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Lim Beng Leong, Ng Wei Ming, Lee Wei Feng
We reviewed the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) versus high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen in adult acute respiratory failure (ARF). We searched major databases and included randomized trials comparing at least NIV with HFNC or NIV+HFNC with NIV in ARF. Primary outcomes included intubation/re-intubation rates. Secondary outcomes were ICU mortality and morbidities. Five trials were included; three compared HFNC with NIV, one compared HFNC, NIV and oxygen whereas one compared HFNC+NIV with NIV. Patients had hypoxaemic ARF (PaO2/FiO2≤300 mmHg)...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
Juliette Ferlin, Rayan Farhat, Sandrine Belouzard, Laurence Cocquerel, Antoine Bertin, Didier Hober, Jean Dubuisson, Yves Rouillé
GBF1 has emerged as a host factor required for the replication of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses of different families, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. GBF1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf family members. Recently, we identified Arf4 and Arf5 (class II Arfs) as host factors required for the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV), a GBF1-dependent virus. To assess whether a GBF1/class II Arf pathway is conserved among positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, we investigated yellow fever virus (YFV), Sindbis virus (SINV), coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Plant somatic cells can be reprogrammed by in vitro tissue culture methods, and massive genome-wide chromatin remodeling occurs particularly during callus formation. Since callus tissue resembles root primordium, tissue identity conversion is essentially required when leaf explants are used. Consistent with the fact that differentiation state is defined by chromatin structure that permits limited gene profiles, epigenetic changes underlie the cellular reprogramming for tissue identity changes. Although a histone methylation process suppressing leaf identity during leaf-to-callus transition has been demonstrated, the epigenetic factor involved in activation of lateral root identity is still elusive...
June 19, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Sandeep Donagaon, Mala Dharmalingam
Objectives: Glycemic excursions are commonly seen in patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and are related to adverse outcomes. Glycemic gap is a marker of this excursion in patients with diabetes. It can be used to predict adverse outcomes in patients with diabetes admitted to the ICU. It is calculated by subtracting A1C-derived average glucose (ADAG) = ([28.7 × HbA1c]-46.7) from plasma glucose at admission. Objective of this study was to correlate glycemic gap and adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) admitted to the ICU...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Vijay Hadda, Gopal Chawla, Pawan Tiwari, Karan Madan, Maroof Ahmad Khan, Anant Mohan, Gopi C Khilnani, Randeep Guleria
Purpose of the Study: Data regarding the use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) for treatment of acute respiratory failure (ARF) among patients with noncystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis are limited. We intend to describe our experience with NIV use in this setting. Methodology: This was a retrospective study which included 99 patients with bronchiectasis and ARF who required either NIV or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Results: NIV was started as the primary modality of ventilatory support in 81 (66...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Xinyu Zhang, Qingmin Wang, Zhen Lyu, Xuehua Gao, Pengpeng Zhang, Haoming Lin, Yanrong Guo, Tianfu Wang, Siping Chen, Xin Chen
BACKGROUND: The pathological or physiological changes of a crystalline lens directly affect the eye accommodation and transmittance, and then they increase the risk of presbyopia and cataracts for people in the middle and old age groups. There is no universally accepted quantitative method to measure the lens' mechanical properties in vivo so far. This study aims to investigate the possibility of assessing the age-related stiffness change of crystalline lens by acoustic-radiation-force-based ultrasound elastography (ARF-USE) in a rabbit model in vivo...
June 13, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Pasqualina M Coffey, Anna P Ralph, Vicki L Krause
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) poses a major disease burden among disadvantaged populations globally. It results from acute rheumatic fever (ARF), a complication of Group A Streptococcal (GAS) infection. These conditions are acknowledged as diseases of poverty, however the role of specific social and environmental factors in GAS infection and progression to ARF/RHD is not well understood. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the association between social determinants of health and GAS infection, ARF and RHD, and the effect of interventions targeting these...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kun Liu, Yihao Li, Xuena Chen, Lijuan Li, Kai Liu, Heping Zhao, Yingdian Wang, Shengcheng Han
The phytohormones brassinosteroid (BR), auxin, and gibberellin (GA) regulate photomorphogenesis-related hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis via the cooperative interaction of BZR-ARF-PIF/DELLA (BAP/D) transcription factors/regulators. Moreover, ethylene activates the PIF3 or ERF1 pathway through EIN3/EIL1 to balance hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis seedlings. However, how ethylene is coordinated with other phytohormones to ensure light-regulated hypocotyl growth remains elusive. Here, we found that hypocotyl cell elongation is regulated by a connection among ethylene, auxin, and BR signalling, which is mediated by interactions among ERF72, ARF6, and BZR1...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Guanghui Xiao, Peng He, Peng Zhao, Hao Liu, Li Zhang, Chaoyou Pang, Jianing Yu
Auxin signaling plays an essential role in regulating plant development. Auxin response factors (ARFs), which are critical components of auxin signaling, modulate the expression of early auxin-responsive genes by binding to auxin response factor elements (AuxRE). However, there has been no comprehensive characterization of this gene family in cotton. Here, we identified 56 GhARF genes in the assembled Gossypium hirsutum genome. This gene family was divided into 17 subfamilies, and 44 members of them were distributed across 21 chromosomes...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Sergio Rivas, Inés M Antón, Francisco Wandosell
Wild-type p53 (wtp53) is described as a tumour suppressor gene, and mutations in p53 occur in many human cancers. Indeed, in high-grade malignant glioma, numerous molecular genetics studies have established central roles of RTK-PI3K-PTEN and ARF-MDM2-p53 INK4a-RB pathways in promoting oncogenic capacity. Deregulation of these signalling pathways, among others, drives changes in the glial/stem cell state and environment that permit autonomous growth. The initially transformed cell may undergo subsequent modifications, acquiring a more complete tumour-initiating phenotype responsible for disease advancement to stages that are more aggressive...
June 9, 2018: Cancers
Alexander T Taguchi, Daijiro Ohmori, Sergei A Dikanov, Toshio Iwasaki
Interpretation of magnetic resonance data in the context of structural and chemical biology requires prior knowledge of the g-tensor directions for paramagnetic metallo-cofactors with respect to the protein structural frame. Access to this information is often limited by the strict requirement of suitable protein crystals for single-crystal electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, or the reliance on protons (with ambiguous locations in crystal structures) near the paramagnetic metal site. Here we develop a novel pulsed EPR approach with selective 13 Cβ -cysteine labeling of model [2Fe-2S] proteins to help bypass these problems...
June 11, 2018: Biochemistry
Francesco Mignolli, Maria L Vidoz, Piero Picciarelli, Lorenzo Mariotti
In tomato, auxin and gibberellins (GAs) interact with each other to drive fruit growth and development. While the role of auxin in directing GA biosynthesis and signal is already known, very little information has been obtained about GA-mediated control of auxin signalling and response. Interestingly, we show that GA3 is able to modify the expression of several auxin signalling genes in the partial auxin-insensitive diageotropica (dgt) mutant, suggesting that GAs may override the control of DGT on auxin signal...
June 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Sindy M Villacrés, Shivanand S Medar, Scott I Aydin
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill children and develops in association with organ system dysfunction, with acute respiratory failure (ARF) one of the most common. We aim to study AKI in the pediatric ARF population. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on children aged 1 day to 18 years admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with ARF between 2010 and 2013. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses utilizing Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon signed rank, χ2 , or Fisher's exact tests were performed to identify risk factors associated with AKI...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Qing Chao, Zhi-Fang Gao, Dong Zhang, Biligen-Gaowa Zhao, Feng-Qin Dong, Chun-Xiang Fu, Li-Jun Liu, Bai-Chen Wang
The Populus shoot undergoes primary growth (longitudinal growth) followed by secondary growth (radial growth), which produces biomass that is an important source of energy worldwide. We adopted joint PacBio Iso-Seq and RNA-seq analysis to identify differentially expressed transcripts along a developmental gradient from the shoot apex to the fifth internode of Populus Nanlin895. We obtained 87,150 full-length transcripts, including 2,081 new isoforms and 62,058 new alternatively spliced isoforms, most of which were produced by intron retention, that were used to update the Populus annotation...
May 31, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Andela Horvat, Jennifer M Noto, Balamurugan Ramatchandirin, Elena Zaika, Manikandan Palrasu, Jinxiong Wei, Barbara G Schneider, Wael El-Rifai, Richard M Peek, Alexander I Zaika
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is one of the strongest risk factors for development of gastric cancer. Although these bacteria infect approximately half of the world's population, only a small fraction of infected individuals develops gastric malignancies. Interactions between host and bacterial virulence factors are complex and interrelated, making it difficult to elucidate specific processes associated with H. pylori-induced tumorigenesis. In this study, we found that H. pylori inhibits p14ARF tumor suppressor by inducing its degradation...
May 30, 2018: Oncogene
Jennifer Alagu, Yoko Itahana, Faizal Sim, Sheng-Hao Chao, Xuezhi Bi, Koji Itahana
The ability of cells to induce the appropriate transcriptional response to inflammatory stimuli is crucial for the timely induction of host defense mechanisms. Although a role for tumor suppressor p14ARF (ARF) in the innate immune response was previously demonstrated, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. ARF is a potent upregulator of protein SUMOylation; however, no association of this function with the immune system has been made. In this study, we show the unique role of ARF in IFN-γ-induced immune response using human cell lines...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yulin Wang, Gefei Guan, Wen Cheng, Yang Jiang, Fengping Shan, Anhua Wu, Peng Cheng, Zongze Guo
BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults with a poor prognosis. As a member of ARF subfamily GTPase, ARL2 plays a key role in regulating the dynamics of microtubules and mitochondrial functions. Recently, ARL2 has been identified as a prognostic and therapeutic target in a variety range of malignant tumors. However, the biological functional role of ARL2 in glioma still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the expression and functional role of ARL2 in glioma...
May 29, 2018: BMC Cancer
Katrin Brockhaus, Michael R R Böhm, Harutyun Melkonyan, Solon Thanos
Increased β-synuclein (Sncb) expression has been described in the aging visual system. Sncb functions as the physiological antagonist of α-synuclein (Snca), which is involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. However, the exact function of Sncb remains unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the age-dependent role of Sncb in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). BMECs were isolated from the cortices of 5- to 9-d-old Sprague-Dawley rats and were cultured with different concentrations of recombinant Sncb (rSncb) up to 72 h resembling to some degree age-related as well as pathophysiological conditions...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
Carole Philipponnet, Lucie Cassagnes, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Louis Kemeny, Mojgan Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Alexandre Lautrette, Claude Guerin, Bertrand Souweine
BACKGROUND: Open lung biopsy (OLB) is a rare procedure in intensive care units (ICUs) for therapeutic management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). The purpose of this study was to analyze the diagnostic yield, therapeutic contribution and complications of OLB in ICU patients with ARF of unclear etiology, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ARDS mimics. METHODS: Retrospective study conducted in a 10-bed ICU over a 13-year period. Patients undergoing OLB for ARF with undiagnosed infiltrates on CT scan were included...
2018: PloS One
Sinem Gungor, Feyza Kargin, Ilim Irmak, Fulya Ciyiltepe, Eylem Acartürk Tunçay, Pinar Atagun Guney, Emine Aksoy, Birsen Ocakli, Nalan Adiguzel, Zuhal Karakurt
Background: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to COPD have high mortality and morbidity. Acidosis has several harmful effects on hemodynamics and metabolism, and the current knowledge regarding the relationship between respiratory acidosis severity on the short- and long-term survival of COPD patients is limited. We hypothesized that COPD patients with severe acidosis would have a poorer short- and long-term prognosis compared with COPD patients with mild-to-moderate acidosis...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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