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dead space fraction

Santram Lodhi, Avijeet Jain, Alok Pal Jain, Rajesh Singh Pawar, Abhay Kumar Singhai
OBJECTIVE: Martynia annua L. (M. annua), (Martyniaccae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea), (Fabaceae) has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Jian Zhang, Ling Lin, Konghan Pan, Jiancang Zhou, Xiaoyin Huang
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy has several physiological advantages over traditional oxygen therapy devices, including decreased nasopharyngeal resistance, washing out of the nasopharyngeal dead space, generation of positive pressure in the pharynx, increasing alveolar recruitment in the lungs, humidification of the airways, increased fraction of inspired oxygen and improved mucociliary clearance. Recently, the use of HFNC in treating adult critical illness patients has significantly increased, and it is now being used in many patients with a range of different disease conditions...
October 2, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
Pradeep H Lakshminarayana, Adiba A Geeti, Umer M Darr, David A Kaufman
Dead space fraction (V d/V t) measurement performed using volumetric capnography requires arterial blood gas (ABG) sampling to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2). In recent years, transcutaneous capnography (PtcCO2) has emerged as a noninvasive method of estimating PaCO2. We hypothesized that PtcCO2 can be used as a substitute for PaCO2 in the calculation of V d/V t. In this prospective pilot comparison study, 30 consecutive postcardiac surgery mechanically ventilated patients had V d/V t calculated separately using volumetric capnography by substituting PtcCO2 for PaCO2...
2016: Critical Care Research and Practice
Serena Cirio, Manuela Piran, Michele Vitacca, Giancarlo Piaggi, Piero Ceriana, Matteo Prazzoli, Mara Paneroni, Annalisa Carlucci
INTRODUCTION: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) was shown to washout the anatomical dead space, permitting a higher fraction of minute ventilation to participate in gas pulmonary exchanges. Moreover, it is able to guarantee the desired inhaled oxygen fraction (FiO2) even at high level of patient's minute ventilation by minimizing the room air entrainment. The effect of HFNC has never been investigated on stable severe COPD patients in term of endurance capacity with standardised laboratory tests...
September 2016: Respiratory Medicine
Melih Yüksel, Murat Pekdemir, Serkan Yilmaz, Elif Yaka, Aslı Gülfer Kartal
BACKGROUND/AIM: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent health problem representing a diagnostic challenge with high mortality and morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) and alveolar dead space fraction (ADSF) in the diagnosis of PE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ETCO2 levels of patients with suspected PE were measured with a noninvasive mainstream sensor. ADSF of patients was calculated and PaCO2 levels were also obtained...
2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Yu-Jiao Zhang, Xin-Jing Gao, Zhi-Bo Li, Zhi-Yong Wang, Quan-Sheng Feng, Cheng-Fen Yin, Xing Lu, Lei Xu
PURPOSE: This prospective observational study aims to evaluate the accuracy of dead-space fraction derived from the ventilator volumetric capnography (volumetric CO₂) or a prediction equation to predict the survival of mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Consecutive VD/VT measurements were obtained based upon a prediction equation validated by Frankenfield et al for dead-space ventilation fraction: VD/VT = 0...
June 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
G A Ospina-Tascón, D F Bautista-Rincón, H J Madriñán, J D Valencia, W F Bermúdez, A Bruhn, G Hernández, C E Salas, D De Backer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
P Blankman, A Shono, B J M Hermans, T Wesselius, D Hasan, D Gommers
BACKGROUND: Homogeneous ventilation is important for prevention of ventilator-induced lung injury. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been used to identify optimal PEEP by detection of homogenous ventilation in non-dependent and dependent lung regions. We aimed to compare the ability of volumetric capnography and EIT in detecting homogenous ventilation between these lung regions. METHODS: Fifteen mechanically-ventilated patients after cardiac surgery were studied...
June 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Jonne Doorduin, Joeke L Nollet, Manon P A J Vugts, Lisanne H Roesthuis, Ferdi Akankan, Johannes G van der Hoeven, Hieronymus W H van Hees, Leo M A Heunks
BACKGROUND: Physiological dead space (VD/VT) represents the fraction of ventilation not participating in gas exchange. In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), VD/VT has prognostic value and can be used to guide ventilator settings. However, VD/VT is rarely calculated in clinical practice, because its measurement is perceived as challenging. Recently, a novel technique to calculate partial pressure of carbon dioxide in alveolar air (PACO2) using volumetric capnography (VCap) was validated...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
J Kyle Bohman, Joseph A Hyder, Vivek Iyer, Sonal R Pannu, Pablo Moreno Franco, Troy G Seelhammer, Louis A Schenck, Gregory J Schears
PURPOSE: Appropriately identifying and triaging patients with newly diagnosed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who may progress to severe ARDS is a common clinical challenge without any existing tools for assistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort, a simple prediction score was developed to improve early identification of ARDS patients who were likely to progress to severe ARDS within 7 days. A broad array of comorbidities and physiologic variables were collected for the 12-hour period starting from intubation for ARDS...
June 2016: Journal of Critical Care
Xiaoyan Wu, Ruiqiang Zheng, Hua Lin, Zhiqing Zhuang, Min Zhang, Peixia Yan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of mehanical ventilation (MV) guided by transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) on respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in severe acute pancreatitis patient with intraabdominal hypertension. METHODS: Twelve severe acute pancreatitis patient with intraabdominal hypertension and acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) underwent mechanical ventilation were involved from Jan to Dec 2013. PEEP levels were set to achieve a Ptp of 0 to 10 cm of water at end expiration...
October 20, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi
B Dixon, R Smith, J D Santamaria, N R Orford, B J Wakefield, K Ives, R McKenzie, B Zhang, C H Yap
Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass triggers an acute inflammatory response in the lungs. This response gives rise to fibrin deposition in the microvasculature and alveoli of the lungs. Fibrin deposition in the microvasculature increases alveolar dead space, while fibrin deposition in alveoli causes shunting. We investigated whether prophylactic nebulised heparin could limit this form of lung injury. We undertook a single-centre double-blind randomised trial. Forty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were randomised to prophylactic nebulised heparin (50,000 U) or placebo...
January 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Christian Agyare, Yaw Duah Boakye, Emelia Oppong Bekoe, Andreas Hensel, Susana Oteng Dapaah, Theresa Appiah
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wounds of various types including injuries, cuts, pressure, burns, diabetic, gastric and duodenal ulcers continue to have severe socio-economic impact on the cost of health care to patients, family and health care institutions in both developing and developed countries. However, most people in the developing countries, especially Africa, depend on herbal remedies for effective treatment of wounds. Various in vitro and in vivo parameters are used for the evaluation of the functional activity of medicinal plants by using extracts, fractions and isolated compounds...
January 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kyuho Lee, Young Jun Oh, Yong Seon Choi, Shin Hyung Kim
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a 1:1 inspiratory-to-expiratory (I:E) ventilation ratio on oxygenation and respiratory mechanics during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in patients with low diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, crossover study. SETTING: Operating room, university hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-six patients with a preoperative DLCO less than 80% who were scheduled for lung lobectomy requiring OLV under general anesthesia...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Klaus Pfurtscheller, Stefan Ring, Elisabeth Beran, Erich Sorantin, Joachim Zobel, David Ganster, Alexander Avian, Gerfried Zobel
BACKGROUND: Lung failure after acute lung injury remains a challenge in different clinical settings. Various interventions for restoration of gas exchange have been investigated. Recruitment of collapsed alveoli by positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration and optimization of ventilation-perfusion ratio by prone positioning have been extensively described in animal and clinical trials. This animal study was conducted to investigate the effects of PEEP and positioning by means of advanced respiratory monitoring including gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, volumetric capnography and electrical impedance tomography...
December 2015: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Anoopindar K Bhalla, Sanjay Belani, Dennis Leung, Christopher J L Newth, Robinder G Khemani
OBJECTIVE: Elevated dead space has been consistently associated with increased mortality in adults with respiratory failure. In children, the evidence for this association is more limited. We sought to investigate the association between dead space and mortality in mechanically ventilated children. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric critical care unit. PATIENTS: Seven hundred twelve mechanically ventilated children with an arterial catheter...
November 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Anoopindar K Bhalla, Sarah Rubin, Christopher J L Newth, Patrick Ross, Rica Morzov, Gerardo Soto-Campos, Robinder Khemani
BACKGROUND: Volumetric capnography dead-space measurements (physiologic dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio [VD/VT] and alveolar VD/VT) are considered more accurate than the more readily available time-based capnography dead-space measurement (end-tidal alveolar dead-space fraction [AVDSF]). We sought to investigate the correlation between volumetric capnography and time-based capnography dead-space measurements. METHODS: This was a single-center prospective cohort study of 65 mechanically ventilated children with arterial lines...
November 2015: Respiratory Care
Erik Birgersson, Ee Ho Tang, Wei Liang Jerome Lee, Kwok Jiang Sak
During expiration, the carbon dioxide (CO2) levels inside the dead space of a filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) increase significantly above the ambient concentration. To reduce the CO2 concentration inside the dead space, we attach an active lightweight venting system (AVS) comprising a one-way valve, a blower and a battery in a housing to a FFR. The achieved reduction is quantified with a computational-fluid-dynamics model that considers conservation of mass, momentum and the dilute species, CO2, inside the FFR with and without the AVS...
2015: PloS One
Mary Nora Dickson, Elena I Liang, Luis A Rodriguez, Nicolas Vollereaux, Albert F Yee
Bacteria that adhere to the surfaces of implanted medical devices can cause catastrophic infection. Since chemical modifications of materials' surfaces have poor long-term performance in preventing bacterial buildup, approaches using bactericidal physical surface topography have been investigated. The authors used Nanoimprint Lithography was used to fabricate a library of biomimetic nanopillars on the surfaces of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films. After incubation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the structured PMMA surfaces, pillared surfaces were found to have lower densities of adherent cells compared to flat films (67%-91% of densities on flat films)...
2015: Biointerphases
F Rischard, R Vanderpool, I Jenkins, M Dalabih, J Colombo, D Lax, M Seckeler
We describe a 63-year-old patient with unrepaired tricuspid valve atresia and a hypoplastic right ventricle (single-ventricle physiology) who presented with progressive symptomatic hypoxia. Her anatomy resulted in parallel pulmonary and systemic circulations, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and uncoupling of the ventricle/pulmonary artery. Hemodynamic and coupling data were obtained before and after pulmonary vasoactive treatment, first inhaled nitric oxide and later inhaled treprostinil. The coupling ratio (ratio of ventricular to vascular elastance) shunt fractions and dead space ventilation were calculated before and after treatment...
June 2015: Pulmonary Circulation
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