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Lijuan Jiang, Xin Liang, Gan Liu, Yun Zhou, Xinyu Ye, Xiuli Chen, Qianwei Miao, Li Gao, Xudong Zhang, Lin Mei
Protein nanocapsules have exhibited promising potential applications in the field of protein drug delivery. A major issue with various promising nano-sized biotherapeutics including protein nanocapsules is that owing to their particle size they are subject to cellular uptake via endocytosis, and become entrapped and then degraded within endolysosomes, which can significantly impair their therapeutic efficacy. In addition, many nano-sized biotherapeutics could be also sequestered by autophagosomes and degraded through the autolysosomal pathway...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
A Patterson, A Hure, T Burrows, J Jackson, C Collins
BACKGROUND: Better diets, as evaluated by diet quality indices, are associated with lower rates of morbidity and mortality. Although governments and researchers alike recognise the burden that obesity incurs for increased healthcare spending, there is insufficient evidence for the role of diet quality on healthcare costs. METHODS: Diet quality was assessed by the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) for 6328 women aged 50-55 years from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Aram Ko, Su Yeon Han, Jaewhan Song
ARF is a tumor suppressor protein that has a pivotal role in the prevention of cancer development through regulating cell proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. As a factor that induces senescence, the role of ARF as a tumor suppressor is closely linked to the p53-MDM2 axis, which is a key process that restrains tumor formation. Thus, many cancer cells either lack a functional ARF or p53, which enables them to evade cell oncogenic stress-mediated cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis. In particular, the ARF gene is a frequent target of genetic and epigenetic alterations including promoter hypermethylation or gene deletion...
April 18, 2018: Molecules and Cells
Kazuhide Miyamoto, Kazuki Saito
Protein ubiquitination is involved in many cellular processes, such as protein degradation, DNA repair, and signal transduction pathways. Ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzymes of the ubiquitination pathway are associated with various cancers, such as leukemia, lung cancer, and gastric cancer. However, to date, detection of E2 activities is not practicable for capturing the pathological conditions of cancers due to complications related to the enzymatic cascade reaction. To overcome this hurdle, we have recently investigated a novel strategy for measuring E2 activities...
April 16, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Andrea Kurucz, Mariann Bombicz, Rita Kiss, Dániel Priksz, Balázs Varga, Tibor Hortobágyi, György Trencsényi, Renáta Szabó, Anikó Pósa, Rudolf Gesztelyi, Zoltán Szilvássy, Béla Juhász
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive impairment. Physical exercise has long been proven to be beneficial in the disorder. The present study was designed to examine the effect of voluntary exercise on spatial memory, imaging, and pathological abnormalities. Particular focus has been given to the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-an important cellular cytoprotectant in preserving mental acuity-using an aging rat model of dementia. Male and female Wistar rats were segregated into six groups-namely, (i) aged sedentary (control) females (ASF, n = 8); (ii) aged sedentary (control) males (ASM, n = 8); (iii) aged running females (ARF, n = 8); (iv) aged running males (ARM, n = 8); (v) young control females (YCF, n = 8); and (vi) young control males (YCM, n = 8)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Marian Olaru, Daniel Duvinage, Enno Lork, Jens Beckmann, Stefan Stebs
Kinetically stabilized congeners of carbenes, R2C, possessing six valence electrons (four bonding electrons and two non-bonding electrons) have been restricted to group 14 elements, R2E (E = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; R = alkyl or aryl), whereas the isoelectronic group 15 cations, divalent species of type [R2E]+ (E = P, As, Sb, Bi; R = alkyl or aryl), were unknown. Here, we report the first two examples, namely, the bismuthenium ion [(2,6-Mes2C6H3)2Bi][BArF4] (1, Mes = 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, ArF = 3,5-(CF3)2C6H3) and the stibenium ion [(2,6-Mes2C6H3)2Sb][B(C6F5)4] (2), which were obtained using a combination of bulky meta-terphenyl substituents and weakly coordinating anions...
April 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Xin Zhou, Lei Zhang, Shi-Jie Fu, Gang Liu, Xiao-Guang Guo, Gang Yi, Yang Liu, Guo-You Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Shaoyangzhugu (SYZG) Formula (a formula consisting of 9 traditional Chinese drugs) in delaying the degeneration of articular cartilage and the role p19Arf -p53-p21Cip1 signaling pathway in mediating this effect. METHOD: Thirteen aged cynomolgus monkeys with degenerative knee joints were selected based on X-ray findings, and one of them was randomly selected for pathological observation. The other monkeys were randomized equally into SYZG Formula group (treated with SYZG decoction), ammonia moxime group and saline group...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Hushuai Nie, Yumei Wang, Ying Su, Jinping Hua
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines provide crucial material to harness heterosis for crop plants, which serves as an important strategy for hybrid seed production. However, the molecular mechanism remains obscure. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in vegetative growth and reproductive growth, there are few reports on miRNAs regulating the development of male sterility in Upland cotton. In present study, 12 small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced for two development stages of flower buds from a CMS line and its maintainer line...
April 7, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Giorgio Conti, Giorgia Spinazzola, Cesare Gregoretti, Giuliano Ferrone, Andrea Cortegiani, Olimpia Festa, Marco Piastra, Luca Tortorolo, Roberta Costa
BACKGROUND: To compare, in terms of patient-ventilator interaction and performance, a new nasal mask (Respireo, AirLiquide, FR) with the Endotracheal tube (ET) and a commonly used nasal mask (FPM, Fisher and Paykel, NZ) for delivering Pressure Support Ventilation (PSV) in an infant model of Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF). METHODS: An active test lung (ASL 5000) connected to an infant mannequin through 3 different interfaces (Respireo, ET and FPM), was ventilated with a standard ICU ventilator set in PSV...
April 7, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Chad D Viscusi, Garrett S Pacheco
Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has emerged as a powerful tool for the pediatric emergency management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). This therapy is safe and well tolerated and seems to frequently prevent both the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and the associated risks/complications. Although NIV can be the primary treatment of ARF resulting from multiple respiratory disease states, it must be meticulously monitored and, when unsuccessful, may aid in preoxygenation for prompt endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Husnain Ahmed, Ghulam Destgeer, Jinsoo Park, Jin Ho Jung, Hyung Jin Sung
A particle suspended in a fluid within a microfluidic channel experiences a direct acoustic radiation force (ARF) when traveling surface acoustic waves (TSAWs) couple with the fluid at the Rayleigh angle, thus producing two components of the ARF. Most SAW-based microfluidic devices rely on the horizontal component of the ARF to migrate prefocused particles laterally across a microchannel width. Although the magnitude of the vertical component of the ARF is more than twice the magnitude of the horizontal component, it is long ignored due to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel fabrication limitations and difficulties in particle focusing along the vertical direction...
February 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Hong Wang, XiaoXiao Chang, Jing Lin, Youhong Chang, Jen-Chih Chen, Michael S Reid, Cai-Zhong Jiang
The genetic regulatory mechanisms that govern natural corolla senescence in petunia are not well understood. To identify key genes and pathways that regulate the process, we performed a transcriptome analysis in petunia corolla at four developmental stages, including corolla fully opening without anther dehiscence (D0), corolla expansion, 2 days after anthesis (D2), corolla with initial signs of senescence (D4), and wilting corolla (D7). We identified large numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), ranging from 4626 between the transition from D0 and D2, 1116 between D2 and D4, a transition to the onset of flower senescence, and 327 between D4 and D7, a developmental stage representing flower senescence...
2018: Horticulture Research
Hee-Seung Choi, Minji Seo, Hyung-Taeg Cho
Auxin signaling is finalized by activator auxin response factors (aARFs) that are released from Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) repressors and directly activate auxin-responsive genes. However, it remains to be answered how repressor ARFs (rARFs) exert their repression function. In this study, we assessed the molecular and biological functions of two putative co-repressor-binding motifs (EAR and RLFGI) of ARF2 (a rARF) in Arabidopsis thaliana . In the yeast two-hybrid assay, the EAR mutation moderately and the RLFGI mutation, or both motifs, almost completely disrupted the interaction between the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL) and the repressive motifs-containing middle domain (MD) of ARF2...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Francesco Tiezzi, Maria E Arceo, John B Cole, Christian Maltecca
BACKGROUND: Calving difficulty or dystocia has a great economic impact in the US dairy industry. Reported risk factors associated with calving difficulty are feto-pelvic disproportion, gestation length and conformation. Different dairy cattle breeds have different incidence of calving difficulty, with Holstein having the highest dystocia rates and Jersey the lowest. Genomic selection becomes important especially for complex traits with low heritability, where the accuracy of conventional selection is lower...
April 2, 2018: BMC Genetics
Yutaka Matsubara, Takuya Matsumoto, Keiji Yoshiya, Ayae Yoshida, Seiichi Ikeda, Tadashi Furuyama, Yoshimichi Nakatsu, Teruhisa Tsuzuki, Masatoshi Nomura, Yoshihiko Maehara
Severe sepsis is critical to health and can result in acute renal failure (ARF). Tissue factor (TF) and thrombomodulin (TM) play key roles in vascular endothelial functions by helping maintain microcirculation in the kidney. Budding uninhibited by benzimidazole-1 (Bub1) plays a role in Akt and JNK signaling, which control TF and TM, respectively. We hypothesized that Bub1 could control vascular endothelial function in sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Bub1 in septic ARF. We used Mouse cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) using low Bub1 expressing (Bub1) and wild-type (Bub1) mice in vivo and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) in vitro...
March 30, 2018: Shock
Maria Nishibukuro, Norito Tsutsumi, Masako Chiyotanda, Tae Hijikata, Shinichiro Morichi, Soupei Go, Gaku Yamanaka, Yasuyo Kashiwagi, Hisashi Kawashima
Reactive arthritis after Group A streptococcal infection (poststreptococcal reactive arthritis: PSRA) that does not meet the Jones criteria for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) has been reported as a new entity for over a decade. In Japan there are few reports of PSRA. We encountered four children with arthritis accompanied with Group A streptococcal infection in our department. We investigated our cases and the recent Japanese literature. Japanese cases of PSRA are frequently accompanied with uveitis and erythema nodosum, and tonsillectomy resolved their symptoms in some cases...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Francesco Licciardi, Giacomo Scaioli, Roberta Mulatero, Agostina Marolda, Marta Delle Piane, Silvana Martino, Davide Montin, Pier Angelo Tovo
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in a metropolitan area of Northern Italy and study how the introduction of the 2015 revised Jones criteria affects the epidemiology in a region with moderate to high incidence of ARF. STUDY DESIGN: The incidence of ARF in children 5-14 years old living in the Province of Turin was estimated using low-risk criteria in a 10-year period (group A patients). The proportion of patients fulfilling only high-risk (HR) criteria (group B patients) was also calculated both prospectively (from July 2015 through December 2016) and retrospectively (from January 2007 through June 2015)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Bing Zhang, Qilin Yu, Da Huo, Jianrong Li, Chao Liang, Hongyue Li, Xiao Yi, Chenpeng Xiao, Dan Zhang, Mingchun Li
The Arf family of small GTP-binding and hydrolyzing proteins is one of the most important intracellular regulators of membrane dynamics. In this study, we identified the Golgi-localized Arf family G protein Arf1 in Candida albicans and confirmed its conserved function in regulating the secretory pathway. Interestingly, deletion of ARF1 resulted in intracellular oxygen reactive species (ROS) accumulation, and induced formation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES). Moreover, N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-mediated ROS scavenging in the arf1Δ/Δ strain attenuated ERMES formation, indicating that intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from ARF1 deletion facilitated ERMES formation...
March 30, 2018: FEBS Journal
Adele K Fielding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 29, 2018: Blood
Shohei Nozaki, Yohei Katoh, Takuya Kobayashi, Kazuhisa Nakayama
Protein trafficking within cilia is mediated by the intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery composed of large protein complexes. The BBSome consists of eight BBS proteins encoded by causative genes of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS), and has been implicated in the trafficking of ciliary membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), by connecting the IFT machinery to cargo GPCRs. Membrane recruitment of the BBSome to promote cargo trafficking has been proposed to be regulated by the Arf-like small GTPase ARL6/BBS3, through its interaction with the BBS1 subunit of the BBSome...
2018: PloS One
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