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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240824/high-abundance-of-arfgap1-found-in-the-mossy-fibers-in-hilus-of-the-dentate-gyrus-region-of-the-mouse-brain
#1
Sergiy Chornyy, Anna Parnis, Michael Shmoish, Dan Cassel
The Arf GTPase-activating protein ArfGAP1 and its brain-specific isoform ArfGAP1B play an important role in neurotransmission. Here we analyzed the distribution of ArfGAP1 in the mouse brain. We found high levels of ArfGAP1 in the mouse dentate gyrus where it displayed especially elevated level in the polymorph layer (hilus). Importantly, the ArfGAP1 signal follows the pathway of the granular cell axons so-called mossy fibers which extend from the dentate gyrus to CA3 via stratum lucidum and partially stratum oriens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237821/sequential-actions-of-phosphatidylinositol-phosphates-regulate-phagosome-lysosome-fusion
#2
Andreas Jeschke, Albert Haas
Phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes by sequential fusion with early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Phagosome-with-lysosome fusion (PLF) results in the delivery of lysosomal hydrolases into phagosomes and in digestion of the cargo. The machinery that drives PLF has been little investigated. Using a cell-free system, we recently identified the phosphoinositide lipids (PIPs) phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] as regulators of PLF. We now report the identification and the PIP requirements of four distinct sub-reactions of PLF...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237436/high-flow-nasal-cannula-oxygen-therapy-versus-conventional-oxygen-therapy-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Youfeng Zhu, Haiyan Yin, Rui Zhang, Jianrui Wei
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a common and life-threatening medical emergency in patients admitted to the hospital. Currently, there is a lack of large-scale evidence on the use of high-flow nasal cannulas (HFNC) in patients with ARF. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluated whether there were differences between HFNC therapy and conventional oxygen therapy (COT) for treating patients with ARF. METHODS: The EMBASE, Medline, and Wanfang databases and the Cochrane Library were searched...
December 13, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236994/group-g-streptococcus-induces-an-autoimmune-il-17a-ifn-%C3%AE-mediated-carditis-in-the-lewis-rat-model-of-rheumatic-heart-disease
#4
Suchandan Sikder, Natasha L Williams, Alanna E Sorenson, Md A Alim, Miranda E Vidgen, Nicole J Moreland, Catherine M Rush, Robert S Simpson, Brenda L Govan, Robert E Norton, Madeleine W Cunningham, David J McMillan, Kadaba S Sriprakash, Natkunam Ketheesan
Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease (ARF/RHD) have long been described as autoimmune sequelae of Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. Both antibody and T-cell responses against immunodominant GAS virulence factors including M-protein, cross-react with host tissue proteins triggering an inflammatory response leading to permanent heart damage. However, in some ARF/RHD endemic regions, throat carriage of GAS is low. As Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE), also known as β-hemolytic groups C and G streptococci (GCS/GGS) also express M-protein, we postulated that streptococci other than GAS may have the potential to initiate or exacerbate ARF/RHD...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236054/genome-wide-profiling-of-small-rnas-and-degradome-revealed-conserved-regulations-of-mirnas-on-auxin-responsive-genes-during-fruit-enlargement-in-peaches
#5
Mengya Shi, Xiao Hu, Yu Wei, Xu Hou, Xue Yuan, Jun Liu, Yueping Liu
Auxin has long been known as a critical phytohormone that regulates fruit development in plants. However, due to the lack of an enlarged ovary wall in the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, the molecular regulatory mechanisms of fruit division and enlargement remain unclear. In this study, we performed small RNA sequencing and degradome sequencing analyses to systematically explore post-transcriptional regulation in the mesocarp at the hard core stage following treatment of the peach (Prunus persica L.) fruit with the synthetic auxin α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA)...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235861/kras-switch-mutants-d33e-and-a59g-crystallize-in-the-state-1-conformation
#6
Jia Lu, Asim Bera, Sudershan R Gondi, Kenneth Dale Westover
KRAS switch loop movements play a crucial role in regulating RAS signaling and alteration in these sensitive dynamics are a principal mechanism through which disease-associated RAS mutations lead to aberrant RAS activation. Prior studies suggest that despite high sequence similarity, the switches in KRAS are more dynamic than HRAS. We solved x-ray crystal structures of the rare tumorigenic KRAS mutants KRASD33E, in switch 1 (SW1), and KRASA59G, in switch 2 (SW2), bound to GDP and found these adopt nearly identical, open SW1 conformations as well as altered SW2 conformations...
December 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228217/p19arf-inhibits-aggressive-progression-of-h-ras-driven-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#7
Dragana Kopanja, Akshay Pandey, Shuo Huang, Mohamed Rizwan Haroon Al Raheed, Grace Guzman, Pradip Raychaudhuri
Arf, a well-established tumor suppressor, is either mutated or downregulated in a wide array of cancers. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is controversial. Conflicting observations have been published regarding its expression in HCC. In this study, we provide clear genetic evidence demonstrating a protective role of p19Arf in hepatocarcinogenesis. Using Ras-induced mouse model, we show that p19Arf deficiency accelerates progression of aggressive HCC in vivo. To investigate the role of p14ARF in human liver cancers, we analyzed its expression in human HCC using immunohistochemistry...
December 8, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222402/elmod1-stimulates-arf6-gtp-hydrolysis-to-stabilize-apical-structures-in-developing-vestibular-hair-cells
#8
Jocelyn F Krey, Rachel A Dumont, Philip A Wilmarth, Larry L David, Kenneth R Johnson, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Sensory hair cells require control of physical properties of their apical plasma membranes for normal development and function. Members of the ARF small GTPase family regulate membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal assembly in many cells. We identified ELMOD1, a guanine nucleoside triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) for ARF6, as the most highly enriched ARF regulator in hair cells. To characterize ELMOD1 control of trafficking, we analyzed mice of both sexes from a strain lacking functional ELMOD1 (roundabout; rda)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221274/predictors-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-failure-in-immunocompromised-patients-with-acute-respiratory-failure-due-to-non-hiv-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#9
Won-Young Kim, Heungsup Sung, Sang-Bum Hong, Chae-Man Lim, Younsuck Koh, Jin Won Huh
Background: To evaluate the predictors of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) failure in pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). Methods: Fifty-two non-HIV-related PCP subjects were divided into a HFNC success group (44%) and a HFNC failure group (who required mechanical ventilation (MV) despite HFNC application) (56%). The clinical characteristics and physiologic effects were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the groups...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216180/the-ink4a-arf-locus-operates-as-a-regulator-of-the-circadian-clock-modulating-ras-activity
#10
Rukeia El-Athman, Nikolai N Genov, Jeannine Mazuch, Kaiyang Zhang, Yong Yu, Luise Fuhr, Mónica Abreu, Yin Li, Thomas Wallach, Achim Kramer, Clemens A Schmitt, Angela Relógio
The mammalian circadian clock and the cell cycle are two major biological oscillators whose coupling influences cell fate decisions. In the present study, we use a model-driven experimental approach to investigate the interplay between clock and cell cycle components and the dysregulatory effects of RAS on this coupled system. In particular, we focus on the Ink4a/Arf locus as one of the bridging clock-cell cycle elements. Upon perturbations by the rat sarcoma viral oncogene (RAS), differential effects on the circadian phenotype were observed in wild-type and Ink4a/Arf knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which could be reproduced by our modelling simulations and correlated with opposing cell cycle fate decisions...
December 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214983/insight-on-agglomerates-of-gold-nanoparticles-in-glass-based-on-surface-plasmon-resonance-spectrum-study-by-multi-spheres-t%C3%A2-matrix-method
#11
Leon Avakyan, Maximilian Heinz, Anna Skidanenko, Kirill A Yablunovskiy, Jürgen Ihlemann, Jörg Meinertz, Christian Patzig, Manfred Dubiel, Lusegen Bugaev
Formation of localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectrum of the randomly distributed gold nanoparticles in the surface layer of silicate float glass, generated and implanted by UV ArF-excimer laser irradiation of thin gold layer sputter coated on the glass surface, was studied by the T-matrix method, which enables taking into account particles agglomerates. The used experimental technique is promising to produce submicron patterns of plasmonic nanoparticles (given by laser masks or gratings) without damaging of the glass surface...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209800/long-term-variations-of-aerosol-optical-depth-and-aerosol-radiative-forcing-over-iran-based-on-satellite-and-aeronet-data
#12
F Arkian, S E Nicholson
In this study, three different sensors of satellites including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) were used to study spatial and temporal variations of aerosols over ten populated cities in Iran. Also, the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used for analyzing the origins of air masses and their trajectory in the area. An increasing trend in aerosol concentration was observed in the most studied cities in Iran during 1979-2016...
December 1, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208066/estimating-the-likely-true-changes-in-rheumatic-fever-incidence-using-two-data-sources
#13
J Oliver, N Pierse, D A Williamson, M G Baker
Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) continues to produce a significant burden of disease in New Zealand (NZ) Māori and Pacific peoples. Serious limitations in national surveillance data mean that accurate case totals cannot be generated. Given the changing epidemiology of ARF in NZ and the major national rheumatic fever prevention programme (2012-2017), we updated our previous likely true case number estimates using capture-recapture analyses. Aims were to estimate the likely true incidence of ARF in NZ and comment on the changing ability to detect cases...
December 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206487/role-of-catechins-on-et-1-induced-stimulation-of-pld-and-nadph-oxidase-activities-in-pulmonary-smooth-muscle-cells-determination-of-the-probable-mechanism-by-molecular-docking-studies
#14
Sajal Chakraborti, Jaganmay Sarkar, Rajabrata Bhuyan, Tapati Chakraborti
Treatment of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells with ET-1 stimulated PLD and NADPH oxidase activities, which were inhibited upon pretreatment with bosentan (ET-1 receptor antagonist), FIPI (PLD inhibitor), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and EGCG & ECG (catechins having galloyl group), but not EGC & EC (catechins devoid of galloyl group). Herein, we determined the probable mechanism by which the galloyl group containing catechins inhibit ET-1 induced stimulation of PLD activity by molecular docking analyses based on our biochemical studies...
December 5, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206160/comparative-analysis-of-cotton-small-rnas-and-their-target-genes-in-response-to-salt-stress
#15
Zujun Yin, Xiulan Han, Yan Li, Junjuan Wang, Delong Wang, Shuai Wang, Xiaoqiong Fu, Wuwei Ye
Small RNAs play an important role in regulating plant responses to abiotic stress. Depending on the method of salt application, whether sudden or gradual, plants may experience either salt shock or salt stress, respectively. In this study, small RNA expression in response to salt shock and long-term salt stress in parallel experiments was described. Cotton small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced under normal conditions, as well as sudden and gradual salt application. A total of 225 cotton microRNAs (miRNAs) were identified and of these 24 were novel miRNAs...
December 5, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203237/adiponectin-release-and-insulin-receptor-targeting-share-trans-golgi-dependent-endosomal-trafficking-routes
#16
Maria Rödiger, Martin W Werno, Ilka Wilhelmi, Christian Baumeier, Deike Hesse, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns, Kyungyeun Song, Michael Krauß, Annette Schürmann
OBJECTIVE: Intracellular vesicle trafficking maintains cellular structures and functions. The assembly of cargo-laden vesicles at the trans-Golgi network is initiated by the ARF family of small GTPases. Here, we demonstrate the role of the trans-Golgi localized monomeric GTPase ARFRP1 in endosomal-mediated vesicle trafficking of mature adipocytes. METHODS: Control (Arfrp1flox/flox) and inducible fat-specific Arfrp1 knockout (Arfrp1iAT-/-) mice were metabolically characterized...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196555/ral-gtpases-biology-and-potential-as-therapeutic-targets-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Chao Yan, Dan Theodorescu
More than a hundred proteins comprise the RAS superfamily of small GTPases. This family can be divided into RAS, RHO, RAB, RAN, ARF, and RAD subfamilies, with each shown to play distinct roles in human cells in both health and disease. The RAS subfamily has a well-established role in human cancer with the three genes, HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS being the commonly mutated in tumors. These RAS mutations, most often functionally activating, are especially common in pancreatic, lung, and colorectal cancers. Efforts to inhibit RAS and related GTPases have produced inhibitors targeting the downstream effectors of RAS signaling, including inhibitors of the RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)-ERK kinase pathway and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase-AKT-mTOR kinase pathway...
January 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194409/auxin-information-processing-partners-and-interactions-beyond-the-usual-suspects
#18
REVIEW
Thea van den Berg, Kirsten H Ten Tusscher
Auxin plays a major role in a variety of processes involved in plant developmental patterning and its adaptation to environmental conditions. Therefore, an important question is how specificity in auxin signalling is achieved, that is, how a single signalling molecule can carry so many different types of information. In recent years, many studies on auxin specificity have been published, unravelling increasingly more details on differential auxin sensitivity, expression domains and downstream partners of the auxin receptors (transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1) and other auxin signaling F-box proteins (AFB)), transcriptional repressors that are degraded in response to auxin (AUX/IAA) and downstream auxin response factors (ARF) that together constitute the plant's major auxin response pathways...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189607/the-effect-of-the-oral-probiotic-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-on-group-a-streptococcus-pharyngitis-a-pragmatic-trial-in-schools
#19
Hélène Doyle, Nevil Pierse, Ramona Tiatia, Deborah Williamson, Michael Baker, Julian Crane
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the oral probiotic S. salivarius K12 (K12) in preventing Group A streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis in 5-14 year old children at high risk of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). New Zealand has high rates of ARF amongst Māori and Pacific children. Children were already enrolled in a school based Ministry of Health throat swabbing and treatment program. Children self-identified and reported sore throats daily and were swabbed twice weekly...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185453/dysregulation-of-yap-by-arf-stimulated-with-tea-derived-carbon-nanodots
#20
Yingqiu Xie, Qinglei Sun, Ayan A Nurkesh, Jiang Lu, Sholpan Kauanova, Jinhong Feng, Darkhan Tursynkhan, Qing Yang, Aishabibi Kassymbek, Mirat Karibayev, Korlan Duisenova, Haiyan Fan, Xiao Wang, Limara Manarbek, Aisulu Maipas, Zhenbang Chen, Mannix P Balanay
YAP is a downstream nuclear transcription factor of Hippo pathway which plays an essential role in development, cell growth, organ size and homeostasis. It was previously identified that elevation of YAP in genomics of genetic engineered mouse (GEM) model of prostate cancer is associated with Pten/Trp53 inactivation and ARF elevation hypothesizing the essential crosstalk of AKT/mTOR/YAP with ARF in prostate cancer. However, the detailed function and trafficking of YAP in cancer cells remains unclear. Using GEM microarray model, we found ARF dysregulates Hippo and Wnt pathways...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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