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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828987/perioperative-management-of-anticoagulants
#1
Joan M Irizarry-Alvarado, Lynsey A Seim
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of anticoagulant use has increased in the United States. Medical providers have the responsibility to explain to patients the management of anticoagulant regimens before an invasive procedure. The pharmacologic characteristics of these medications-specifically, their half-lives-are important in timing an interruption of anticoagulant therapy. OBJECTIVE: The authors review the current guidelines and recommendations for therapeutic interruption of anticoagulants and the involved pharmacologic factors...
August 21, 2017: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822460/-french-society-for-biological-psychiatry-and-neuropsychopharmacology-and-fondation-fondamental-task-force-formal-consensus-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-depression
#2
T Charpeaud, J-B Genty, S Destouches, A Yrondi, S Lancrenon, N Alaïli, F Bellivier, D Bennabi, T Bougerol, V Camus, T D'amato, O Doumy, F Haesebaert, J Holtzmann, C Lançon, M Lefebvre, F Moliere, I Nieto, R Richieri, L Schmitt, F Stephan, G Vaiva, M Walter, M Leboyer, W El-Hage, E Haffen, P-M Llorca, P Courtet, B Aouizerate
Major depression represents among the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the general population with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 16-17%. It is characterized by high levels of comorbidities with other psychiatric conditions or somatic diseases as well as a recurrent or chronic course in 50 to 80% of the cases leading to negative repercussions on the daily functioning, with an impaired quality of life, and to severe direct/indirect costs. Large cohort studies have supported that failure of a first-line antidepressant treatment is observed in more than 60% of patients...
September 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821397/cardiac-metabolism-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-heart-failure
#3
REVIEW
Hannah Noordali, Brodie L Loudon, Michael P Frenneaux, Melanie Madhani
Heart failure, with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although many established pharmacological interventions exist for those patients with HFrEF, hospitalization and death rates remain high, and in those with HFpEF (over half of all heart failure patients), there are no effective therapies. Recently, the role of impaired cardiac energetic status in heart failure has gained increasing recognition with the identification of reduced metabolic capacity for carbohydrates and fatty acids, impaired function of the electron transport chain, reduced capacity to transfer ATP to the cytosol, and inefficient utilization of the energy produced...
August 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819824/-update-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-definitions-diagnosis-therapy
#4
N Sommer, M J Richter, K Tello, F Grimminger, W Seeger, H A Ghofrani, H Gall
The term pulmonary arterial hypertension comprises a group of pulmonary vascular diseases of different etiologies that are characterized by similar precapillary vascular remodeling processes and result in exertional dyspnea and right heart insufficiency. The specific pharmacological treatment approach considers the risk of mortality and phenotypical properties and includes treatment with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists and prostanoids, as well as with more novel substances, such as a soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulator and an oral prostacyclin receptor agonist...
August 17, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817401/challenges-in-the-anesthetic-management-of-ambulatory-patients-in-the-mri-suites
#5
Jasper Deen, Yzabel Vandevivere, Peter Van de Putte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MRI is becoming an indispensable diagnostic tool. The need for prolonged motion-free periods has substantially increased the need for deep sedation or anesthesia in a challenging environment. This review summarises recent literature with respect to pharmacological sedative strategies, nonpharmacological alternative approaches, airway management and safety issues in the ambulatory setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Most literature researches the pediatric patient population...
August 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815597/cardiac-action-potential-repolarization-re-visited-early-repolarization-shows-all-or-none-behaviour
#6
Beatriz Trenor, Karen Cardona, Javier Saiz, Denis Noble, Wayne Giles
In healthy mammalian hearts the action potential (AP) waveform initiates and modulates each contraction, or heartbeat. As a result, action potential height and duration are key physiological variables. In addition, rate-dependent changes in ventricular action potential duration (APD), and variations in APD at a fixed heart rate, are both reliable biomarkers of electrophysiological stability. Present guidelines for the likelihood that candidate drugs will increase arrhythmias rely on small changes in APD and Q-T intervals as criteria for Safety Pharmacology decisions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815485/screening-for-osteoporosis-in-older-men-operating-characteristics-of-proposed-strategies-for-selecting-men-for-bmd-testing
#7
Susan J Diem, Katherine W Peters, Margaret L Gourlay, John T Schousboe, Brent C Taylor, Eric S Orwoll, Jane A Cauley, Lisa Langsetmo, Carolyn J Crandall, Kristine E Ensrud
BACKGROUND: The optimal approach for selecting men for bone mineral density (BMD) testing to screen for osteoporosis is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare strategies for selecting older men for screening BMD testing. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4043 community-dwelling men aged ≥70 years at four US sites. MAIN MEASURES: BMD at the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815153/high-risk-drug-drug-interactions-between-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-management-of-chronic-conditions
#8
Geoffrey J Tso, Samson W Tu, Mark A Musen, Mary K Goldstein
Clinicians and clinical decision-support systems often follow pharmacotherapy recommendations for patients based on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). In multimorbid patients, these recommendations can potentially have clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In this study, we describe and validate a method for programmatically detecting DDIs among CPG recommendations. The system extracts pharmacotherapy intervention recommendations from narrative CPGs, normalizes the terms, creates a mapping of drugs and drug classes, and then identifies occurrences of DDIs between CPG pairs...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814125/recreational-drug-use-at-a-major-music-festival-trend-analysis-of-anonymised-pooled-urine
#9
Lotte Christine Groth Hoegberg, Cecilie Christiansen, Jesper Soe, Rasmus Telving, Mette Findal Andreasen, Dan Staerk, Lona Louring Christrup, Kenneth Thermann Kongstad
OBJECTIVE: The spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) has expanded rapidly in the last decade. The complexity of the pharmacological effects of NPS challenges the traditional treatment guidelines, and information of the emergence of new arrivals is valuable. Our knowledge on the actual range of recreational drugs used and NPS available in Denmark is limited as identification is possible only when consumers become patients in the healthcare system or through drug seizures. We aimed to detect classical recreational drugs and NPS in the urine of music festival attendees and evaluate if the use of NPS could have been predicted by comparing study data with drug seizure data from the previous year published by European and Danish health authorities...
August 17, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812302/management-of-sleep-wake-disturbances-comorbid-with-cancer
#10
Ann M Berger, Ellyn E Matthews, Ashley M Kenkel
It is critical that clinicians and healthcare systems adopt routine screening and affordable interventions to reduce chronic insomnia and improve the quality of life in cancer patients and survivors. We provide expert clinical advice on how to manage sleep-wake disturbances that occur comorbidly with cancer. Our discussion focuses on the etiology, screening, and assessment of sleep-wake disturbances, and on both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions to manage sleep disturbances, insomnia, and sleep-related breathing disorders...
August 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801996/updating-the-guidelines-for-data-transparency-in-the-british-journal-of-pharmacology-data-sharing-and-the-use-of-scatter-plots-instead-of-bar-charts
#11
EDITORIAL
Christopher H George, S Clare Stanford, Steve Alexander, Giuseppe Cirino, James R Docherty, Mark A Giembycz, Daniel Hoyer, Paul A Insel, Angelo A Izzo, Yong Ji, David J MacEwan, Christopher G Sobey, Sue Wonnacott, Amrita Ahluwalia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800668/-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-risk-stratification-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-pregnancy-and-the-puerperium
#12
Panagiotis Tsikouras, Georg-Friedrich von Tempelhoff, Werner Rath
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a leading cause of direct maternal deaths in the developed countries. The incidence of VTE has increased significantly during the past two decades. The absolute risk of VTE is estimated 0.6-2.2 per 1000 deliveries. Compared with age-matched non-pregnant women, the daily risk of VTE is increased 7- to 10-fold for antepartum VTE, but it is 15- to 35-fold for postpartum VTE. The incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) during the first 6 weeks postpartum is nearly 15-fold higher compared to the incidence in pregnancy, and remains significantly increased up to 12 weeks postpartum...
August 2017: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796915/clearance-in-vulvar-lichen-sclerosus-a-realistic-treatment-endpoint-or-a-chimera
#13
A Borghi, A Virgili, S Minghetti, G Toni, M Corazza
BACKGROUND: according to the current guidelines, the aim of vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) treatment is to improve symptoms and signs, not to cure. OBJECTIVE: to assess i) the rate of VLS patients who achieved complete clearance of symptoms or objective features, or both, with a 12-week pharmacological treatment and ii) the predictive value of therapeutic response of the demographic and clinical features. METHODS: we retrospectively included VLS patients who had undergone any topical treatment for 12 weeks; demographics, history, VLS-related symptoms and objective features recorded at baseline and on completion of treatment were collected and elaborated...
August 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794532/local-anaesthetic-systemic-toxicity-following-oral-ingestion-in-a-child-revisiting-dibucaine
#14
Raylene Dias, Nandini Dave, Milind S Tullu, Chandrahas T Deshmukh
Dibucaine, a potent and toxic local anaesthetic, although currently withdrawn by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use as a spinal anaesthetic, continues to remain available in many over-the-counter topical formulations. Systemic toxicity following oral ingestion of local anaesthetics is rare. We report a case of accidental ingestion of dibucaine (ear drops) in a 7-year-old child who developed diplopia, giddiness, ventricular premature contractions and a right bundle branch block. We also present a brief discussion on the pharmacologic and toxicity profile of dibucaine, the Naranjo algorithm for assessing causality in case of adverse drug reactions and a review of current guidelines on the management of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791693/atypical-antipsychotics-for-disruptive-behaviour-disorders-in-children-and-youths
#15
REVIEW
Jik H Loy, Sally N Merry, Sarah E Hetrick, Karolina Stasiak
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane Review, last published in 2012 (Loy 2012). Children and youths with disruptive behaviour disorders may present to health services, where they may be treated with atypical antipsychotics. There is increasing usage of atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of disruptive behaviour disorders. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect and safety of atypical antipsychotics, compared to placebo, for treating disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths...
August 9, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782211/bisphosphonate-guidelines-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-myeloma-bone-disease
#16
Oi Lin Lee, Noemi Horvath, Cindy Lee, Doug Joshua, Joy Ho, Jeff Szer, Hang Quach, Andrew Spencer, Simon Harrison, Peter Mollee, Andrew W Roberts, Dipti Talaulikar, Ross Brown, Bradley Augustson, Silvia Ling, Wilfrid Jaksic, John Gibson, Anna Kalff, Anna Johnston, Akash Kalro, Chris Ward, H Miles Prince, Andrew Zannettino
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological malignancy characterised by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells in the bone marrow. More than 80% of patients with MM display evidence of myeloma bone disease (MBD), characterised by the formation of osteolytic lesions throughout the axial and appendicular skeleton. MBD significantly increases the risk of skeletal-related events such as pathologic fracture, spinal cord compression and hypercalcaemia. MBD is the result of MM plasma cells-mediated activation of osteoclast activity and suppression of osteoblast activity...
August 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780561/behaviour-change-interventions-for-the-management-of-raynaud-s-phenomenon-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
Jo Daniels, John D Pauling, Christopher Eccelston
INTRODUCTION: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) describes excessive peripheral vasospasm to cold exposure and/or emotional stress. RP episodes are associated with digital colour changes, pain and reduced quality of life. Pharmacological interventions are of low to moderate efficacy and often result in adverse effects such as facial flushing and headaches. Recommended lifestyle and behavioural interventions have not been evaluated. The objectives of the proposed systematic review are to assess the comparative safety and efficacy of behaviour change interventions for RP and identify what we can learn to inform future interventions...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770976/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
Christopher Eccleston, Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Brian Anderson, Nick Mr Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770975/paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#19
REVIEW
Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Brian Anderson, Nick Mr Wilkinson, David G Williams, Christopher Eccleston
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770542/process-based-treatment-of-diabetes-in-kaiser-permanente-southern-california-how-to-make-diabetes-care-complete
#20
REVIEW
John P Martin, Natalie Aboubechara
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) Complete Care management strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: The KPSC Complete Care program allows members of care management teams to coordinate the administration of care for patients with diabetes. This program encompasses teams of physicians, physician assistants, pharmacists, nurse practitioners, registered nurse (RN) care managers, office-based RNs, health educators, and many others to contribute to the glycemic and overall health outcomes for our patients with diabetes...
September 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
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