anderson, Mikhail D Menis
BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rare serious adverse event after immune globulin (IG) use. Our large claims-based study evaluated occurrence of same-day ARF after administration of different IGs and ascertained potential risk factors, during the 2008 to 2014 study period. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large commercial administrative database. The cohort included individuals exposed to IG products as identified by procedure codes...
October 12, 2017: Transfusion
Jing Wang, Theresa Fresquez, Vasundhara Kandachar, Dusanka Deretic
The small GTPase Arf4 and the Arf GTPase activating protein (GAP) ASAP1 cooperatively sequester sensory receptor cargo into transport carriers targeted to primary cilia, but the input that drives Arf4 activation in this process remains unknown. Here, we show that during the carrier biogenesis from the photoreceptor Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) a functional complex is formed between Arf4, the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) GBF1 and the light-sensing receptor, rhodopsin. Rhodopsin and Arf4 bind the regulatory N-terminal DCB-HUS domain of GBF1...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Manoj K Singh, Gerd Jürgens
Approximately one-third of all eukaryotic proteins are delivered to their destination by trafficking within the endomembrane system. Such cargo proteins are incorporated into forming membrane vesicles on donor compartments and delivered to acceptor compartments by vesicle fusion. How cargo proteins are sorted into forming vesicles is still largely unknown. Here we review the roles of small GTPases of the ARF/SAR1 family, their regulators designated ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs) and ARF GTPase-activating proteins (ARF-GAPs) as well as coat protein complexes during membrane vesicle formation...
October 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ruri Tsuneishi, Naoto Matsumoto, Misa Itaoka, Yuri Urai, Minami Kaneko, Natsumi Watanabe, Shou Takashima, Yoichi Seki, Takako Morimoto, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Yuki Miyamoto, Junji Yamauchi
Cytohesin-1 is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor of Arf6, a small GTPase of Arf family, and participates in cellular morphological changes. Knockout mice of cytohesin-1 exhibit decreased myelination of neuronal axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) "Phosphorylation of cytohesin-1 by Fyn is required for initiation of myelination and the extent of myelination during development (Yamauchi et al., 2012) [1]". Herein we provide the data regarding decreased phosphorylation levels of protein kinases involved in two major myelination-related kinase cascades in cytohesin-1 knockout mice...
December 2017: Data in Brief
Mehmet Giray Ersoz, Serra Arf, Murat Karacorlu, Mumin Hocaoglu, Isil Sayman Muslubas
Pachychoroid pigment epitheliopathy (PPE) is considered to be a forme fruste of central serous chorioretinopathy. Tamoxifen (Soltamax; Midatech Pharma, Raleigh, NC) has an anti-estrogenic effect on cytoplasmic estrogen receptors. Serum total testosterone, cortisol, and cortisone levels increase during tamoxifen therapy. Tamoxifen may cause hormone disturbance leading to the development of disorders in the pachychoroid spectrum. The authors present two cases of PPE associated with tamoxifen therapy. A 65-year-old woman (Patient 1) and a 52-year-old woman (Patient 2) had a recent history of tamoxifen therapy...
October 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Saeko Kitakura, Maciek Adamowski, Yuki Matsuura, Luca Santuari, Hirotaka Kouno, Kohei Arima, Christian S Hardtke, Jirí Friml, Tatsuo Kakimoto, Hirokazu Tanaka
Membrane traffic at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) is crucial for correctly distributing various membrane proteins to their destination. Polarly localized auxin efflux proteins, including PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1), are dynamically transported between the endosomes and the plasma membrane (PM) in the plant cells. The intracellular trafficking of PIN1 protein is sensitive to a fungal toxin brefeldin A (BFA), which is known to inhibit guanine-nucleotide exchange factors for ADP ribosylation factors (ARF GEFs) such as GNOM...
August 21, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hirotaka Kato, Masaru Kouno, Mayuko Takeda, Hidemasa Suzuki, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Ryuichi Nishihama, Takayuki Kohchi
Cell division patterning is important to determine body shape in plants. Nuclear auxin signaling mediated by AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors affects plant growth and development through regulation of cell division, elongation and differentiation. The evolutionary origin of the ARF-mediated pathway dates back to at least the common ancestor of bryophytes and other land plants. The liverwort Marchantia polymorpha has three phylogenetically distinct ARFs: MpARF1, the sole 'activator' ARF; and MpARF2 and MpARF3, two 'repressor' ARFs...
July 20, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Shunsuke Shibao, Noriaki Minami, Naoyoshi Koike, Nobuyuki Fukui, Kazunari Yoshida, Hideyuki Saya, Oltea Sampetrean
Background: Glioblastomas have been shown to rely on glycolysis as an energy source. However, recent evidence suggests that at least a subset of glioma cells with stem cell-like properties can thrive on oxidative phosphorylation. It remains unclear whether both metabolic phenotypes support tumor propagation, if they are independent, and how stable they are. The present study investigated these questions with the use of isogenic murine glioma stem cells (GSCs). Methods: GSCs were established from tumors formed by Ink4a/Arf-null, H-RasV12-expressing glioma-initiating cells that differed in extracellular acidification potential...
September 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
Hirotaka Kato, Ryuichi Nishihama, Dolf Weijers, Takayuki Kohchi
Auxin plays critical roles in growth and development through the regulation of cell differentiation, cell expansion, and pattern formation. The auxin signal is mainly conveyed through a so-called nuclear auxin pathway involving the receptor TIR1/AFB, the transcriptional co-repressor AUX/IAA, and the transcription factor ARF with direct DNA-binding ability. Recent progress in sequence information and molecular genetics in basal plants has provided many insights into the evolutionary origin of the nuclear auxin pathway and its pleiotropic roles in land plant development...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mark Roosjen, Sébastien Paque, Dolf Weijers
The phytohormone auxin is involved in almost all developmental processes in land plants. Most, if not all, of these processes are mediated by changes in gene expression. Auxin acts on gene expression through a short nuclear pathway that converges upon the activation of a family of DNA-binding transcription factors. These AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARFs) are thus the effector of auxin response and translate the chemical signal into the regulation of a defined set of genes. Given the limited number of dedicated components in auxin signaling, distinct properties among the ARF family probably contribute to the establishment of multiple unique auxin responses in plant development...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Pavel Cherenkov, Daria Novikova, Nadya Omelyanchuk, Victor Levitsky, Ivo Grosse, Dolf Weijers, Victoria Mironova
The phytohormone auxin regulates virtually every developmental process in land plants. This regulation is mediated via de-repression of DNA-binding auxin response factors (ARFs). ARFs bind TGTC-containing auxin response cis-elements (AuxREs), but there is growing evidence that additional cis-elements occur in auxin-responsive regulatory regions. The repertoire of auxin-related cis-elements and their involvement in different modes of auxin response are not yet known. Here we analyze the enrichment of nucleotide hexamers in upstream regions of auxin-responsive genes associated with auxin up- or down-regulation, with early or late response, ARF-binding domains, and with different chromatin states...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Wentao Wu, Yaxue Liu, Yuqian Wang, Huimin Li, Jiaxi Liu, Jiaxin Tan, Jiadai He, Jingwen Bai, Haoli Ma
The plant hormone auxin plays pivotal roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. The auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encodes short-lived nuclear proteins acting on auxin perception and signaling, but the evolutionary history of this gene family remains to be elucidated. In this study, the Aux/IAA gene family in 17 plant species covering all major lineages of plants is identified and analyzed by using multiple bioinformatics methods. A total of 434 Aux/IAA genes was found among these plant species, and the gene copy number ranges from three (Physcomitrella patens) to 63 (Glycine max)...
October 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Clément Madru, Nicolas Leulliot, Simon Lebaron
Ribosomes are central to gene expression. Their assembly is a complex and an energy consuming process. Many controls exist to make it possible a fine-tuning of ribosome production adapted to cell needs. In this review, we describe recent advances in the characterisation of the links occurring between ribosome synthesis and cell proliferation control. Defects in ribosome biogenesis directly impede cellular cycle and slow-down proliferation. Among the different factors involved, we could define the 5S particle, a ribosome sub-complex, as a key-regulator of p53 and other tumour suppressors such as pRB...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
K L Ellekjaer, T S Meyhoff, M H Møller
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess patient-important benefits and harms of therapeutic bronchoscopy vs. standard of care (no bronchoscopy) in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) according to the Cochrane Handbook and GRADE methodology, including a predefined protocol (PROSPERO no. CRD42016046235). We included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing therapeutic bronchoscopy to standard of care in critically ill patients with ARF...
November 2017: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Ali Vakili, Joseph L Hollmann, R Glynn Holt, Charles A DiMarzio
In optical imaging, the depth and resolution are limited due to scattering. Unlike light, scattering of ultrasound (US) waves in tissue is negligible. Hybrid imaging methods such as US-modulated optical tomography (UOT) use the advantages of both modalities. UOT tags light by inducing phase change caused by modulating the local index of refraction of the medium. The challenge in UOT is detecting the small signal. The displacement induced by the acoustic radiation force (ARF) is another US effect that can be utilized to tag the light...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
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