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Adolescent substance abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162759/pattern-and-profile-of-children-using-substances-in-india-insights-and-recommendations
#1
Anju Dhawan, Raman Deep Pattanayak, Anita Chopra, V K Tikoo, Rajesh Kumar
India has one of the largest proportion of children and adolescents in the world, but the threat posed by child substance use remains under-researched. Only recently a large study, the first of its kind in India, was carried out with a sample of nearly 4000 children using substances (school-going, out-of-school as well as street children) across more than a hundred cities/towns. We discuss (i) the existing knowledge on the prevalence of child substance abuse in India; (ii) perspectives and insights gained from the recent nation-wide study on its pattern and profile; and (iii) recommendations for substance use prevention and treatment among children in the Indian context...
July 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145774/predicting-the-risk-of-opioid-use-disorder-based-on-early-maladaptive-schemas
#2
Somayeh Zamirinejad, Seyed Kaveh Hojjat, Alireza Moslem, Vahideh MoghaddamHosseini, Arash Akaberi
Substance use is a globally devastating social problem. Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are inefficient mechanisms leading directly or indirectly to psychological distress. The current study aimed to assess the role of EMSs in predicting opioid use disorder. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2013 in Bojnurd at northeast of Iran on 60 male opioid users who received Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) and 60 control males. The opioid users were selected randomly from MMT clinics and control subjects were selected and matched with opioid users using demographic variables...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130147/callous-unemotional-traits-modulate-brain-drug-craving-response-in-high-risk-young-offenders
#3
Gina M Vincent, Lora M Cope, Jean King, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Kent A Kiehl
Adults with psychopathy have a high propensity for substance abuse, generally starting from a young age. This investigation tested hypotheses about differences in the neural responses associated with drug craving among high-risk young offenders with histories of abuse of stimulants and other drugs as a function of psychopathic traits. Fifty-four male adolescents (44 with a history of stimulant abuse and 10 controls) incarcerated at a maximum-security facility (M age = 17.08 years) completed a drug-cue exposure task while brain hemodynamic activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a mobile MRI scanner stationed at the facility...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#4
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113758/demographic-physical-and-mental-health-assessments-in-the-adolescent-brain-and-cognitive-development-study-rationale-and-description
#5
REVIEW
Deanna M Barch, Matthew D Albaugh, Shelli Avenevoli, Linda Chang, Duncan B Clark, Meyer D Glantz, James J Hudziak, Terry L Jernigan, Susan F Tapert, Debbie Yurgelun-Todd, Nelly Alia-Klein, Alexandra S Potter, Martin P Paulus, Devin Prouty, Robert A Zucker, Kenneth J Sher
The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study incorporates a comprehensive range of measures assessing predictors and outcomes related to both mental and physical health across childhood and adolescence. The workgroup developed a battery that would assess a comprehensive range of domains that address study aims while minimizing participant and family burden. We review the major considerations that went into deciding what constructs to cover in the demographics, physical health and mental health domains, as well as the process of selecting measures, piloting and refining the originally proposed battery...
November 3, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110024/parenting-style-and-mental-disorders-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-us-adolescents
#6
John David Eun, Diana Paksarian, Jian-Ping He, Kathleen Ries Merikangas
PURPOSE: We examined associations between parenting style and past-year mental disorders in a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of US adolescents and whether the associations differed by adolescent demographic characteristics. METHODS: The sample included 6483 adolescents aged 13-18 years who were interviewed for a full range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Parenting style was assessed by adolescent-reported maternal and paternal care and control using items from the Parental Bonding Instrument...
November 6, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106926/increasing-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-among-hospitalized-children-is-associated-with-an-increase-in-substance-abuse
#7
A Sidney Barritt, Brian Lee, Thomas Runge, Monica Schmidt, Ravi Jhaveri
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of substance abuse on pediatric hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence, we examined geographic and demographic data on inpatient hospitalizations in children with HCV. STUDY DESIGN: We examined hospitalizations in children using the Kids' Inpatient Database, a part of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. We identified cases using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, codes for HCV infection during 2006, 2009, and 2012...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102869/temperamental-sensitivity-to-early-maltreatment-and-later-family-cohesion-for-externalizing-behaviors-in-youth-adopted-from-foster-care
#8
Irene Tung, Amanda N Noroña, Steve S Lee, Audra K Langley, Jill M Waterman
Children in foster care frequently have histories of physical/sexual abuse and neglect, increasing their risk for externalizing behaviors (EB; e.g., aggression). According to the differential susceptibility theory, children with reactive temperaments (e.g., negative emotionality) may be particularly vulnerable to early maltreatment, but may also benefit the most from environmental enrichment such as family cohesion. In a high-risk longitudinal sample of 82 children adopted from foster care in Los Angeles County from 1996 and 2001, we examined predictions of EB from childhood to adolescence/young adulthood from temperament, preadoption maltreatment, and adoptive family cohesion...
November 2, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101645/the-impact-of-family-centered-prevention-on-self-regulation-and-subsequent-long-term-risk-in-emerging-adults
#9
Elizabeth Stormshak, David DeGarmo, Krista Chronister, Allison Caruthers
Emerging adulthood is characterized by not only opportunity and transition but also a substantial increase in risk behaviors (Fosco et al. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(4), 565-575, 2012; Johnston et al. 2016). Building on prior research, we tested a mediational model hypothesizing that Family Check-Up (FCU) intervention effects on young adult risk would be mediated by increases in self-regulation, and that these changes would continue to affect risk behavior as high school youths transitioned to young adulthood...
November 3, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097401/sensitive-periods-for-the-effect-of-childhood-interpersonal-violence-on-psychiatric-disorder-onset-among-adolescents
#10
Erin C Dunn, Yan Wang, Jenny Tse, Katie A McLaughlin, Garrett Fitzmaurice, Stephen E Gilman, Ezra S Susser
BackgroundAlthough childhood adversity is a strong determinant of psychopathology, it remains unclear whether there are 'sensitive periods' when a first episode of adversity is most harmful.AimsTo examine whether variation in the developmental timing of a first episode of interpersonal violence (up to age 18) associates with risk for psychopathology.MethodUsing cross-sectional data, we examined the association between age at first exposure to four types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse by parents, physical abuse by others, rape, and sexual assault/molestation) and onset of four classes of DSM-IV disorders (distress, fear, behaviour, substance use) (n = 9984)...
November 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093042/digital-media-and-risks-for-adolescent-substance-abuse-and-problematic-gambling
#11
REVIEW
Dan Romer, Megan Moreno
Digital media provide increased opportunities for both marketing and social transmission of risky products and behavior. We briefly review what is known about adolescent exposure to favorable presentations of addictive substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, as well as behaviors such as gambling, on social and other online media. Our understanding of these influences and whether they require greater regulation is still developing, and recommendations for future research to address these gaps in our understanding are described...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089287/scaling-up-research-on-drug-abuse-and-addiction-through-social-media-big-data
#12
Sunny Jung Kim, Lisa A Marsch, Jeffrey T Hancock, Amarendra K Das
BACKGROUND: Substance use-related communication for drug use promotion and its prevention is widely prevalent on social media. Social media big data involve naturally occurring communication phenomena that are observable through social media platforms, which can be used in computational or scalable solutions to generate data-driven inferences. Despite the promising potential to utilize social media big data to monitor and treat substance use problems, the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of substance use-related communications on social media are largely unknown...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084362/the-impact-of-conventional-and-nonconventional-inhalants-on-children-and-adolescents
#13
Samya Z Nasr, Ali Ibrahim Nasrallah, Mariam Abdulghani, Stuart C Sweet
AIM: Inhalant abuse in the adolescent population is a growing concern for care givers, communities, physicians, and medical providers. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the literature about this new challenge. In addition, it raises awareness about recent health policy rulings. METHODS: Review of the literature was done. RESULTS: In this review article, the prevalence of different modes of inhalant use and abuse in children and young adults and their potential health implications will be examined: Cigarettes, ENDS (E Cigarettes), Hookah, Marijuana, and Huffing...
October 30, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072233/effects-of-parental-attitudes-on-the-use-of-addictive-substances-in-high-school-students
#14
C Öztekin, T Şengezer, A Özkara
BACKGROUND: Substance abuse is a major public health problem including social and economic aspects. Although multidimensional data about substance abuse are limited in our country, the fact that Turkey is located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia with a young population creating a promising market brings out the necessity of maintaining high awareness on substance abuse. Smoking, alcohol, and substance use are important health problems of adolescence period and families play a major role on adaptation to the changes in growth and development period...
September 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064941/substance-abuse-screening-in-adolescents
#15
Genevieve DelRosario, Laura Kahle, Kimberly Lewis, Leigh Tenkku Lepper
Substance abuse among adolescents is a significant public health challenge. This article reviews changes to the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement recommending the use of SBIRT (screening, brief intervention, and referral for treatment) to screen adolescents for substance abuse.
November 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056800/examining-cohort-effects-in-developmental-trajectories-of-substance-use
#16
Alison R Burns, Andrea M Hussong, Jessica M Solis, Patrick J Curran, James S McGinley, Daniel J Bauer, Laurie Chassin, Robert A Zucker
The current study demonstrates the application of an analytic approach for incorporating multiple time trends in order to examine the impact of cohort effects on individual trajectories of eight drugs of abuse. Parallel analysis of two independent, longitudinal studies of high-risk youth that span ages 10 to 40 across 23 birth cohorts between 1968 and 1991 was conducted. The two studies include the Michigan Longitudinal Study (current analytic sample of n=579 over 12 cohorts between 1980-1991 and ages 10-27) and the Adolescent/Adult and Family Development Project (current analytic sample of n=849 over 11 cohorts between 1968-1978 and ages 10-40)...
September 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038777/the-abcd-study-of-neurodevelopment-identifying-neurocircuit-targets-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-adolescent-substance-abuse
#17
James M Bjork, Lisa K Straub, Rosellen G Provost, Michael C Neale
Substance use disorders (SUD) can be considered developmental disorders in light of their frequent origins in substance initiation during adolescence. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adolescent substance users or adolescents with SUD have indicated aberrations in brain structures or circuits implicated in motivation, self-control, and mood-regulation. However, attributing these differences to the neurotoxicological effects of chronic substance use has been problematic in that these circuits are also aberrant in at-risk children, such as those with prenatal substance exposure, externalizing disorders (such as conduct disorder), or prodromal internalizing disorders such as depression...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032186/does-parental-substance-use-always-engender-risk-for-children-comparing-incidence-rate-ratios-of-abusive-and-neglectful-behaviors-across-substance-use-behavior-patterns
#18
Nancy J Kepple
Parental substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with an added risk for child abuse and neglect, but less is understood about how a range of parental use behaviors is associated with differential maltreatment frequencies. This study used the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW I) to create categories for parental substance use behaviors that are conceptually associated with varying levels of substance-related impairments. The study sample was composed of 2100 parents of children ages 2-17 years from Wave 4 data collection...
October 12, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966415/involvement-in-the-juvenile-justice-system-for-african-american-adolescents-examining-associations-with-behavioral-health-problems
#19
Dexter R Voisin, Dongha Kim, Lois Takahashi, Phillip Morotta, Kathryn Bocanegra
While researchers have found that African American youth experience higher levels of juvenile justice involvement at every system level (arrest, sentencing, and incarceration) relative to their other ethnic counterparts, few studies have explored how juvenile justice involvement and number of contacts might be correlated with this broad range of problems. A convenience sample of 638 African American adolescents living in predominantly low-income, urban communities participated in a survey related to juvenile justice involvement...
2017: Journal of Social Service Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944592/estimating-the-prevalence-of-borderline-personality-disorder-in-mothers-involved-in-youth-protection-services
#20
Lise Laporte, Joel Paris, Phyllis Zelkowitz
Characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD) can undermine maternal capacity and in some cases lead to involvement with youth protection services (YPS). Yet, few studies exist on the prevalence of maternal BPD in this context and on the comparison of these families with families with other maternal psychiatric disorders or families with no mental illness within YPS. The current study surveyed 291 caseworkers working with mothers whose children and adolescents are followed by YPS. After reported prevalence was adjusted with validation procedures, the prevalence of maternal BPD in a sample of 1875 mothers was 34...
September 24, 2017: Personality and Mental Health
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