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Randomized clinical trial

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475199/the-role-of-a-single-dose-of-vancomycin-in-reducing-clinical-sepsis-in-premature-infants-prior-to-removal-of-peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-a-retrospective-study
#1
Vidit Bhargava, Lovya George, Michael Malloy, Rafael Fonseca
OBJECTIVE:  Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line removal is associated with bloodstream infections and clinical sepsis. We aim to investigate the role of a single prophylactic dose of vancomycin in decreasing the incidence of central line associated bloodstream infection associated with PICC removal. METHODS:  A retrospective chart review of patients in the neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. Patients were divided into two study groups based on whether a single dose of vancomycin was administered (exposed) or not (nonexposed)...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475110/pathological-fracture-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-femoral-metastases-using-ct-based-finite-element-methods-a-retrospective-clinical-study
#2
Amir Sternheim, Ornit Giladi, Yair Gortzak, MIchael Drexler, Moshe Salai, Nir Trabelsi, Charles Milgrom, Zohar Yosibash
Physician recommendation for prophylactic surgical fixation of a femur with metastatic bone disease (MBD) is usually based on Mirels' criteria and clinical experience, both of which suffer from poor specificity. This may result in a significant number of these health compromised patients undergoing unnecessary surgery. CT-based finite element analyses (CTFEA) have been shown to accurately predict strength in femurs with metastatic tumors in an ex-vivo study. In order to assess the utility of CTFEA as a clinical tool to determine the need for fixation of patients with MBD of the femur, an ad hoc CTFEA was performed on a retrospective cohort of fifty patients...
February 20, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474934/design-and-statistical-considerations-for-studies-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-a-single-dose-of-the-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccine
#3
Joshua N Sampson, Allan Hildesheim, Rolando Herrero, Paula Gonzalez, Aimee Kreimer, Mitchell H Gail
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause about 70% of all cervical cancers. Clinical trials have demonstrated that three doses of either commercially available HPV vaccine, Cervarix or Gardasil, prevent most new HPV 16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions. Based on evidence of immunological non-inferiority, 2-dose regimens have been licensed for adolescents in the United States, European Union, and elsewhere. However, if a single dose were effective, vaccine costs would be reduced substantially and the logistics of vaccination would be greatly simplified, enabling vaccination programs in developing countries...
February 20, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474804/use-of-fibers-in-childhood-constipation-treatment-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Patricia P Mello, Diego A Eifer, Elza D Mello
OBJECTIVE: To gather current evidence on the use of fiber for constipation treatment in pediatric patients. SOURCE OF DATA: Systematic review with meta-analysis of studies identified through Pubmed, Embase, LILACS and Cochrane databases published up to 2016. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials; patients aged between 1 and 18 years and diagnosed with functional constipation receiving or not drug treatment for constipation; articles published in Portuguese, English, Spanish, French, and German in journals accessible to the researchers...
February 20, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474702/a-weight-loss-intervention-using-a-commercial-mobile-application-in-latino-americans-adelgaza-trial
#5
Yoshimi Fukuoka, Eric Vittinghoff, Julie Hooper
More than half of Latino adults living in the USA are expected to develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Despite the growing interest in smartphone use for weight loss and diabetes prevention, relatively few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of mobile app-based interventions in Latino populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of an in-person weight loss intervention in conjunction with a commercially available Fitbit app in a Latino sample at risk for type 2 diabetes and explore significant predictors associated with weight loss...
February 21, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474574/evidence-based-medicine-and-big-genomic-data
#6
John P A Ioannidis, Muin J Khoury
Genomic and other related big data (Big Genomic Data, BGD for short) are ushering a new era of precision medicine. This overview discusses whether principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) hold true for BGD and how they should be operationalized in the current era. Major EBM principles include the systematic identification, description and analysis of the validity and utility of BGD, the combination of individual clinical expertise with individual patient needs and preferences, and the focus on obtaining experimental evidence, whenever possible...
February 20, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474546/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-text-messaging-intervention-to-promote-virologic-suppression-and-retention-in-care-in-an-urban-safety-net-hiv-clinic-the-connect4care-c4c-trial
#7
Katerina A Christopoulos, Elise D Riley, Adam W Carrico, Jacqueline Tulsky, Judith T Moskowitz, Samantha Dilworth, Lara S Coffin, Leslie Wilson, Jason Johnson Peretz, Joan F Hilton
Background: Text messaging is a promising strategy to support HIV care engagement, but little is known about its efficacy in urban safety-net HIV clinic populations. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a supportive and motivational text messaging intervention, Connect4Care (C4C), among viremic patients who had a history of poor retention or were new to clinic. Participants were randomized (stratified by new HIV diagnosis status) to receive one of the following for 12 months: 1) thrice-weekly intervention messages, plus texted primary care appointment reminders and a monthly text message requesting confirmation of study participation, or; 2) texted reminders and monthly messages alone...
February 21, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474351/are-cannabinoids-effective-for-fibromyalgia
#8
Matías Rocco, Gabriel Rada
INTRODUCTION: Cannabinoids have been proposed as a therapeutic alternative for fibromyalgia. However, their clinical effectiveness is a matter of debate. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach...
February 14, 2018: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474350/is-parenteral-hydration-beneficial-in-terminally-ill-cancer-patients
#9
José Canihuante, Pedro Pérez
INTRODUCTION: It is common for terminally ill patients to have a reduced fluid intake, which often results in a need for more medical support. However, it is not clear if this measure has a real clinical impact. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data from primary studies and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach...
February 12, 2018: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474280/the-effect-of-oral-phenazopyridine-on-perioperative-voiding-after-midurethral-slings-epiphany-study
#10
Omar Felipe Dueñas-Garcia, Tania Sierra, Danielle Taylor, Katherine Leung, Cynthia D Hall, Michael K Flynn
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of preoperative oral phenazopyridine on postoperative voiding dysfunction in women undergoing a retropubic midurethral sling. METHODS: A single-institution randomized clinical trial was performed from September 2015 to March 2017, comparing 200 mg of oral phenazopyridine versus no phenazopyridine in patients undergoing a retropubic midurethral sling under general anesthesia with no concomitant procedures. A power calculation indicated that we required at least 40 subjects per arm...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473942/graphical-instructions-for-administration-and-scoring-the-mini-cog-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
Edlira Tam, Benjamin T Gandesbery, Laura Young, Soo Borson, Eiran Z Gorodeski
OBJECTIVES: To develop a novel set of graphical Mini-Cog instructions designed to aid clinicians previously untrained on the Mini-Cog in accurate administration and scoring and to determine whether use of these graphical instructions improved the speed and accuracy of deployment of this tool. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Testing was conducted in a simulated environment with a mock patient. PARTICIPANTS: Registered nurses working in inpatient or outpatient settings at a large academic medical center who had no prior exposure to or training with the Mini-Cog (N=92)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473717/interventions-for-paracetamol-acetaminophen-overdose
#12
REVIEW
Angela L Chiew, Christian Gluud, Jesper Brok, Nick A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various interventions to treat paracetamol poisoning, depending on the clinical status of the person. These interventions include inhibiting the absorption of paracetamol from the gastrointestinal tract (decontamination), removal of paracetamol from the vascular system, and antidotes to prevent the formation of, or to detoxify, metabolites...
February 23, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473644/the-atrial-fibrillation-health-literacy-information-technology-system-pilot-assessment
#13
Jared W Magnani, Courtney L Schlusser, Everlyne Kimani, Bruce L Rollman, Michael K Paasche-Orlow, Timothy W Bickmore
Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a highly prevalent heart rhythm condition that has significant associated morbidity and requires chronic treatment. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies have the potential to enhance multiple aspects of AF care, including education, monitoring of symptoms, and encouraging and tracking medication adherence. We have previously implemented and tested relational agents to improve outcomes in chronic disease and sought to develop a smartphone-based relational agent for improving patient-centered outcomes in AF...
July 2017: JMIR Cardio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473522/an-evidence-based-review-of-off-label-uses-of-polidocanol
#14
Hossein Babaei, Elgar Enamzadeh
BACKGROUND: Polidocanol is approved for its competence in treatment of varicose veins and spider veins; however, unfortunately, many of its off-label uses are still underappreciated. OBJECTIVE: Lack of an appropriate comprehensive review for off-label uses of this medication troubles physicians about making evidence-based decisions on prescribing it for its various outstanding off-label uses. This article attempts to provide physicians with the latest information concerning successful and unsuccessful use of polidocanol as an alternative treatment for esophageal and gastric varices, tendinopathy and epicondylitis, vascular malformations, varicocele, hydrocele and spermatocele, aneurysmal bone cysts, itching, management of gastrointestinal bleeding, simple renal cysts, reducing the incidence and severity of radio-induced dermatitis, and hemorrhoids...
February 23, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473481/early-self-managed-focal-sensorimotor-rehabilitative-training-enhances-functional-mobility-and-sensorimotor-function-in-patients-following-total-knee-replacement-a-controlled-clinical-trial
#15
Maria Moutzouri, Nigel Gleeson, Fiona Coutts, Elias Tsepis, Gliatis John
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of early self-managed focal sensorimotor training compared to functional exercise training after total knee replacement on functional mobility and sensorimotor function. DESIGN: A single-blind controlled clinical trial. SETTING: University Hospital of Rion, Greece. SUBJECTS: A total of 52 participants following total knee replacement. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Timed Up and Go Test and the secondary outcomes were balance, joint position error, the Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale, and pain...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473469/immunotherapy-for-thoracic-oncology-gone-viral
#16
Manish R Patel
Immune therapy has now been incorporated into the standard of care for non-small-cell lung cancer based on randomized trials showing superiority of anti-PD1 antibodies compared with chemotherapy. Thus there is a renewed interest in immune approaches to treating lung cancer. One promising approach is with oncolytic viruses that either naturally or through engineering, preferentially infect or kill cancer cells. In preclinical models of different thoracic cancers, it has been found that these viruses can induce immune responses through multiple mechanisms...
April 2018: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473223/epicrestal-and-subcrestal-placement-of-platform-switched-implants-18-month-result-of-a-randomized-controlled-split-mouth-prospective-clinical-trial
#17
Stuart J Froum, Sang-Choon Cho, Takanori Suzuki, Paul Yu, Patricia Corby, Ismael Khouly
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the changes in marginal bone levels (MBL) and soft tissue dimension around platform-switched implants with the implant-abutment junction (IAJ) placed at the crest or 1.5-2 mm subcrestally. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 96 platform-switched implants were placed in either the posterior maxilla or mandible in 48 partially edentulous patients in a split-mouth study. All implants were provisionally restored after 4-5 months and definitively after 6 months (T6)...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473173/ultraviolet-light-based-pathogen-inactivation-and-alloimmunization-after-platelet-transfusion-results-from-a-randomized-trial
#18
Philip J Norris, Zhanna Kaidarova, Erica Maiorana, Silvano Milani, Mila Lebedeva, Michael P Busch, Brian Custer, Paolo Rebulla
BACKGROUND: The current study explored whether pathogen-reduction treatment of platelet components before transfusion would decrease the risk of alloimmunization. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Study participants were patients with hematologic cancer who were included in two parallel, randomized clinical trials testing pathogen-reduction treatment versus conventional platelets using the Mirasol or Intercept pathogen-reduction systems. Patients who had a baseline, pretransfusion sample and a follow-up, posttransfusion sample were included in the study (n = 179 patients in each study arm)...
February 22, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473017/roadmap-to-wellness-exploring-live-customized-music-at-the-bedside-for-hospitalized-children
#19
R Serene Perkins, Maura Boyce, Megan C Byrtek, Regina C Ellis, Cindy Hill, Paul S Fitzpatrick, Shaban Demirel
Background: Randomized trials on clinical outcomes of music are conflicting, with few performed in the postoperative pediatric population. We aimed to determine if there was a benefit of a live, customized bedside music delivery program (MyMusicRx® ) for children hospitalized after pediatric surgery. We present our perspective on the utility of music medicine, review others' work in this area, and discuss future directions. Methods: All admitted postsurgical patients aged between 5 and 18 years were considered...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472955/improving-depression-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-using-group-cognitive-behavior-therapy
#20
Zahra Noroozi, Sajedeh Hamidian, Niloofar Khajeddin, Mahnaz Mehrabi Zadeh Honarmand, Yadollah Zargar, Homeira Rashidi, Behrooz Dolatshahi
Objective: Depression is a chronic condition comorbid with diabetes type 2 that often remains untreated. Dealing with diabetes is a challenging task for patients and can lead to depression in long term. These two conditions have a negative influence on each other and on the individual's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of group cognitive behavior therapy on depression, quality of life in women with diabetes type 2. Method : We conducted a clinical trial among 30 women with diabetes type 2 comorbid with depression...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
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