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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441777/health-effects-of-psidium-guajava-l-leaves-an-overview-of-the-last-decade
#1
REVIEW
Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio, Vito Verardo, Ana María Gómez-Caravaca, Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez, Antonio Segura-Carretero
Today, there is increasing interest in discovering new bioactive compounds derived from ethnomedicine. Preparations of guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves have traditionally been used to manage several diseases. The pharmacological research in vitro as well as in vivo has been widely used to demonstrate the potential of the extracts from the leaves for the co-treatment of different ailments with high prevalence worldwide, upholding the traditional medicine in cases such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and parasitic infections...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441678/the-addiction-recovery-clinic-a-novel-primary-care-based-approach-to-teaching-addiction-medicine
#2
Stephen R Holt, Nora Segar, Dana A Cavallo, Jeanette M Tetrault
PROBLEM: Substance use is highly prevalent in the United States, but little time in the curriculum is devoted to training internal medicine residents in addiction medicine. APPROACH: In 2014, the authors developed and launched the Addiction Recovery Clinic (ARC) to address this educational gap while also providing outpatient clinical services to patients with substance use disorders. The ARC is embedded within the residency primary care practice and is staffed by three to four internal medicine residents, two board-certified addiction medicine specialists, one chief resident, and one psychologist...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441669/keep-them-breathing-cystic-fibrosis-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
Sheena D Brown, Rachel White, Phil Tobin
Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects more than 30,000 people in the United States and 80,000 people worldwide. This life-threatening genetic disorder causes a buildup of thick, viscous mucus secretions in various organ systems, most commonly the gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and genitourinary systems. This article reviews the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and monitoring of patients with CF as well as guidelines for management and emerging pharmacologic treatments.
May 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441315/an-overview-of-chronic-spinal-pain-revisiting-diagnostic-categories-and-exploring-an-evolving-role-for-neurostimulation
#4
Ashwini Sharan, Jonathan Riley, Christian Hoelscher
STUDY DESIGN: Topic Overview OBJECTIVE.: To describe the varied etiologies resulting in chronic spinal pain and review the current available evidence for treatments. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Chronic pain conditions, especially those that affect the axial back and radiate to the extremities, affect a large population. This results in pronounced disability and a high socioeconomic burden. Our understanding of the underlying mechanisms for chronic pain is limited...
April 24, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441276/augs-consensus-statement-association-of-anticholinergic-medication-use-and-cognition-in-women-with-overactive-bladder
#5
(no author information available yet)
Overactive bladder affects a significant portion of the overall population and has substantial impact on daily activities and quality-of-life. When considering treatment, behavioral therapies should be instituted first, followed by medical therapies. Anticholinergic medications and beta-3 agonists are often used as initial pharmacologic therapy, but caution should be taken in prescribing anticholinergic medications in frail or cognitively impaired patients. Recently, concerns have developed regarding anticholinergic medications and the associated risk of cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer disease in the general population...
May 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441119/comparable-efficacy-of-behavioral-and-pharmacological-treatments-among-african-american-and-white-cocaine-users
#6
LaTrice Montgomery, Kathleen M Carroll
Multiple randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have evaluated a range of treatments for cocaine dependence, but few of these have focused specifically on the racial diversity observed among cocaine-dependent patients. The present analyses evaluated racial variation in cocaine use and addiction-related psychosocial outcomes at baseline and follow-up among 388 African American and White adults participating in 1 of 5 RCTs evaluating a range of pharmacological and behavioral treatments for cocaine use disorders. General linear modeling (GLM) indicated significant racial variation in cocaine and psychosocial indicators at baseline...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440846/viktminskning-utan-kirurgi-kr%C3%A3-ver-energirestriktion-och-f%C3%A3-ljsamhet-ger-minskat-nyinsjuknande-i-diabetes-och-f%C3%A3-rb%C3%A3-ttrade-kardiovaskul%C3%A3-ra-riskfaktorer-visar-litteraturgenomg%C3%A3-ng
#7
Ingrid Larsson, Madeléne Sandqvist, Malin Werling, Malin Wiklund, Christina Bergh, Björn Eliasson
Energy restriction and adherence required for weight loss without surgery Non-surgical weight loss treatment has not been shown to reduce mortality or cardiovascular morbidity, but can prevent diabetes mellitus and improves cardiovascular risk factors. For weight loss, energy restriction is fundamental and can lead to an average 2 to 20 kg loss over 6 to 12 months. Pharmacological treatment, behaviour therapy, physical activity and weight loss advice through web sites and smartphone applications and combinations in addition to energy restriction can contribute to further, but relatively limited weight loss up to 30 months...
April 25, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440739/featured-article-pharmacological-postconditioning-with-delta-opioid-attenuates-myocardial-reperfusion-injury-in-isolated-porcine-hearts
#8
Maria Seewald, James A Coles, Daniel C Sigg, Paul A Iaizzo
Ischemic preconditioning has been utilized to protect the heart from ischemia prior to ischemia onset, whereas postconditioning is employed to minimize the consequences of ischemia at the onset of reperfusion. The underlying mechanisms and pathways of ischemic pre- and postconditioning continue to be investigated as therapeutic targets. We evaluated the administration of a delta opioid agonist or cariporide on various parameters associated with myocardial reperfusion injury upon reperfusion of isolated porcine hearts...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440199/anti-hyperglycemic-agents-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-role-in-cardioprotection-during-the-last-decade
#9
Duygu Kocyigit, Kadri Murat Gurses, Muhammed Ulvi Yalcin, Lale Tokgozoglu
Type 2 diabetic patients are known to have a tendency to develop cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), and related unfavourable outcomes such as heart failure, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebrovascular events (eg. stroke), and related mortality. Long- term clinical trials have revealed contradictory findings regarding the relationship between glycemic control and CV benefits due to variations in the key characteristics of the study population. During the last decade, number of pharmacological agents used for glucose- lowering in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased owing to the introduction of dipeptidyl peptidase- IV (DPP- IV) inhibitors, glucagon- like peptide- 1 (GLP- 1) receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT- 2) inhibitors...
April 23, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440197/hyperprolactinemia-induced-by-antipsychotics-from-diagnosis-to-treatment-approach
#10
Walter Milano, Chiara Colletti, Anna Capasso
Schizophrenia is one of the most severe psychiatric diseases with a significant impact on the psychosocial functioning of the patients. People with schizophrenia are at risk to die prematurely because of their illness with their poor lifestyle contributing to the excess morbidity and higher mortality rate. In particular, lifestyle (e.g. poor diet, low rates of physical activity and increased likelihood to smoke cigarettes) predisposes them to poor physical health and comorbid medical diseases. In addition, the treatment of schizophrenia usually involves the long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs and some of these medications are implicated in the increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular effects...
April 23, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439987/comparison-of-silodosin-versus-tadalafil-in-patients-with-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-associated-with-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia
#11
Masaki Yoshida, Hideki Origasa, Narihito Seki
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of silodosin versus tadalafil for treating lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). METHODS: After informed consent, patients with LUTS/BPH were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive silodosin 8 mg/day or tadalafil 5 mg/day for 8 weeks (Period 1). Patients treated with tadalafil entered an exploratory phase and received silodosin or tadalafil for another 8 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) with Period 1 treatment...
April 25, 2017: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439796/adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-in-breast-cancer-evolving-paradigms-in-premenopausal-women
#12
REVIEW
Lorenzo Rossi, Olivia Pagani
In the last few years, new adjuvant endocrine treatment options have become available in young women with early breast cancer, such as the addition of ovarian function suppression to tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. Treatment duration has been also adapted in the latest guidelines based on the individual risk of recurrence. The oncologist is therefore challenged to precisely assess the risk of recurrence according to currently available predictive and prognostic factors in order to offer the most appropriate therapeutic option to the individual patient, considering also potential side effects, quality of life, pregnancy planning and patients' preferences...
May 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439615/wip1-phosphatase-as-pharmacological-target-in-cancer-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Soňa Pecháčková, Kamila Burdová, Libor Macurek
DNA damage response (DDR) pathway protects cells from genome instability and prevents cancer development. Tumor suppressor p53 is a key molecule that interconnects DDR, cell cycle checkpoints, and cell fate decisions in the presence of genotoxic stress. Inactivating mutations in TP53 and other genes implicated in DDR potentiate cancer development and also influence the sensitivity of cancer cells to treatment. Protein phosphatase 2C delta (referred to as WIP1) is a negative regulator of DDR and has been proposed as potential pharmaceutical target...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439535/a-murine-preclinical-syngeneic-transplantation-model-for-breast-cancer-precision-medicine
#14
Lorenzo Federico, Zechen Chong, Dong Zhang, Daniel J McGrail, Wei Zhao, Kang Jin Jeong, Christopher P Vellano, Zhenlin Ju, Mihai Gagea, Shuying Liu, Shreya Mitra, Jennifer B Dennison, Philip L Lorenzi, Robert Cardnell, Lixia Diao, Jing Wang, Yiling Lu, Lauren A Byers, Charles M Perou, Shiaw-Yih Lin, Gordon B Mills
We previously demonstrated that altered activity of lysophosphatidic acid in murine mammary glands promotes tumorigenesis. We have now established and characterized a heterogeneous collection of mouse-derived syngeneic transplants (MDSTs) as preclinical platforms for the assessment of personalized pharmacological therapies. Detailed molecular and phenotypic analyses revealed that MDSTs are the most heterogeneous group of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of breast cancer yet observed. Response of MDSTs to trametinib, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor, correlated with RAS/MAPK signaling activity, as expected from studies in xenografts and clinical trials providing validation of the utility of the model...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439271/cross-talk-between-inhibitory-immunoreceptor-tyrosine-based-activation-motif-signaling-and-toll-like-receptor-pathways-in-macrophages-and-dendritic-cells
#15
REVIEW
Ivan Hirsch, Vaclav Janovec, Ruzena Stranska, Nathalie Bendriss-Vermare
The innate immune cells sense microbial infection and self-ligands by pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and regulatory receptors (RRs), associated with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Rapid activation and concerted action of PRRs signaling and feedback inhibitory mechanisms must be engaged to ensure the host defense functions and to prevent cytotoxicity associated with excessive activation. ITAM-associated RRs can generate stimulatory or, paradoxically, inhibitory signals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439098/uncoupling-dapk1-from-nmda-receptor-glun2b-subunit-exerts-rapid-antidepressant-like-effects
#16
S-X Li, Y Han, L-Z Xu, K Yuan, R-X Zhang, C-Y Sun, D-F Xu, M Yuan, J-H Deng, S-Q Meng, X-J Gao, Q Wen, L-J Liu, W-L Zhu, Y-X Xue, M Zhao, J Shi, L Lu
Several preclinical studies have reported the rapid antidepressant effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) couples GluN2B subunits at extrasynaptic sites to regulate NMDAR channel conductance. In the present study, we found that chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced extracellular glutamate accumulation, accompanied by an increase in the DAPK1-NMDAR interaction, the high expression of DAPK1 and phosphorylated GluN2B at Ser1303, a decrease in phosphorylated DAPK1 at Ser308 and synaptic protein deficits in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439052/-calcium-and-bone-metabolism-across-women-s-life-stages-pathophysiology-adiagnosis-and-treatment-of-post-pregnancy-osteoporosis
#17
Takumi Kurabayashi
Post-pregnancy osteoporosis is a rare condition with little known pathophysiology. Most cases are diagnosed in the late stage of pregnancy or in the post-partum while breastfeeding, particularly in first pregnancy. Vertebral fractures are most commonly observed and characterized by prolonged severe pain and functional limitations. Measurements of bone mineral density(BMD)of the lumbar spine and proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA)are the clinical methods most commonly used for no fracture women...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438781/transporter-mediated-disposition-clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-cholestatic-potential-of-glyburide-and-its-primary-active-metabolites
#18
Rui Li, Yi-An Bi, Anna Vildhede, Renato J Scialis, Sumathy Mathialagan, Xin Yang, Lisa D Marroquin, Jian Lin, Manthena V S Varma
Glyburide is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We studied the mechanisms involved in the disposition of glyburide and its pharmacologically active hydroxy metabolites, M1 and M2b; and evaluated their clinical pharmacokinetics and the potential role in glyburide-induced cholestasis employing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Transport studies of parent and metabolites in human hepatocytes and transfected cell systems imply hepatic uptake mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptides...
April 24, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438761/improved-skeletal-muscle-ca-2-regulation-in-vivo-following-contractions-in-mice-overexpressing-pgc-1%C3%AE
#19
Hiroaki Eshima, Shinji Miura, Nanami Senoo, Koji Hatakeyama, David C Poole, Yutaka Kano
In skeletal muscle, resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) homeostasis is exquisitely regulated by Ca(2+) transport across the sarcolemmal, mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Of these three systems, the relative importance of the mitochondria in [Ca(2+)]i regulation remains poorly understood in in vivo skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that the capacity for Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria is a primary factor in determining [Ca(2+)]i regulation in muscle at rest and following contractions...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438729/gathering-opinions-on-depression-information-needs-and-preferences-samples-and-opinions-in-clinic-versus-web-based-surveys
#20
Matthew T Bernstein, John R Walker, Kathryn A Sexton, Alan Katz, Brooke E Beatie
BACKGROUND: There has been limited research on the information needs and preferences of the public concerning treatment for depression. Very little research is available comparing samples and opinions when recruitment for surveys is done over the Web as opposed to a personal invitation to complete a paper survey. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) to explore information needs and preferences among members of the public and (2) compare Clinic and Web samples on sample characteristics and survey findings...
April 24, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
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