Read by QxMD icon Read

pharmacological treatment

Man Liu, Jingying Zhou, Zhiwei Chen, Alfred Sze-Lok Cheng
The tumour microenvironment plays an instrumental role in cancer development, progression and treatment response/resistance. Accumulating evidence underscores the fundamental importance of epigenetic regulation in tumour immune evasion. Following many pioneering discoveries demonstrating malignant transformation through epigenetic anomalies ("epimutations"), there is also growing emphasis on elucidating aberrant epigenetic mechanisms that reprogramme the milieu of tumour-associated immune and stromal cells toward an immunosuppressive state...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Shurong Li, Shufang Fu, Yichen Xiao, Gaosi Xu
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication of cardiac surgery, and related rates of both hospitalization and long-term mortality are increasing. A number of studies have explored the preventive effects of perioperative pharmacological therapy on AKI after cardiac surgery. However, the mechanisms of AKI are multifaceted, and no universal treatment has been confirmed as beneficial. We review and analyze several current perioperative pharmacological therapies for AKI after cardiac surgery to identify promising preventive strategies...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
M G Jones, A P Andreou, S B McMahon, D Spanswick
BACKGROUND: Migraineurs are highly sensitive to the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate which triggers attacks in many sufferers. In animal studies, glyceryl trinitrate increases neuronal activity in the trigeminovascular pathway and elevates neurotransmitter levels in the brainstem. Many migraineurs also display alterations in blink reflexes, known to involve brainstem circuits. We investigated the effect of GTN on evoked blinks in the anaesthetised rat to determine whether such reflexes may prove useful as the basis for a novel animal model to evaluate potential anti-migraine therapeutic agents...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
X-N Ma, C-X Ma, W-G Shi, J Zhou, H-P Ma, Y-H Gao, C J Xian, K-M Chen
OBJECTIVE: Icaritin, one effective metabolite of Herba Epimedii-derived flavonoid icariin, has a strong osteogenic activity. However, its action mechanism remains unclear. Since primary cilia have been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating the osteogenesis, we hypothesized primary cilia are indispensable in mediating icaritin osteogenic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary rat calvarial osteoblasts were transfected with siRNA1 targeting intraflagellar transport protein 88 (IFT88), a protein required for ciliogenesis, to prevent formation of primary cilium and were treated with 10(-6) M icaritin...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Paolo Girardi, Roberto Brugnoli, Giovanni Manfredi, Gabriele Sani
Lithium has been a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for several decades. Despite a general reduction in the use of lithium over the past several years, it is effective in the management of both manic and depressive episodes in BD and continues to be recommended as a first-line mood stabilizer. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of lithium and highlights its clinical profile in the management of BD, focusing on the potential advantages of prolonged-release (PR) versus immediate-release (IR) formulations of lithium...
October 21, 2016: Drugs in R&D
Miriam Krischke, Georg Hempel, Swantje Völler, Nicolas André, Maurizio D'Incalci, Gianni Bisogno, Wolfgang Köpcke, Matthias Borowski, Ralf Herold, Alan V Boddy, Joachim Boos
PURPOSE: Doxorubicin is a key component in many pediatric oncology treatment regimens; still pharmacology data on which current dosing regimens are based are very limited. METHODS: We conducted a multinational pharmacokinetic study investigating age dependency of doxorubicin metabolism and elimination in children with cancer. One hundred and one patients treated with doxorubicin according to a cancer-specific national or European therapeutic trial were recruited...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Wilfried Dinh, Barbara Albrecht-Küpper, Mihai Gheorghiade, Adriaan A Voors, Michael van der Laan, Hani N Sabbah
Adenosine exerts a variety of physiological effects by binding to cell surface G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes, namely, A1, A2a, A2b, and A3. The central physiological role of adenosine is to preclude tissue injury and promote repair in response to stress. In the heart, adenosine acts as a cytoprotective modulator, linking cardiac function to metabolic demand predominantly via activation of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs), which leads to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity, modulation of protein kinase C, and opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels...
October 22, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Jennifer C Cook, Richard H Tran, J Herbert Patterson, Jo E Rodgers
PURPOSE: The pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and safety profiles of evolving therapies for the management of chronic heart failure (HF) and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) are described. SUMMARY: HF confers a significant financial burden despite the widespread use of traditional guideline-directed medical therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, β-blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists, and the rates of HF-related mortality and hospitalization have remained unacceptably high...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Xiaxia Meng, Dengwu Li, Dan Zhou, Dongmei Wang, Qiaoxiao Liu, Sufang Fan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Juniperus rigida is used as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, brucellosis and other various inflammatory diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate antibacterial potential of essential oils from J. rigida leaves against Klebsiella pneumoniae and to examine its possible related mechanisms. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of J. rigida...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Toby N Weingarten, Tasha L Welch, Tamara L Moore, Gulshat F Walters, Joni L Whipple, Alexandre Cavalcante, Irina Bancos, William F Young, Lucinda M Gruber, Muhammad Z Shah, Travis J McKenzie, Darrell R Schroeder, Juraj Sprung
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether, despite pharmacologic adrenergic receptor blockade, higher preoperative levels of catecholamines and metanephrines (adrenergic activity) are associated with increased intraoperative complications. METHODS: Records of patients undergoing paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma (PGL-PCC) resection from January 1, 2000, through June 31, 2015, were reviewed for preoperative levels of adrenergic activity, intraoperative variability in blood pressure and heart rate (range), and postoperative outcomes (hypotension requiring treatment)...
October 18, 2016: Urology
Benjamin Albright, Roni Dhaher, Helen Wang, Roa Harb, Tih-Shih W Lee, Hitten Zaveri, Tore Eid
Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Aaron J Stonestrom, Sarah C Hsu, Michael T Werner, Gerd A Blobel
Pharmacologic inhibitors of the bromodomain and extra-terminal motif (BET) protein family are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, yet the functions of individual BET proteins remain largely uncharacterized. We review the molecular roles of BETs in the context of erythropoiesis. Studies in this lineage have provided valuable insights into their mechanisms of action, and helped define the individual and overlapping functions of BET protein family members BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4. These studies have important ramifications for our understanding of the molecular and physiologic roles of BET proteins, and provide a framework for elucidating some of the beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacologic inhibitors...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Mahnaz Ashoorkhani, Ali Bozorgi, Reza Majdzadeh, Hamed Hosseini, Ali Yoonessi, Ali Ramezankhani, Hassan Eftekhar
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most important and well-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, in spite of effective treatments, adherence to the regular use of drugs and other nondrug treatments, such as lifestyle improvement, is often poor. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an educational, supportive intervention - in the form of a Blood Pressure Management Application (BPMAP) - on self-management in patients with primary hypertension on controlling the determinant factors of hypertension, and on adherence to treatment...
October 21, 2016: Trials
Yoshikane Nonagase, Kimio Yonesaka, Hisato Kawakami, Satomi Watanabe, Koji Haratani, Takayuki Takahama, Naoki Takegawa, Hiroto Ueda, Junko Tanizaki, Hidetoshi Hayashi, Takeshi Yoshida, Masayuki Takeda, Yasutaka Chiba, Takao Tamura, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Junji Tsurutani
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of heregulin, a HER3 ligand, is one mechanism that confers resistance to the anti-HER2 agents trastuzumab and lapatinib. We investigated the impact of heregulin expression on the efficacy of HER2-targeted therapeutic agents, including trastuzumab, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and lapatinib, in vitro and in vivo and evaluated the heregulin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in specimens from patients with HER2-positive breast or gastric cancer. RESULTS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis assays demonstrated that heregulin conferred robust resistance to lapatinib and trastuzumab via HER3-Akt pathway activation followed by survivin overexpression; however, heregulin conferred minimal or no resistance to T-DM1 and paclitaxel...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
David Feifel, Katherine Pappas
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an emerging non-pharmacological approach to treating many brain-based disorders. rTMS uses electromagnetic coils to stimulate areas of the brain non-invasively. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) with the Brainsway H1-coil system specifically is a type of rTMS indicated for treating patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who are resistant to medication. The unique H1-coil design of this device is able to stimulate neuronal pathways that lie deeper in the targeted brain areas than those reached by conventional rTMS coils...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Andreas M Fichter, Lucas M Ritschl, Luisa K Robitzky, Stefan Wagenpfeil, David A Mitchell, Klaus-Dietrich Wolff, Thomas Mücke
The effects of antithrombotic drugs on random and free flap survival have been investigated in the past, but the experimental and clinical results are not in agreement. A perforator-based critical ischaemia model was used to evaluate the effects of different perioperatively administered pharmaceutical agents on tissue ischaemia and to assess the potential additional haemorheological or vasodilative effects of antithrombotics on flap microcirculation. Combined laser Doppler flowmetry and remission spectroscopy revealed an increase in certain microcirculation parameters in most groups in comparison with saline controls, and these changes correlated with flap survival...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Alessandro Rubini, Vincenzo Catena, Daniele Del Monte, Gerardo Bosco
CONTEXT: Calcium channel blockers may theoretically exhibit relaxing effects not only on vascular smooth muscle but also on airway smooth muscle. OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible effects of nifedipine on respiratory mechanics in the rat. METHODS: Respiratory system mechanical parameters were measured by the end-inflation occlusion method in the rat in vivo before and after the intraperitoneal administration of nifedipine. RESULTS: We found that nifedipine affects respiratory mechanics, inducing a reduction of airway resistance and of respiratory system elastance, probably because of a relaxing action on airway and parenchimal smooth muscle cells...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Sanket Newale, Deepak S Bachani
AIM: The study was conducted to understand the demographics, prevalence of co-morbid conditions and treatment modalities of depression. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationwide observational study was conducted to understand the management pattern of depression in India. Depression was majorly diagnosed with DSM-IV TR criteria. RESULTS: The data of 2276 Indian patients across 18 states were collected through 135 mental health professionals. The study population was predominantly from urban (81...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Javier Díez
Natriuretic peptides (NPs) promote diuresis, natriuresis and vasodilation in early chronic heart failure (CHF), countering renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) overstimulation. Despite dramatic increases in circulating NP concentrations as CHF progresses, their effects become blunted. Increases in diuresis, natriuresis, and vasodilation after administration of exogenous atrial (ANP) or brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides are attenuated in patients with advanced CHF compared with controls...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
Folkert de Groot, Stefano Capri, Jean-Claude Castanier, David Cunningham, Bruno Flamion, Mathias Flume, Harald Herholz, Lars-Åke Levin, Oriol Solà-Morales, Christoph J Rupprecht, Natalie Shalet, Andrew Walker, Olivier Wong
With finite resources, healthcare payers must make difficult choices regarding spending and the ethical distribution of funds. Here, we describe some of the ethical issues surrounding inequity in healthcare in nine major European countries, using cancer care as an example. To identify relevant studies, we conducted a systematic literature search. The results of the literature review suggest that although prevention, access to early diagnosis, and radiotherapy are key factors associated with good outcomes in oncology, public and political attention often focusses on the availability of pharmacological treatments...
October 21, 2016: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"