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pharmacological treatment

Frederique E C M Peeters, Manouk J W van Mourik, Steven J R Meex, Jan Bucerius, Simon M Schalla, Suzanne C Gerretsen, Casper Mihl, Marc R Dweck, Leon J Schurgers, Joachim E Wildberger, Harry J G M Crijns, Bas L J H Kietselaer
BASIK2 is a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect of vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7;MK7) on imaging measurements of calcification in the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS). BAV is associated with early development of CAVS. Pathophysiologic mechanisms are incompletely defined, and the only treatment available is valve replacement upon progression to severe symptomatic stenosis. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) inactivity is suggested to be involved in progression...
March 21, 2018: Nutrients
Matthew C Fleming, Victoria Hester, Brittany J Allison, Majie C Foster, Donna Nofziger, P Matthew Joyner
Background: The woody shrub Trichostema lanatum Benth. (Lamiaceae) is native to Southern California and was reportedly used by the Chumash people as a disinfectant and for the treatment of rheumatism. Based on its traditional uses, this study investigated the antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties of extracts from T. lanatum. Methods: A methanolic extract of the leaves and stems of T. lanatum was tested for immunomodulatory activity by measuring the proliferation of murine macrophage cell cultures and the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α by the cells after treatment with T...
March 21, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Pradeep Phadnis, Purnima Dey Sarkar, Mithun Singh Rajput
BACKGROUND: Initial evidences have shown that diabetes mellitus occurs concomitantly with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptomatology. Serotonergic psychiatric therapy posits that serotonin is a central character in the management of OCD. Hence, it is worth investigating novel chemical entities affecting the serotonergic system for targeting OCD. An isoflavonoid phytoestrogen, genistein, has been recognized as of great pharmacological value especially for protecting neurodegeneration, depression (serotonin regulation), and diabetes...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Jie Han, Leslie A Goldstein, Wen Hou, Suman Chatterjee, Timothy F Burns, Hannah Rabinowich
Macroautophagy/autophagy has emerged as a resistance mechanism to anticancer drug treatments that induce metabolic stress. Certain tumors, including a subset of KRAS-mutant NSCLCs have been shown to be addicted to autophagy, and potentially vulnerable to autophagy inhibition. Currently, autophagy inhibition is being tested in the clinic as a therapeutic component for tumors that utilize this degradation process as a drug resistance mechanism. The current study provides evidence that HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) inhibition diminishes the expression of ATG7, thereby impeding the cellular capability of mounting an effective autophagic response in NSCLC cells...
March 21, 2018: Autophagy
Eloise G Harrison, Jennifer L Keating, Prue E Morgan
INTRODUCTION: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder characterised by an uncomfortable urge to move the legs. Management is primarily pharmacological. Effects for non-pharmacological, non-surgical options are published but lack systematic examination. OBJECTIVES: To synthesise results of non-pharmacological/non-surgical treatment compared to no-treatment controls or alternative treatment for RLS on any relevant outcome. METHODS: Databases and reference lists of reviews were searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing non-pharmacological treatment to alternative or no treatment controls for idiopathic RLS...
March 21, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Minji Jeon, Sunkyu Kim, Sungjoon Park, Heewon Lee, Jaewoo Kang
BACKGROUND: Drug combination therapy, which is considered as an alternative to single drug therapy, can potentially reduce resistance and toxicity, and have synergistic efficacy. As drug combination therapies are widely used in the clinic for hypertension, asthma, and AIDS, they have also been proposed for the treatment of cancer. However, it is difficult to select and experimentally evaluate effective combinations because not only is the number of cancer drug combinations extremely large but also the effectiveness of drug combinations varies depending on the genetic variation of cancer patients...
March 19, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Jacob Itzhacki, Daniel Clesse, Yannick Goumon, Eus J Van Someren, Jorge Mendoza
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), beyond mood changes, is characterized by alterations in daily rhythms of behavior and physiology. The pathophysiological conditions of SAD involve changes in day length and its first-line treatment is bright light therapy. Animal models using nocturnal rodents have been studied to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms of depression, but might be ill suited to study the therapeutic effects of light in SAD since they exhibit light-aversive responses. Here Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent, was used to determine behavioral, molecular and brain dopamine changes in response to exposure to a winter-like photoperiod consisting of a light-dark cycle with 8 h of light, under diminished light intensity, and 16 h of darkness...
March 20, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
David D Bushart, Ravi Chopra, Vikrant Singh, Geoffrey G Murphy, Heike Wulff, Vikram G Shakkottai
Objective: Purkinje neuron dysfunction is associated with cerebellar ataxia. In a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), reduced potassium channel function contributes to altered membrane excitability resulting in impaired Purkinje neuron spiking. We sought to determine the relationship between altered membrane excitability and motor dysfunction in SCA1 mice. Methods: Patch-clamp recordings in acute cerebellar slices and motor phenotype testing were used to identify pharmacologic agents which improve Purkinje neuron physiology and motor performance in SCA1 mice...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Jeff Lapoint, Seth Meyer, Charles K Yu, Kristi L Koenig, Roneet Lev, Sayone Thihalolipavan, Katherine Staats, Christopher A Kahn
Introduction: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is an entity associated with cannabinoid overuse. CHS typically presents with cyclical vomiting, diffuse abdominal pain, and relief with hot showers. Patients often present to the emergency department (ED) repeatedly and undergo extensive evaluations including laboratory examination, advanced imaging, and in some cases unnecessary procedures. They are exposed to an array of pharmacologic interventions including opioids that not only lack evidence, but may also be harmful...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Paloma Ruiz-Rodríguez, Antonio Cano-Vindel, Roger Muñoz-Navarro, Cristina M Wood, Leonardo A Medrano, Luciana Sofía Moretti
Introduction: In the primary care (PC) setting in Spain, the prevalence of emotional disorders (EDs) such as anxiety, depression and somatoform disorder is high. In PC patients, these disorders are not always managed in accordance with the recommendations provided by clinical practice guidelines, resulting in major direct and indirect economic costs and suboptimal treatment outcomes. The aim is to analyze and compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of group-based psychological therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Laura Hidalgo-Garcia, Julio Galvez, M Elena Rodriguez-Cabezas, Per O Anderson
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by an exacerbated mucosal immune response. Macrophages play pivotal roles in the maintenance of gut homeostasis but they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. They are highly plastic cells and their activation state depends on the local environment. In the healthy intestine, resident macrophages display an M2 phenotype characterized by inflammatory energy, while inflammatory M1 macrophages dominate in the inflamed intestinal mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
César Calvo-Lobo, Francisco Unda-Solano, Daniel López-López, Irene Sanz-Corbalán, Carlos Romero-Morales, Patricia Palomo-López, Jesús Seco-Calvo, David Rodríguez-Sanz
Purpose: This study aim was to compare the effectiveness of the median nerve neural mobilization (MNNM) and cervical lateral glide (CLG) intervention versus oral ibuprofen (OI) in subjects who suffer cervicobrachial pain (CP). Methods: This investigation was a, multicenter, blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT02595294; NCT02593721). A number of 105 individuals diagnosed with CP were enrolled in the study and treated in 2 different medical facilities from July to November 2015. Participants were recruited and randomly assigned into 3 groups of 35 subjects...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Eva Ceskova, Petr Silhan
In spite of tremendous development in central nervous system research, current treatment is suboptimal, especially in severe mental disorders. In medicine, there are two main methods of improving the health care provided: seeking new treatment procedures and perfecting (optimizing) the existing ones. Optimization of treatment includes not only practical tools such as therapeutic drug monitoring but also implementation of general trends in the clinical practice. New pharmacological options include new more sophisticated forms of monoaminergic drugs, old drugs rediscovered on the base of a better understanding of pathophysiology of mental illnesses, and drugs aimed at new treatment targets...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Yue Zhang, Liying Zhang, Qi Zhang, Xitong Zhang, Tong Zhang, Bing Wang
Background: Brucea javanica oil (BJO), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a variety of pharmacological activities and several BJO-related patent drugs have been widely used in China. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastric therapeutic effects of self-made BJO and its pharmaceutical potential to formulate novel BJO gastroretentive floating bead by comparing with commercial products. Methods: BJO was extracted from the seeds of B...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Usman Maqsood, Nehal Patel
We describe a case of near-fatal asthma, treated successfully by initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 29-year-old woman, known asthmatic on steroid inhalers, inhaled/nebulised bronchodilators, long-term oral prednisolone, theophylline and montelukast, presented with acute shortness of breath. She deteriorated following initial treatment with nebulised bronchodilators and magnesium sulfate requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Severe bronchospasm ensued following mechanical ventilation and peak airway pressures remained at 55 cm H2 O with intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure(PEEP) of 14 cm H2 O...
March 20, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Sana Hibino, Shunsuke Chikuma, Taisuke Kondo, Minako Ito, Hiroko Nakatsukasa, Setsuko Omata-Mise, Akihiko Yoshimura
Enhanced infiltration of regulatory T (Treg) cells into tumor tissue is detrimental to cancer patients and closely associated with poor prognosis as they create an immunosuppressive state that suppresses anti-tumor immune responses. Therefore, breaking Treg-mediated immune tolerance is important when considering cancer immunotherapy. Here we show that the Nr4a nuclear receptors, key transcription factors maintaining Treg cell genetic programs, contribute to Treg-mediated suppression of anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Research
Jolien Fleur Leijenaar, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Wiesje Maria van der Flier, Philip Scheltens, Erica Surya Klaassen, Henry Chanoch Weinstein, Geert Jan Biessels, Frederik Barkhof, Niels Daniël Prins
BACKGROUND: People with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) constitute a clinically heterogeneous group, but previous symptomatic drug trials in VCI did not take this clinical heterogeneity into account. Executive dysfunction and memory impairment are the cognitive domains that are most frequently impaired in VCI, and these impairments are likely to reflect vascular damage to specific neurotransmitter systems, which opens the possibility for targeted symptomatic treatment directed at specific neurotransmitters...
March 20, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Sara Clemenza, Flavia Sorbi, Ivo Noci, Tommaso Capezzuoli, Irene Turrini, Carlo Carriero, Nicolò Buffi, Massimiliano Fambrini, Felice Petraglia
Endometriosis is a chronic disease, and a lifelong management plan should be developed by using pharmacological treatment and surgical procedures. The pathogenesis of endometriosis is complicated and has not been definitively established. The mechanisms involved are numerous, and their understanding is constantly evolving. Currently, the first-line drugs act by blocking ovarian function, creating an hypoestrogenic environment. The blockade of estrogen secretion and receptor activity and the activation of progesteron receptors are the main target of several current drugs, as well as those under development...
February 15, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Hailong Li, Zhongyuan Tang, Peng Chu, Yanlin Song, Ying Yang, Bin Sun, Mengyue Niu, Eskandar Qaed, Abdullah Shopit, Guozhu Han, Xiaodong Ma, Jinyong Peng, Min Hu, Zeyao Tang
Methylglyoxal (MGO), an active metabolite of glucose, is observed in high levels in the tissues and blood of diabetic patients. Phosphocreatine (PCr), a high-energy phosphate compound, exhibits a range of pharmacological actions but little is well known of its neuroprotective action. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the possible mechanisms of PCr. Diabetes is closely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, leading not only to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and but also to central nervous system (CNS) damage...
March 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Eun Ju Shin, Hyo-Kyoung Choi, Mi Jeong Sung, Jae Ho Park, Min-Yu Chung, Sangwon Chung, Jin-Taek Hwang
We investigated the anti-cancer effects of beta-sitosterol (BS), a plant-derived sterol in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and xenograft mouse models. BS significantly reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis in AGS adenocarcinoma cells. This was accompanied by the formation of apoptotic bodies, as detected by Annexin V, caspase 3/7 activity, and MitoPotential assay. BS stimulated phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) expression. Pharmacological inhibitors or siRNA were used to further analyse the relationship between the two proteins...
March 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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