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Adolescent substance abuse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779545/counseling-psychological-and-social-services-staffing-policies-in-u-s-school-districts
#1
Nancy Brener, Zewditu Demissie
INTRODUCTION: Schools are in a unique position to meet the mental and behavioral health needs of children and adolescents because approximately 95% of young people aged 7-17 years attend school. Little is known, however, about policies related to counseling, psychological, and social services staffing in school districts. This study analyzed the prevalence of such policies in public school districts in the U.S. METHODS: Data from four cycles (2000, 2006, 2012, and 2016) of the School Health Policies and Practices Study, a national survey periodically conducted to assess policies and practices for ten components of school health, were analyzed in 2017...
June 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777368/organizational-context-and-individual-adaptability-in-promoting-perceived-importance-and-use-of-best-practices-for-substance-use
#2
Danica K Knight, George W Joe, David T Morse, Corey Smith, Hannah Knudsen, Ingrid Johnson, Gail A Wasserman, Nancy Arrigona, Larkin S McReynolds, Jennifer E Becan, Carl Leukefeld, Tisha R A Wiley
This study examines associations among organizational context, staff attributes, perceived importance, and use of best practices among staff in community-based, juvenile justice (JJ) agencies. As part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS) study, 492 staff from 36 JJ agencies were surveyed about the perceived importance and use of best practices within their organization in five substance use practice domains: screening, assessment, standard referral, active referral, and treatment support...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775870/adverse-and-adaptive-childhood-experiences-are-associated-with-parental-reflective-functioning-in-mothers-with-substance-use-disorder
#3
Ulrika Håkansson, Reidulf Watten, Kerstin Söderström, Finn Skårderud, Merete Glenne Øie
Mothers with a substance use disorder (SUD) are at risk for maladaptive parenting practices, and have heightened likelihood of having experienced childhood adversity themselves. In addition, parental reflective functioning (PRF), a capacity underlying sensitive caregiving, is often low in mothers with SUD. This study examines the relationship between PRF and aversive (emotional, physical, sexual abuse and neglect) and adaptive (safety and competence) experiences, in different developmental phases (early childhood, latency, and adolescence) in mothers with a SUD...
May 15, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771763/recognizing-diagnosing-and-preventing-child-maltreatment-an-update-for-pediatric-clinicians
#4
Fiona Danaher, Andrea Vandeven, Aine Blanchard, Alice W Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite an increasing understanding of the impact of emotional trauma and physical abuse on children, clinicians and hospitals still sometimes miss the diagnosis of abuse. The literature in 2017 focused on creating standardized approaches to recognition and diagnosis of physical abuse and occult injury, including using the electronic medical record to provide triggers for consultation of the hospital Child Protection Program. The American College of Radiology updated their standardized approach to the evaluation of physical abuse in the child, and other authors gave us screening tools for commercial exploitation, as well as guidance about how to recognize risks for emotional abuse in families...
May 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#5
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766143/when-should-screening-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-for-adult-behaviors-start
#6
Adrian A Maung, Robert D Becher, Kevin M Schuster, Kimberly A Davis
Background: Care of patients with trauma is not only limited to the sustained physical injuries but also requires addressing social issues, such as substance abuse and interpersonal violence, which are responsible for trauma-related recidivism. This study investigates whether there are age-related variations in these problematic social behaviors to analyze whether there is an age cut-off at which point adolescents should be screened for adult social behaviors. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with trauma aged 12-21 admitted to an urban Level 1 adult and pediatric trauma center between February 2013 and April 2016...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750769/updates-on-adolescent-dating-and-sexual-violence-prevention-and-intervention
#7
Elizabeth Miller, Kelley A Jones, Heather L McCauley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. RECENT FINDINGS: Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736069/alcohol-harm-to-adolescents-from-others-drinking-a-study-from-kerala-india
#8
T S Jaisoorya, K V Beena, G S Ravi, K Thennarasu, Vivek Benegal
Context: There is scarce data on the prevalence of harm to adolescents from others' use of alcohol from India. Aims: The aim is to study the prevalence of harm to school students from others' alcohol use in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala and examines its psychosocial correlates among victims. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional survey of 7560 students of the age range of 12-19 years from 73 schools. Materials and Methods: Harm consequent to others' drinking was assessed using a brief version of the World Health Organization-Thai Health Questionnaire on Harm to Others from Drinking...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723203/tobacco-use-in-nigerian-youth-a-systematic-review
#9
Bankole K Oyewole, Victor J Animasahun, Helena J Chapman
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the most important preventable cause of premature death and major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Due to strict tobacco legislation in the western hemisphere, many African nations like Nigeria have shifted from being a tobacco-producing nation to a tobacco-consuming one. The purpose of this study was to systematically review existing literature on tobacco use among Nigerian adolescents and young people and identify the prevalence, distribution and factors influencing of tobacco smoking...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723033/adolescent-clinical-populations-and-associations-between-trauma-and-behavioral-and-emotional-problems
#10
Doyanne Darnell, Aaron Flaster, Karin Hendricks, Amanda Kerbrat, Katherine Anne Comtois
OBJECTIVE: Trauma exposure is common during childhood and adolescence and is associated with youth emotional and behavioral problems. The present study adds to the current literature on trauma exposure among adolescent clinical populations by examining the association between trauma exposure and adolescent self-report of emotional and behavioral problems broadly, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, in addition to the trauma-specific symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
May 3, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718649/synthetic-drug-intoxication-in-children-recognition-and-management-in-the-emergency-department-digest
#11
Rahul Shah, Carl R Baum, Kathryn H Pade
When children and adolescents present to the emergency department with agitation or mental status changes, intoxication from synthetic drug use should be in the differential diagnosis. Identifying the responsible compound(s) may be difficult, so asking the patient broad questions and utilizing appropriate diagnostic studies, when indicated, will aid in making the diagnosis and help identify more-serious complications. This issue discusses the challenges presented by the changing chemical formulations of synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones, and phenethylamines; outlines common presentations of intoxication from these substances; and summarizes best practices for evaluating and managing patients who present with intoxication after consumption of these synthetic drugs of abuse...
May 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710097/effectiveness-of-universal-self-regulation-based-interventions-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Anuja Pandey, Daniel Hale, Shikta Das, Anne-Lise Goddings, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Russell M Viner
Importance: Childhood and adolescence self-regulation (SR) is gaining importance as a target of intervention because of mounting evidence of its positive associations with health, social and educational outcomes. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of rigorously evaluated interventions to improve self-regulation in children and adolescents. Data Sources: Keyword searches of the PsycINFO, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, ERIC, British Education Index, Child Development and Adolescent Studies, and CENTRAL were used to identify all studies published through July 2016...
April 16, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709061/fidelity-failures-in-brief-strategic-family-therapy-for-adolescent-drug-abuse-a-clinical-analysis
#13
Florencia Lebensohn-Chialvo, Michael J Rohrbaugh, Brant P Hasler
As evidence-based family treatments for adolescent substance use and conduct problems gain traction, cutting edge research moves beyond randomized efficacy trials to address questions such as how these treatments work and how best to disseminate them to community settings. A key factor in effective dissemination is treatment fidelity, which refers to implementing an intervention in a manner consistent with an established manual. While most fidelity research is quantitative, this study offers a qualitative clinical analysis of fidelity failures in a large, multisite effectiveness trial of Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for adolescent drug abuse, where BSFT developers trained community therapists to administer this intervention in their own agencies...
April 30, 2018: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697923/synthetic-drug-intoxication-in-children-recognition-and-management-in-the-emergency-department
#14
Rahul Shah, Carl R Baum
When children and adolescents present to the emergency department with agitation or mental status changes, intoxication from synthetic drug use should be in the differential diagnosis. Identifying the responsible compound(s) may be difficult, so asking the patient broad questions and utilizing appropriate diagnostic studies, when indicated, will aid in making the diagnosis and help identify more-serious complications. This issue discusses the challenges presented by the changing chemical formulations of synthetic cannabinoids, cathinones, and phenethylamines; outlines common presentations of intoxication from these substances; and summarizes best practices for evaluating and managing patients who present with intoxication after consumption of these synthetic drugs of abuse...
May 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682999/age-of-cannabis-use-onset-and-adult-drug-abuse-symptoms-a-prospective-study-of-common-risk-factors-and-indirect-effects
#15
Charlie Rioux, Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Sophie Parent, Frank Vitaro, Richard Ernest Tremblay, Jean Richard Séguin
The present study examined 1) whether the associations between cannabis use (CU) age of onset and drug abuse by 28 y remain when controlling for risk factors in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood; and 2) the developmental pathways from early risk factors to drug abuse problems. Participants from a longitudinal sample of boys of low socioeconomic status ( N = 1,030) were followed from 6 to 28 y. We examined the self-reported CU onset between the ages of 13 and 17 y and drug abuse symptoms by 28 y. The odds of developing any drug abuse symptoms by 28 y were reduced by 31% for each year of delayed CU onset (OR = 0...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681143/alcohol-consumption-and-sexual-risk-behaviour-among-jamaican-adolescents
#16
Chinwendu F Agu, Daniel C Oshi, Wendel D Abel, Tania Rae, Sarah N Oshi, Tana Ricketts-Roomes, Ijeoma A Meka, Joy Harrison, Uche Dimkpa, Steve Weaver
Alcohol consumption has significant health, social and economic implications. Alcohol is the most prevalent psychoactive substance used by Jamaican adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine whether alcohol is associated with sexual risk behaviour among Jamaican adolescents. Methods: The data from National Secondary School Survey (NSS) conducted in 2013 was analysed. Descriptive statistics consisting of frequencies, percentages and Pearson’s Chi square was done. Multivariate analysis was done using binary logistic regression...
April 23, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680493/teens-drugs-vegas-toxicological-surveillance-of-illicit-prescription-and-illegal-drug-abuse-in-adolescents-12-17-years-using-post-mortem-data-in-clark-county-nevada-from-2005-to-2015
#17
Anthea B Mahesan Paul, Lary Simms, Andrew A Mahesan, Eric Charles Belanger
Illegal drug abuse, particularly prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States. Research on adolescent drug abuse is based on national self-reported data. Using local coroner data, quantitative prevalence of illegal substance toxicology and trends can be assessed to aid directed outreach and community-based prevention initiatives. Retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases aged 12-17 years referred to the Office of the Medical Examiner, Clark County from 2005 to 2015 (n = 526)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679360/mental-health-of-the-male-adolescent-and-young-man-the-copenhagen-statement
#18
REVIEW
Timothy R Rice, Lesha D Shah, Pilar Trelles, Shih-Ku Lin, Dinne Skjærlund Christensen, Andreas Walther, Leo Sher
BACKGROUND: Male adolescents and young men benefit when their mental health care is specialized to match their unique gendered and developmental needs. Sensitivity to the social circumstances of this population is important; additionally, the emerging ability to tailor care through knowledge gleaned from the intersection of psychiatry, neurology, and endocrinology informs care. DATA SOURCES: This article summarized the views of six experts in the area of the adolescent and young adult male mental health...
April 20, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652948/-psychoactive-substances-use-and-health-related-quality-of-life-among-school-age-adolescents
#19
Fabiola Vilugrón Aravena, Carlos Alejandro Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Temístocles Molina G, María Eugenia Gras Pérez, Silvia Font-Mayolas
Background The use of psychoactive substances among adolescents is a major social and public health concern. Aim To analyze association of substance abuse and multiple drug use with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adolescents attending a high school in Valparaiso, Chile. Material and Methods Analytical cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of adolescents attending high school. HRQOL was assessed using KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire and substance use was measured using the Global school-based student health survey...
December 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619558/externalizing-behavior-problems-are-related-to-substance-use-in-adolescents-across-six-samples-from-nordic-countries
#20
Mads Uffe Pedersen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Ove Heradstveit, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Morten Hesse, Sheila Jones
The aim of this study is to investigate associations between use of cigarettes, cannabis, and alcohol (CCA) and psychosocial problems among adolescents with different cultural backgrounds living in Nordic countries. Data from six questionnaire-based surveys conducted in Denmark, Norway, and Greenland, with participants from different cultural and religious backgrounds, were compared. A total of 2212 adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age participated in the study. The surveys were carried out nationally and in school settings...
April 4, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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