Read by QxMD icon Read

adult stem cells

Katya Zelentsova, Ziv Talmi, Ghada Abboud-Jarrous, Tamar Sapir, Tal Capucha, Maria Nassar, Tal Burstyn-Cohen
Neurons are continuously produced in brains of adult mammalian organisms throughout life - a process tightly regulated to ensure a balanced homeostasis. In the adult brain, quiescent Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) residing in distinct niches engage in proliferation, to self-renew and to give rise to differentiated neurons and astrocytes. The mechanisms governing the intricate regulation of NSC quiescence and neuronal differentiation are not completely understood. Here, we report the expression of Protein S (PROS1) in adult NSCs, and show that genetic ablation of Pros1 in neural progenitors increased hippocampal NSC proliferation by 47%...
October 18, 2016: Stem Cells
Irina A Tikhonova, Martin W Hoyle, Tristan M Snowsill, Chris Cooper, Joanna L Varley-Campbell, Claudius E Rudin, Ruben E Mujica Mota
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of azacitidine (Celgene) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of this drug for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia with more than 30 % bone marrow blasts in adults who are not eligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as part of the NICE's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Peninsula Technology Assessment Group was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence contained within the company's submission to NICE...
October 17, 2016: PharmacoEconomics
Y-Q Li, Zw-C Cheng, Sk-W Liu, I Aubert, C S Wong
Inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis is implicated in neurocognitive dysfunction after cranial irradiation for brain tumors. How irradiation results in impaired neuronal development remains poorly understood. The Trp53 (p53) gene is known to regulate cellular DNA damage response after irradiation. Whether it has a role in disruption of late neuronal development remains unknown. Here we characterized the effects of p53 on neuronal development in adult mouse hippocampus after irradiation. Different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms and a transplantation study were used for cell fate mapping...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Galen E Switzer, Jessica Bruce, Deidre M Kiefer, Hati Kobusingye, Rebecca Drexler, RaeAnne M Besser, Dennis L Confer, Mary M Horowitz, Roberta J King, Bronwen E Shaw, Marcie Riches, Brandon Hayes-Lattin, Michael Linenberger, Brian Bolwell, Scott D Rowley, Mark R Litzow, Michael A Pulsipher
The increasing number of older adults with blood-related disorders and the introduction of reduced intensity conditioning regimens has led to increases in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation among older adults and a corresponding increase in the age of siblings who donate HSCs to these patients. Data regarding the donation-related experiences of older donors is lacking. The Related Donor Safety Study (RDSafe) aimed to examine/compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older versus younger HSC donors...
October 14, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Aline Clavert, Zinaida Peric, Eolia Brissot, Florent Malard, Thierry Guillaume, Jacques Delaunay, Viviane Dubruille, Steven Le Gouill, Beatrice Mahe, Thomas Gastinne, Nicolas Blin, Jean-Luc Harousseau, Philippe Moreau, Noel Milpied, Mohamad Mohty, Patrice Chevallier
Late complications (LC) and quality of life (QOL) were analyzed in 110 adult patients who underwent reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) and were alive for more than two years after allo-SCT. Overall survival of these patients was 93% (95%CI, 88-99%) and 81% (95%CI, 71-94%) at 5 and ten years, respectively. The primary cause of death was a recurrence of primary malignancy. With a median follow-up of 4.6 years (range, 2-12.1), chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) was the most prevalent late effect with a cumulative incidence (CI) of 66% (95%CI, 57-74) at ten years...
October 14, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Christina R Tyler, Matthew T Labrecque, Elizabeth R Solomon, Xun Guo, Andrea M Allan
Exposure to arsenic, a common environmental toxin found in drinking water, leads to a host of neurological pathologies. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to a low level of arsenic (50ppb) alters epigenetic processes that underlie deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis leading to aberrant behavior. It is unclear if arsenic impacts the programming and regulation of embryonic neurogenesis during development when exposure occurs. The master negative regulator of neural-lineage, REST/NRSF, controls the precise timing of fate specification and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs)...
October 14, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Yimei Dai, Lu Zhu, Zhibin Huang, Minyu Zhou, Wan Jin, Wei Liu, Mengchang Xu, Tao Yu, Yiyue Zhang, Zilong Wen, Wangjun Liao, Wenqing Zhang
In vertebrates, myeloid cells arise from multiple waves of development: the first or embryonic wave of myelopoiesis initiates early from non-hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) precursors and gives rise to myeloid cells transiently during early development; whereas the second or adult wave of myelopoiesis emerges later from HSCs and produces myeloid cells continually during fetal and adult life. In the past decades, a great deal has been learnt about the development of myeloid cells from adult myelopoiesis, yet the genetic network governing embryonic myelopoiesis remains poorly defined...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
Orie Hikabe, Nobuhiko Hamazaki, Go Nagamatsu, Yayoi Obata, Yuji Hirao, Norio Hamada, So Shimamoto, Takuya Imamura, Kinichi Nakashima, Mitinori Saitou, Katsuhiko Hayashi
The female germ line undergoes a unique sequence of differentiation processes that confers totipotency to the egg. The reconstitution of these events in vitro using pluripotent stem cells is a key achievement in reproductive biology and regenerative medicine. Here we report successful reconstitution in vitro of the entire process of oogenesis from mouse pluripotent stem cells. Fully potent mature oocytes were generated in culture from embryonic stem cells and from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from both embryonic fibroblasts and adult tail tip fibroblasts...
October 17, 2016: Nature
Alexandros Strikoudis, Charalampos Lazaris, Thomas Trimarchi, Antonio L Galvao Neto, Yan Yang, Panagiotis Ntziachristos, Scott Rothbart, Shannon Buckley, Igor Dolgalev, Matthias Stadtfeld, Brian D Strahl, Brian D Dynlacht, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Iannis Aifantis
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) self-renew or differentiate into all tissues of the developing embryo and cell-specification factors are necessary to balance gene expression. Here we delineate the function of the PHD-finger protein 5a (Phf5a) in ESC self-renewal and ascribe its role in regulating pluripotency, cellular reprogramming and myoblast specification. We demonstrate that Phf5a is essential for maintaining pluripotency, since depleted ESCs exhibit hallmarks of differentiation. Mechanistically, we attribute Phf5a function to the stabilization of the Paf1 transcriptional complex and control of RNA polymerase II elongation on pluripotency loci...
October 17, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Masakazu Sugiyama, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Yoshihiro Yoshida, Yuki Bekki, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Shohei Yoshiya, Takeo Toshima, Toru Ikegami, Shinji Itoh, Norifumi Harimoto, Shinji Okano, Yuji Soejima, Ken Shirabe, Yoshihiko Maehara
Autophagy is a homeostatic process regulating turnover of impaired proteins and organelles, and p62 (sequestosome-1, SQSTM1) functions as the autophagic receptor in this process. p62 also functions as a hub for intracellular signaling such as that in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Liver stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate to form hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. In this study, we examined effects of autophagy, p62 and associated signaling on hepatic differentiation. Adult stem/progenitor cells were isolated from the liver of mice with chemically-induced liver injury...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Patrice Chevallier, Myriam Labopin, Regis Peffault de La Tour, Bruno Lioure, Claude-Eric Bulabois, Anne Huynh, Didier Blaise, Pascal Turlure, Etienne Daguindau, Natacha Maillard, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Gaelle Guillerm, Jeremy Delage, Nathalie Contentin, Jacques-Olivier Bay, Florence Beckerich, Jean-Henri Bourhis, Marie Detrait, Stéphane Vigouroux, Sylvie François, Faezeh Legrand, Thierry Guillaume, Mohamad Mohty
We have retrospectively compared survivals between acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients who received either a clofarabine/busulfan (CloB2A2) or a fludarabine/busulfan (FB2A2) RIC regimen for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Between 2009 and 2014, 355 allotransplanted cases were identified from the SFGM-TC registry as having received either the FB2A2 (n = 316, 56% males, median age: 59.2 years, AML 78.5%, first complete remission [CR1] 72%, median follow-up: 20 months) or the CloB2A2 (n = 39, 62% males, median age: 60...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Daniel Pelaez, Zenith Acosta Torres, Tsz Kin Ng, Kwong Wai Choy, Chi Pui Pang, Herman S Cheung
Cellular therapies for the treatment of myocardial infarction have proven to be an invaluable tool in recent years and provide encouraging evidence for the possibility to restore normal heart function. However, questions still remain as to the optimal cell source, pre-conditioning methods and delivery techniques for such an application. This study explores the use of a population of stem cells arising from the neural crest and isolated from adult human periodontal ligament along with short-term mechanical strain as an inducer of cardiomyogenesis and possibly pre-conditioning stimulus for cellular cardiomyoplasty...
October 17, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Haiyan Lu, Xiaoyan Song, Feng Wang, Guodong Wang, Yuncheng Wu, Qiaoshu Wang, Yongting Wang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Zhijun Zhang
Endogenous Netrin-1 (NT-1) protein was significantly increased after cerebral ischemia, which may participate in the repair after transient cerebral ischemic injury. In this work, we explored whether NT-1 can be steadily overexpressed by adeno-associated virus (AAV) and the exogenous NT-1 can promote neural stem cells migration from the subventricular zone (SVZ) region after cerebral ischemia. Adult CD-1 mice were injected stereotacticly with AAV carrying NT-1 gene (AAV-NT-1). Mice underwent 60 min of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion 1 week after injection...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Haolin Chen, Yiyan Wang, Renshan Ge, Barry R Zirkin
Adult Leydig cells develop from undifferentiated mesenchymal-like stem cells (stem Leydig cells, SLCs) present in the interstitial compartment of the early postnatal testis. Putative SLCs also have been identified in peritubular and perivascular locations of the adult testis. The latter cells, which normally are quiescent, are capable of regenerating new Leydig cells upon the loss of the adult cells. Recent studies have identified several protein markers to identify these cells, including nestin, PDGFRα, COUP-TFII, CD51 and CD90...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Ruilan Zhang, Zhenggang Zhang, Michael Chopp
Hypoxic/ischemic injury is the single most important cause of disabilities in infants, while stroke remains a leading cause of morbidity in children and adults around the world. The injured brain has limited repair capacity, and thereby only modest improvement of neurological function is evident post injury. In rodents, embryonic neural stem cells in the ventricular zone generate cortical neurons, and adult neural stem cells in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle produce new neurons through animal life...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Jennifer L Gori, Jason M Butler, Balvir Kunar, Michael G Poulos, Michael Ginsberg, Daniel J Nolan, Zachary K Norgaard, Jennifer E Adair, Shahin Rafii, Hans-Peter Kiem
: : Successful expansion of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) would benefit many HSPC transplantation and gene therapy/editing applications. However, current expansion technologies have been limited by a loss of multipotency and self-renewal properties ex vivo. We hypothesized that an ex vivo vascular niche would provide prohematopoietic signals to expand HSPCs while maintaining multipotency and self-renewal. To test this hypothesis, BM autologous CD34(+) cells were expanded in endothelial cell (EC) coculture and transplanted in nonhuman primates...
October 14, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Robert F Halliwell
Functional studies of neurons have traditionally used nervous system tissues from a variety of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate species, even when the focus of much of this research has been directed at understanding human brain function. Over the last decade, the identification and isolation of human stem cells from embryonic, tissue (or adult) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the availability of human neurons for experimental studies in vitro. In addition, the direct conversion of terminally differentiated fibroblasts into Induced neurons (iN) has generated great excitement because of the likely value of such human stem cell derived neurons (hSCNs) and iN cells in drug discovery, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology and regenerative medicine...
October 11, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Matteo Ciocci, Egidio Iorio, Felicia Carotenuto, Haneen A Khashoggi, Francesca Nanni, Sonia Melino
The improvement of solubility and/or dissolution rate of poorly soluble natural compounds is an ideal strategy to make them optimal candidates as new potential drugs. Accordingly, the allyl sulfur compounds and omega-3 fatty acids are natural hydrophobic compounds that exhibit two important combined properties: cardiovascular protection and antitumor activity. Here, we have synthesized and characterized a novel formulation of diallyl disulfide (DADS) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) as protein-nanoemulsions (BAD-NEs), using ultrasounds...
October 12, 2016: Oncotarget
M-T Rubio, M Bouillié, N Bouazza, T Coman, H Trebeden-Nègre, A Gomez, F Suarez, D Sibon, A Brignier, E Paubelle, S Nguyen-Khoc, M Cavazzana, O Lantz, M Mohty, S Urien, O Hermine
Clinically useful pre-transplant predictive factors of acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) are lacking. We prospectively analyzed HSC graft content in CD34(+), NK, conventional T, regulatory T and invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in 117 adult patients before allo-SCT. Results were correlated with occurrence of aGVHD and relapse. In univariate analysis, iNKT cells were the only graft cell populations associated with occurrence of aGVHD. In multivariate analysis, CD4(-) iNKT/T cell frequency could predict grade II-IV aGVHD in bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) grafts, while CD4(-) iNKT expansion capacity was predictive in PBSC grafts...
October 14, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Shirae K Leslie, Ramsey C Kinney, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
An increasing demand to regenerate tissues from patient-derived sources has led to the development of cell-based therapies using autologous stem cells, thereby decreasing immune rejection of scaffolds coupled with allogeneic stem cells or allografts. Adult stem cells are multipotent and are readily available in tissues such as fat and bone marrow. They possess the ability to repair and regenerate tissue through the production of therapeutic factors, particularly vasculogenic proteins. A major challenge in cell-based therapies is localizing the delivered stem cells to the target site...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"