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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936472/relaxant-effect-of-sodium-tanshinone-iia-sulphonate-on-mouse-tracheal-smooth-muscle
#1
Yi-Lin Zhang, Jia-Wen Xu, Xiong-Hao Wu, Peng-Xiao Chen, Fang Wei, Dong-Dong Gao, Xiao-Wen Chen, Yu-Li Luo, Yun-Xin Zhu, Jiehong Huang, Ya-Xia Tan, Lei Zhao, Wen-Liang Zhou
Sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate, a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, has been proven to possess versatile biological properties, but its pharmacological effect on tracheal smooth muscle remains elusive. This paper presents a study on the relaxant effect and underlying mechanisms of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate on mouse tracheal smooth muscle. The relaxant effect of sodium tanshinone IIA sulphonate was evaluated in mouse tracheal rings using a mechanical recording system. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was measured in primary cultured tracheal smooth muscle cells using confocal imaging system...
December 9, 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936284/utility-of-preclinical-drug-versus-food-choice-procedures-to-evaluate-candidate-medications-for-methamphetamine-use-disorder
#2
Matthew L Banks
Substance use disorders are diagnosed as a manifestation of inappropriate behavioral allocation toward abused drugs and away from other behaviors maintained by more adaptive nondrug reinforcers (e.g., money and social relationships). Substance use disorder treatment goals include not only decreasing drug-maintained behavior but also promoting behavioral reallocation toward these socially adaptive alternative reinforcers. Preclinical drug self-administration procedures that offer concurrent access to both drug and nondrug reinforcers provide a translationally relevant dependent measure of behavioral allocation that may be useful for candidate medication evaluation...
December 9, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936249/the-impact-of-exercise-on-statin-associated-skeletal-muscle-myopathy
#3
Hae R Chung, Mayand Vakil, Michael Munroe, Alay Parikh, Benjamin M Meador, Pei T Wu, Jin H Jeong, Jeffrey A Woods, Kenneth R Wilund, Marni D Boppart
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are the most effective pharmacological means of reducing cardiovascular disease risk. The most common side effect of statin use is skeletal muscle myopathy, which may be exacerbated by exercise. Hypercholesterolemia and training status are factors that are rarely considered in the progression of myopathy. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which acute and chronic exercise can influence statin-induced myopathy in hypercholesterolemic (ApoE-/-) mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936178/ex-vivo-lung-perfusion-in-the-rat-detailed-procedure-and-videos
#4
Giulia Alessandra Bassani, Caterina Lonati, Daniela Brambilla, Francesca Rapido, Franco Valenza, Stefano Gatti
Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a promising procedure for evaluation, reconditioning, and treatment of marginal lungs before transplantation. Small animal models can contribute to improve clinical development of this technique and represent a substantial platform for bio-molecular investigations. However, to accomplish this purpose, EVLP models must sustain a prolonged reperfusion without pharmacological interventions. Currently available protocols only partly satisfy this need. The aim of the present research was accomplishment and optimization of a reproducible model for a protracted rat EVLP in the absence of anti-inflammatory treatment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936094/lutein-attenuates-both-apoptosis-and-autophagy-upon-cobalt-ii-chloride-induced-hypoxia-in-rat-m%C3%A5-ller-cells
#5
Frederic K C Fung, Betty Y K Law, Amy C Y Lo
Retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury is a common feature of various retinal diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Lutein, a potent anti-oxidant, is used to improve visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein attenuates apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of acute retinal ischemia/hypoxia. Here, we further show that lutein improved Műller cell viability and enhanced cell survival upon hypoxia-induced cell death through regulation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936076/angiogenic-capacity-of-periodontal-ligament-stem-cells-pretreated-with-deferoxamine-and-or-fibroblast-growth-factor-2
#6
Jessica Ratajczak, Petra Hilkens, Pascal Gervois, Esther Wolfs, Reinhilde Jacobs, Ivo Lambrichts, Annelies Bronckaers
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) represent a good source of multipotent cells for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. The success rate of these treatments is severely dependent on the establishment of adequate vasculature in order to provide oxygen and nutrients to the transplanted cells. Pharmacological preconditioning of stem cells has been proposed as a promising method to augment their therapeutic efficacy. In this study, the aim was to improve the intrinsic angiogenic properties of PDLSCs by in vitro pretreatment with deferoxamine (DFX; 100μM), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2; 10ng/mL) or both substances combined...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935998/pro-resolving-effects-of-resolvin-d2-in-ltd4-and-tnf-%C3%AE-pre-treated-human-bronchi
#7
Rayan Khaddaj-Mallat, Chantal Sirois, Marco Sirois, Edmond Rizcallah, Sofia Marouan, Caroline Morin, Éric Rousseau
Inflammation is a major burden in respiratory diseases, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness. Our hypothesis is that resolution of inflammation may represent a long-term solution in preventing human bronchial dysfunctions. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of RvD2, a member of the D-series resolving family, with concomitant effects on ASM mechanical reactivity. The role and mode of action of RvD2 were assessed in an in vitro model of human bronchi under pro-inflammatory conditions, induced either by 1 μM LTD4 or 10 ng/ml TNF-α pre-treatment for 48h...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935823/renal-disease-pathophysiology-and-treatment-contributions-from-the-rat
#8
REVIEW
Linda J Mullins, Bryan R Conway, Robert I Menzies, Laura Denby, John J Mullins
The rat has classically been the species of choice for pharmacological studies and disease modeling, providing a source of high-quality physiological data on cardiovascular and renal pathophysiology over many decades. Recent developments in genome engineering now allow us to capitalize on the wealth of knowledge acquired over the last century. Here, we review rat models of hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and acute and chronic kidney disease. These models have made important contributions to our understanding of renal diseases and have revealed key genes, such as Ace and P2rx7, involved in renal pathogenic processes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935645/small-for-size-syndrome-in-live-donor-liver-transplantation-pathways-of-injury-and-therapeutic-strategies
#9
REVIEW
Nicolas Goldaracena, Juan Echeverri, Markus Selzner
Due to the severe organ shortage and the increasing gap between the supply and demand for donor grafts, live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has become an accepted and alternative technique for the expansion of the donor pool. However, donor safety and good recipient outcomes must be balanced regarding risk stratification and decision-making within this patient population. Small for size syndrome (SFSS) is one of the complications encountered after LDLT, thus increasing the burden of optimizing donor graft selection and effective treatments during its occurrence...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935602/effectiveness-and-safety-of-nutritional-supplements-in-the-treatment-of-hereditary-retinal-dystrophies-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
N Brito-García, T Del Pino-Sedeño, M M Trujillo-Martín, R M Coco, E Rodríguez de la Rúa, I Del Cura-González, P Serrano-Aguilar
The hereditary retinal dystrophies (HRDs) are a group of genetically determined disorders that result in loss of the visual function. There is a lack of standard pharmacological treatments or widely accepted nutritional recommendations. The objective of this review is to summarise the scientific evidence on the effectiveness and safety of nutritional supplements for the treatment of HRDs. We conducted a scientific literature search on Medline and PreMedline, EMBASE, SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, and The Cochrane Library up to August 2014...
December 9, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935351/childhood-constipation-recognition-management-and-the-role-of-the-nurse
#11
James Schuster Bruce, Catherine Schuster Bruce, Hayley Short, Siba Prosad Paul
Constipation is a common childhood condition that health professionals will encounter in many different settings. The majority of these cases of childhood constipation are idiopathic in nature. It is considered to exhibit the 'tip of the iceberg' phenomenon as a large number of cases remain undetected due to under-recognition by families, embarrassment regarding the condition, fear of receiving a negative response from health professionals, or parental belief there is actually something more seriously wrong and failure to accept the diagnosis...
December 8, 2016: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935199/model-averaging-for-treatment-effect-estimation-in-subgroups
#12
Björn Bornkamp, David Ohlssen, Baldur P Magnusson, Heinz Schmidli
In many clinical trials, biological, pharmacological, or clinical information is used to define candidate subgroups of patients that might have a differential treatment effect. Once the trial results are available, interest will focus on subgroups with an increased treatment effect. Estimating a treatment effect for these groups, together with an adequate uncertainty statement is challenging, owing to the resulting "random high" / selection bias. In this paper, we will investigate Bayesian model averaging to address this problem...
December 9, 2016: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934912/bix01294-an-inhibitor-of-histone-methyltransferase-induces-autophagy-dependent-differentiation-of-glioma-stem-like-cells
#13
Iwona Anna Ciechomska, Piotr Przanowski, Judyta Jackl, Bartosz Wojtas, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) contains rare glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) with capacities of self-renewal, multi-lineage differentiation, and resistance to conventional therapy. Drug-induced differentiation of GSCs is recognized as a promising approach of anti-glioma therapy. Accumulating evidence suggests that unique properties of stem cells depend on autophagy. Here we demonstrate that BIX01294, an inhibitor of a G9a histone methyltransferase (introducing H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 repressive marks) triggers autophagy in human glioma cells...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934794/angiotensin-receptor-blockers-endothelial-dysfunction-possible-correlation-therapeutic-implications
#14
REVIEW
Miroslav Radenkovic, Marko Stojanović, Ivana Milićević Nešić, Milica Prostran
The endothelium is one of the most important constituents of vascular homeostasis, which is achieved through continual and balanced production of different relaxing and contractile factors. When there is a pathological disturbance in release of these products, endothelial dysfunction (ED) will probably occur. ED is considered to be the initial step in the development of atherosclerosis. This pathological activation and inadequate functioning of endothelial cells was shown to be to some extent a reversible process, which all together resulted in increased interest in investigation of different beneficial treatment options...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933960/novel-and-high-affinity-2-diphenylmethyl-sulfinyl-acetamide-modafinil-analogues-as-atypical-dopamine-transporter-inhibitors
#15
Jianjing Cao, Rachel D Slack, Oluyomi M Bakare, Caitlin Burzynski, Rana Rais, Barbara S Slusher, Theresa Kopajtic, Alessandro Bonifazi, Michael P Ellenberger, Hideaki Yano, Yi He, Guo-Hua Bi, Zheng-Xiong Xi, Claus J Loland, Amy Hauck Newman
The development of pharmacotherapeutic treatments of psychostimulant abuse has remained a challenge, despite significant efforts made toward relevant mechanistic targets, such as the dopamine transporter (DAT). The atypical DAT inhibitors have received attention due to their promising pharmacological profiles in animal models of cocaine and methamphetamine abuse. Herein, we report a series of modafinil analogues that have an atypical DAT inhibitor profile. We extended SAR by chemically manipulating the oxidation states of the sulfoxide and the amide functional groups, halogenating the phenyl rings, and/or functionalizing the terminal nitrogen with substituted piperazines, resulting in several novel leads such as 11b, which demonstrated high DAT affinity (Ki = 2...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933718/constipation-in-older-people-a-consensus-statement
#16
Anton Emmanuel, Francesco Mattace-Raso, Maria Cristina Neri, Karl-Uwe Petersen, Enrique Rey, June Rogers
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic constipation is a serious medical condition that affects 30%-40% of people over 60 years old. Although not normally life threatening, constipation reduces quality of life by the same extent as diabetes and osteoarthritis. There are currently no Europe-wide guidelines for treating constipation in older people, although there is some country-level guidance for the general population. We have evaluated the existing guidance and best clinical practice to improve the care of older people with constipation...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933557/atypical-presentation-and-treatment-response-in-a-child-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-having-a-novel-ldlr-mutation
#17
S Varma, A D McIntyre, R A Hegele
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal codominantly inherited disease. The severity of clinical presentation depends on the zygosity of the mutations in the LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9 genes. The homozygous form (HoFH) is associated with high mortality rate by third decade of life, while individuals with HeFH begin to suffer from premature cardiovascular disease in fourth or fifth decade of life. Statin drugs have helped to improve the biochemical profile and life expectancy in HeFH, while they are only minimally effective in HoFH...
December 9, 2016: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933340/enhancement-of-pharmacological-effects-of-uricosuric-agents-by-concomitant-treatment-with-pyrazinamide-in-rats
#18
Tetsuya Taniguchi, Naoki Ashizawa, Koji Matsumoto, Takashi Iwanaga
Our goal was to establish a model for the evaluation of the effects of uricosuric agents and to clarify the underlying mechanism(s). The effects of a uricosuric agent co-treated with pyrazinamide, an anti-tubercular agent, on urate handling were examined in rats. Furthermore, the effects of uricosuric agents on urate uptake were evaluated using the vesicles of rat renal brush-border membrane. Treatment with probenecid, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, significantly increased the urinary urate to creatinine ratio (UUA/UCRE) in pyrazinamide-treated rats although the same treatment did not produce any uricosuric effects in intact rats...
December 8, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933142/salidroside-reduces-tau-hyperphosphorylation-via-up-regulating-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-in-a-tau-transgenic-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Bei Zhang, Qiongqiong Li, Xingkun Chu, Suya Sun, Shengdi Chen
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe treatment against AD. Salidroside (Sal) is the main effective component of Rhodiola rosea L., which has several pharmacological activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Sal in the treatment of AD transgenic Drosophila and the associated mechanisms...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933094/the-newer-opioid-agonist-treatment-with-lower-substitutive-opiate-doses-is-associated-with-better-toxicology-outcome-than-the-older-harm-reduction-treatment
#20
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Livia Sanna, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Daria Piacentino, Andreas Conca, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: Charge-free heroin use disorder treatment in Italy follows two main approaches, i.e., harm reduction treatment (HRT) strategy in community low-threshold facilities for drug addiction and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in high-threshold facilities for opioid addiction, focusing on pharmacological maintenance according to the Dole and Nyswander strategy. We aimed to compare the impact of HRT and OAT on patient outcome, as assessed through negativity for drugs on about 1-year urinalyses...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
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