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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150513/high-prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-large-phicd211-phicdif1296t-like-prophages-in-clostridioides-difficile
#1
Julian R Garneau, Ognjen Sekulovic, Bruno Dupuy, Olga Soutourina, Marc Monot, Louis-Charles Fortier
Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a pathogenic bacterium displaying great genetic diversity. A significant proportion of this diversity is due to the presence of integrated prophages. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of phiCD211, also known as phiCDIF1296T, the largest phage identified in C. difficile so far, with a genome of 131-kbp. It shares morphological and genomic similarity with other large siphophages like phage 949 infecting Lactococcus lactis and phage c-st infecting Clostridium botulinum...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148877/characterization-and-horizontal-transfer-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-and-integrons-in-bacteria-isolated-from-cooked-meat-products-in-china
#2
Tao Yu, Xiaobing Jiang, Yu Liang, Yanping Zhu, Jinhe Tian, Hao Ying, Xuannian Wang, Lei Shi
The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and the presence and transferability of corresponding resistance genes and integrons in bacteria isolated from cooked meat samples in the People's Republic of China. A total of 150 isolates (22 species belonging to 15 genera) were isolated from 49 samples. Resistance of these isolates to antimicrobials was commonly observed; 42.7, 36.0, and 25.3% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, and ampicillin, respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed in 41 (27...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148730/the-effect-of-different-treatment-technologies-on-the-fate-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-class-1-integrons-when-residual-municipal-wastewater-solids-are-applied-to-soil
#3
Tucker Burch, Michael J Sadowsky, Timothy M LaPara
Residual wastewater solids are a significant reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). While treatment technologies can reduce ARG levels in residual wastewater solids, the effects of these technologies on ARGs in soil during subsequent land-application are unknown. In this study we investigated the use of numerous treatment technologies (air drying, aerobic digestion, mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion, pasteurization, and alkaline stabilization) on the fate of ARGs and class 1 integrons in wastewater solids-amended soil microcosms...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146853/genome-sequences-of-four-subcluster-l2-mycobacterium-phages-finemlucis-miley16-wilder-and-zakai
#4
Christopher D Herren, Alexandra Peister, Timothy S Breton, Maggie S Hill, Marcy S Anderson, Adeline W Chang, Sydney B Klein, Mackenzie M Thornton, Stacy J Vars, Kasey E Wagner, Paige L Wiebe, Thomas G Williams, Coraima P Yanez, Jasanta M Ackles, Darius Artis, Ryan J Brazier, Ronald J Bryant, Kerel O Callwood, Isaiah H Carter, Cameron L DeBose, Christian D Edwards, Isaiah C Ezemba, Renshal R Joaquin, Zakai M Meghoo-Peddie, Ziha G Meghoo-Peddie, Ryan W Moore, Christopher E Smith, Adam J Turner, Raymond L Vorters, Jeffrey J Wider, Liesel L Krout, Mia S Comis, Madison J Davick, Eli E Michaud, Bailey E Shevenell, Sarah E Stanley, Chelsey I Frank, Jacob R Montgomery, Lawrence S Blumer, Jean A Doty, Martha Smith-Caldas, Welkin H Pope, Steven G Cresawn, Daniel A Russell, Rebecca A Garlena, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Graham F Hatfull
Four subcluster L2 mycobacteriophages, Finemlucis, Miley16, Wilder, and Zakai, that infect Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 were isolated. The four phages are closely related to each other and code for 12 to 14 tRNAs and 130 to 132 putative protein-coding genes, including tyrosine integrases, cro, immunity repressors, and excise genes involved in the establishment of lysogeny.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145853/molecular-characterization-of-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-in-clinical-isolates-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#5
Kevin M Raible, Bhaswati Sen, Nancy Law, Tiffany E Bias, Christopher L Emery, Garth D Ehrlich, Suresh G Joshi
BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which is establishing as a major cause of morbidity and mortality within the healthcare community. The success of this pathogen is largely due to its ability to rapidly gain resistance to antimicrobial therapies and its capability to persist in an abiotic environment through the production of a biofilm. Our tertiary-care hospital has showed high incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates. METHODS: In this study we explore both genotypic and phenotypic properties of 26 CRAB isolates: 16 isolates were collected from January 2010 to March 2011, and 10 were collected between February and May 2015...
November 16, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145807/durability-of-switch-regimens-based-on-rilpivirine-or-on-integrase-inhibitors-both-in-association-with-tenofovir-and-emtricitabine-in-hiv-infected-virologically-suppressed-patients
#6
Nicola Gianotti, Andrea Poli, Silvia Nozza, Laura Galli, Nadia Galizzi, Marco Ripa, Marco Merli, Alessia Carbone, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
BACKGROUND: Switch strategies based on rilpivirine/tenofovir/emtricitabine or on an integrase inhibitor (InSTI) plus tenofovir/emtricitabine have never been compared in randomized clinical trials. The main aim of the study was to investigate the durability of these two switch regimens in virologically suppressed, HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients who started rilpivirine or an InSTI (both with tenofovir and emtricitabine) with <50 HIV-RNA copies/mL and had at least one HIV-RNA assessed while receiving the study regimen...
November 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140875/bone-mineral-density-declines-twice-as-quickly-among-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-men
#7
Kristine M Erlandson, Jordan E Lake, Myung Sim, Julian Falutz, Carla M Prado, Ana Rita Domingues da Silva, Todd T Brown, Giovanni Guaraldi
BACKGROUND: Initial declines in bone mineral density (BMD) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV are well described, but data on long-term changes and risk factors for decline, particularly among women, are limited. METHODS: HIV-infected men and women in the Modena Metabolic Clinic underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans every 6-12 months for up to 10 years (median 4.6 years). Mixed effect regression model in combined and sex-stratified models determined annual rates of decline and clinical factors associated with BMD...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137637/molecular-evolution-of-hiv-1-integrase-during-the-20%C3%A2-years-prior-to-the-first-approval-of-integrase-inhibitors
#8
Karolin Meixenberger, Kaveh Pouran Yousef, Maureen Rebecca Smith, Sybille Somogyi, Stefan Fiedler, Barbara Bartmeyer, Osamah Hamouda, Norbert Bannert, Max von Kleist, Claudia Kücherer
BACKGROUND: Detailed knowledge of the evolutionary potential of polymorphic sites in a viral protein is important for understanding the development of drug resistance in the presence of an inhibitor. We therefore set out to analyse the molecular evolution of the HIV-1 subtype B integrase at the inter-patient level in Germany during a 20-year period prior to the first introduction of integrase strand inhibitors (INSTIs). METHODS: We determined 337 HIV-1 integrase subtype B sequences (amino acids 1-278) from stored plasma samples of antiretroviral treatment-naïve individuals newly diagnosed with HIV-1 between 1986 and 2006...
November 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133827/blastocyst-formation-rate-and-transgene-expression-are-associated-with-gene-insertion-into-safe-and-non-safe-harbors-in-the-cattle-genome
#9
Milad Khorramian Ghahfarokhi, Kianoush Dormiani, Ali Mohammadi, Farnoosh Jafarpour, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani
Integration target site is the most important factor in successful production of transgenic animals. However, stable expression of transgene without disturbing the function of the host genome depends on promoter methylation, transgene copy number and transcriptional activity in integration regions. Recently, new genome-editing tools have made much progress, however little attention has been paid to the identification of genomic safe harbors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of insertion site, promoter and copy number of transgene on the production of embryos from cattle fibroblast cells following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128756/integrase-c-terminal-residues-determine-the-efficiency-of-feline-foamy-viral-dna-integration
#10
Jinsun Kim, Ga-Eun Lee, Martin Lochelt, Cha-Gyun Shin
Integrase (IN) is an essential enzyme in retroviral life cycle. It mediates viral cDNA integration into host cellular DNA. Feline foamy virus (FFV) is a member of the Spumavirus subfamily of Retroviridae. Recently, its life cycle has been proposed to be different from other retroviruses. Despite this important finding, FFV IN is not understood clearly. Here, we constructed point mutations in FFV IN C-terminal domain (CTD) to obtain a clear understanding of its integration mechanism. Mutation of the amino acid residues in FFV IN CTD interacting with target DNA reduced both IN enzymatic activities in vitro and viral productions in infected cells...
November 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123989/fret-analysis-of-hiv-1-gag-and-gagpol-interactions
#11
Shimon Takagi, Fumitaka Momose, Yuko Morikawa
The Gag protein of HIV multimerizes to form viral particles. The GagPol protein encoding virus-specific enzymes, such as protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase, is incorporated into HIV particles via interactions with Gag. The catalytically active forms of these enzymes are dimeric or tetrameric. We employed Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays to evaluate Gag-Gag, Gag-GagPol, and GagPol-GagPol interactions and investigated Gag and Pol interdomains tolerant to fluorescent protein insertion for FRET assays...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121950/the-hiv-1-integrase-ledgf-allosteric-inhibitor-mut-a-resistance-profile-impairment-of-virus-maturation-and-infectivity-but-without-influence-on-rna-packaging-or-virus-immunoreactivity
#12
Céline Amadori, Yme Ubeles van der Velden, Damien Bonnard, Igor Orlov, Nikki van Bel, Erwann Le Rouzic, Laia Miralles, Julie Brias, Francis Chevreuil, Daniele Spehner, Sophie Chasset, Benoit Ledoussal, Luzia Mayr, François Moreau, Felipe García, José Gatell, Alessia Zamborlini, Stéphane Emiliani, Marc Ruff, Bruno P Klaholz, Christiane Moog, Ben Berkhout, Montserrat Plana, Richard Benarous
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 Integrase (IN) interacts with the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75 and tethers the HIV preintegration complex to the host genome enabling integration. Recently a new class of IN inhibitors was described, the IN-LEDGF allosteric inhibitors (INLAIs). Designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF interaction during integration, the major impact of these inhibitors was surprisingly found on virus maturation, causing a reverse transcription defect in target cells. RESULTS: Here we describe the MUT-A compound as a genuine INLAI with an original chemical structure based on a new type of scaffold, a thiophene ring...
November 9, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119205/secretome-profile-analysis-of-multidrug-resistant-monodrug-resistant-and-drug-susceptible-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#13
Chanyanuch Putim, Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Ratikorn Gamngoen, Khajornsak Tragoolpua, Sorasak Intorasoot, Usanee Anukool, Chayada Sitthidet Tharincharoen, Ponrut Phunpae, Chatchai Tayapiwatana, Watchara Kasinrerk, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Bordin Butr-Indr
The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has generated great concern in the control of tuberculosis and HIV/TB patients have established severe complications that are difficult to treat. Although, the gold standard of drug-susceptibility testing is highly accurate and efficient, it is time-consuming. Diagnostic biomarkers are, therefore, necessary in discriminating between infection from drug-resistant and drug-susceptible strains. One strategy that aids to effectively control tuberculosis is understanding the function of secreting proteins that mycobacteria use to manipulate the host cellular defenses...
November 8, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112068/initial-treatment-response-among-hiv-subtype-f-infected-patients-who-started-antiretroviral-therapy-based-on-integrase-inhibitors
#14
Purificación Cid-Silva, Luis Margusino-Framiñán, Vanesa Balboa-Barreiro, Isabel Martín-Herranz, Ángeles Castro-Iglesias, Berta Pernas-Souto, Josep M Llibre, Eva Poveda
HIV-1 subtype B (54.4%) and subtype F (27.2%) are the most prevalent variants in patients who started antiretroviral therapy including an integrase inhibitor (INI) in the last two years in Northwest Spain. Virological response rates to antiretroviral therapy based on INI were significantly lower among F subtypes compared to B subtypes at weeks 12 (25.0% vs. 75.0%), and 24 (59.1% vs. 95.0%). Subtype F was independently associated with virological response at 24 weeks [OR 11.8 (95%CI 1.1-119.9); p = 0.037]...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112064/placental-transfer-of-elvitegravir-and-cobicistat-in-an-ex-vivo-human-cotyledon-double-perfusion-model
#15
Valentine Faure Bardon, Laurent Mandelbrot, Dominique Duro, Chloé Dussaux, Minh Le, Gilles Peytavin
OBJECTIVE: To determine the transplacental pharmacokinetics of the HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor elvitegravir and of cobicistat, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor used as a pharmacoenhancer in antiretroviral therapy. DESIGN AND METHODS: Maternal-to-fetal transfer across the term human placenta was investigated with the ex-vivo dually perfused cotyledon model, in 7 open-circuit experiments and 10 closed-circuit (recirculating) experiments. Elvitegravir and cobicistat were added to a maternal perfusate containing 2 g/L of human serum albumin and antipyrine, as a marker to validate the cotyledon's viability...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107562/dolutegravir-as-maintenance-monotherapy-for-hiv-domono-a-phase-2-randomised-non-inferiority-trial
#16
Ingeborg Wijting, Casper Rokx, Charles Boucher, Jeroen van Kampen, Suzan Pas, Theodora de Vries-Sluijs, Carolina Schurink, Hannelore Bax, Maarten Derksen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Marchina van der Ende, Eric van Gorp, Jan Nouwen, Annelies Verbon, Wouter Bierman, Bart Rijnders
BACKGROUND: The high genetic barrier to resistance of dolutegravir might allow for its use as maintenance monotherapy in patients with HIV. We investigated whether dolutegravir monotherapy was non-inferior to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for maintaining virological suppression in patients with HIV-1 infection successfully treated with combination ART. METHODS: We did this open-label, phase 2, randomised non-inferiority trial at two medical centres in the Netherlands...
October 26, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105160/strength-in-amalgamation-newer-combination-agents-for-hiv-and-implications-for-practice
#17
Christopher McCoy, Melissa Badowski, Elizabeth Sherman, Rustin Crutchley, Ethan Smith, Daniel B Chastain
Antiretroviral (ART) therapy for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has undergone significant changes over the past 30 years. Many single tablet regimens (STR), including newer fixed dose combination (FDC) tablets, are available, offering patients several options for choosing a treatment regimen that works best for them. Given these changes, patients are more likely to adhere to treatment, achieve better clinical outcomes, and experience both fewer side effects and drug-drug interactions...
November 3, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103079/effectiveness-of-kidney-transplantation-in-hiv-infected-recipients-under-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-a-single-cohort-experience-brescia-northern-italy
#18
Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Nicola Bossini, Maria Antonia Forleo, Silvio Sandrini, Emanuele Focà, Nigritella Brianese, Giulia Zambolin, Claudia Chirico, Giovanni Cancarini, Francesco Castelli
PURPOSE: Kidney transplantation was recently introduced for the treatment of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in HIV-infected patients. We report the results of the first 28 procedures at our centre. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on HIV-infected patients evaluated for kidney transplantation between January 2005 and October 2016. Patients were selected and monitored by the kidney transplantation and infectious diseases teams, according to the national protocol...
November 4, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096670/hiv-treatment-simplification-to-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disproxil-fumarate-e-c-f-tdf-plus-darunavir-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#19
Marianne Harris, Bruce Ganase, Birgit Watson, P Richard Harrigan, Julio S G Montaner, Mark W Hull
BACKGROUND: As a simplification strategy for treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients who have achieved virologic suppression on a multi-drug, multi-class antiretroviral regimen, the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of once-daily elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) with darunavir. METHODS: A single arm, open-label 48-week study was conducted of regimen simplification to E/C/F/TDF plus darunavir 800 mg daily from stable therapy including two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, and an integrase inhibitor...
November 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091218/hiv-1-dna-ultra-deep-sequencing-analysis-at-initiation-of-the-dual-therapy-dolutegravir%C3%A2-%C3%A2-lamivudine-in-the-maintenance-dolulam-pilot-study
#20
Charlotte Charpentier, Brigitte Montes, Marine Perrier, Nadia Meftah, Jacques Reynes
Background: The DOLULAM study assessed the efficacy of dolutegravir + lamivudine dual therapy to maintain virological suppression in heavily treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected adults. No virological failure occurred during the first year of the dual therapy. Objectives: A virological substudy was conducted to assess the prevalence of M184I/V mutations at dual therapy initiation using historical DNA/RNA genotypes and baseline DNA genotype obtained by next-generation sequencing (NGS)...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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