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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544627/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-transcription-factors-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#1
REVIEW
Josep Baulida
Beyond inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transcription (EMT), transcriptional factors of the Snail, ZEB and Twist families (EMT-TFs) control global plasticity programs affecting cell stemness and fate. Literature addressing the reactivation of these factors in adult tumour cells is very extensive, as they enable cancer cell plasticity and fuel both tumour initiation and metastatic spread. Incipient data reveal that EMT-TFs are also expressed in fibroblasts, providing these with additional properties. Here, I will review recent reports on the expression of EMT-TFs in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543934/clinical-impact-of-pre-transplant-use-of-multiple-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-on-the-outcome-of-allo-hsct-for-cml
#2
Takeshi Kondo, Tokiko Nagamura-Inoue, Arinobu Tojo, Fumitaka Nagamura, Naoyuki Uchida, Hirohisa Nakamae, Takahiro Fukuda, Takehiko Mori, Shingo Yano, Mineo Kurokawa, Hironori Ueno, Heiwa Kanamori, Hisako Hashimoto, Makoto Onizuka, Minoko Takanashi, Tatsuo Ichinohe, Yoshiko Atsuta, Kazuteru Ohashi
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are widely used to treat patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP), and outcomes of TKI treatment for patients with CML-CP have been excellent. Since multiple TKIs are currently available, second-line or third-line TKI therapy is considered for patients who are intolerant of or resistant to the previous TKI treatment. Therefore, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered only for patients with disease progression or for patients after treatment failure with multiple TKIs...
May 20, 2017: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543623/regulatory-effect-of-microrna-34a-on-osteogenesis-and-angiogenesis-in-glucocorticoid-induced-osteonecrosis-of-the-femoral-head
#3
Xiaolong Zha, Bolin Sun, Rufan Zhang, Chen Li, Zuoqin Yan, Jifei Chen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GIOFH) is a common and devastating orthopedic disease, and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of microRNA-34a (mir-34a) in GIOFH. METHODS: C57 mouse mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with dexamethasone (Dex). A total of 48 adult rats were treated with glucocorticoids, and after the onset of GIOFH, each femoral head was removed...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543406/novel-murine-xenograft-model-for-the-evaluation-of-stem-cell-therapy-for-profound-dysphagia
#4
Maggie A Kuhn, Amanda B Black, M Tausif Siddiqui, Jan A Nolta, Peter C Belafsky
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Dysphagia is common and costly. Treatments are limited and innovative therapies are required. The tongue is essential for safe, effective swallowing and is a natural target for regenerative therapy. Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) hold potential to restore dynamic function, and their application in the damaged tongue is appealing. We examined the safety and efficacy of human MDSC implantation into a novel mouse tongue model. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study...
May 23, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543396/functional-and-structural-assessment-of-the-effect-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#5
Somia H Abd Allah, Samia Hussein, Mai M Hasan, Raghda H A Deraz, Wafaa F Hussein, Laila M E Sabik
Cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin (DOX) was recognized at an early stage and also several years after drug administration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have many properties that make them suitable for preventive and/ or regenerative therapies. In this study, we evaluated the effect of MSCs in the functional and the structural improvement of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. Ninety adult male albino rats were randomly divided into three equal groups of thirty rats each: Group I (control): rats received normal saline...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542635/frap-analysis-of-chromatin-looseness-in-mouse-zygotes-that-allows-full-term-development
#6
Masatoshi Ooga, Teruhiko Wakayama
Chromatin looseness, which can be analyzed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) using eGFP-tagged core histone proteins, is an important index of the differentiation potential of blastomere cells and embryonic stem cells. Whether chromatin looseness is a reliable index of the developmental potential of embryos during ontogenesis is not known. As a necessary first step toward answering this question, we investigated whether FRAP-analyzed embryos are capable of normal preimplantation and full-term development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542371/whole-genome-sequencing-of-spermatocytic-tumors-provides-insights-into-the-mutational-processes-operating-in-the-male-germline
#7
Eleni Giannoulatou, Geoffrey J Maher, Zhihao Ding, Ad J M Gillis, Lambert C J Dorssers, Alexander Hoischen, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts, Gilean McVean, Andrew O M Wilkie, Leendert H J Looijenga, Anne Goriely
Adult male germline stem cells (spermatogonia) proliferate by mitosis and, after puberty, generate spermatocytes that undertake meiosis to produce haploid spermatozoa. Germ cells are under evolutionary constraint to curtail mutations and maintain genome integrity. Despite constant turnover, spermatogonia very rarely form tumors, so-called spermatocytic tumors (SpT). In line with the previous identification of FGFR3 and HRAS selfish mutations in a subset of cases, candidate gene screening of 29 SpTs identified an oncogenic NRAS mutation in two cases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542262/the-role-of-the-innate-immune-response-regulatory-gene-abcf1-in-mammalian-embryogenesis-and-development
#8
Sara M Wilcox, Hitesh Arora, Lonna Munro, Jian Xin, Franz Fenninger, Laura A Johnson, Cheryl G Pfeifer, Kyung Bok Choi, Juan Hou, Pamela A Hoodless, Wilfred A Jefferies
ABCF1 is an ABC transporter family protein that has been shown to regulate innate immune response and is a risk gene for autoimmune pancreatitis and arthritis. Unlike other members of ABC transporter family, ABCF1 lacks trans-membrane domains and is thought to function in translation initiation through an interaction with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2). To study ABCF1 expression and function in development and disease, we used a single gene trap insertion in the Abcf1 gene in murine embryonic stem cells (ES cells) that allowed lineage tracing of the endogenous Abcf1 promoter by following the expression of a β-galactosidase reporter gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541431/emerging-safety-of-intramedullary-transplantation-of-human-neural-stem-cells-in-chronic-cervical-and-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Allan D Levi, David O Okonkwo, Paul Park, Arthur L Jenkins, Shekar N Kurpad, Ann M Parr, Aruna Ganju, Bizhan Aarabi, Dong Kim, Steven Casha, Michael G Fehlings, James S Harrop, Kim D Anderson, Allyson Gage, Jane Hsieh, Stephen Huhn, Armin Curt, Raphael Guzman
BACKGROUND: Human central nervous system stem cells (HuCNS-SC) are multipotent adult stem cells with successful engraftment, migration, and region-appropriate differentiation after spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To present data on the surgical safety profile and feasibility of multiple intramedullary perilesional injections of HuCNS-SC after SCI. METHODS: Intramedullary free-hand (manual) transplantation of HuCNS-SC cells was performed in subjects with thoracic (n = 12) and cervical (n = 17) complete and sensory incomplete chronic traumatic SCI...
May 24, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539897/long-term-effects-of-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-after-pediatric-cancer-a-qualitative-analysis-of-life-experiences-and-adaptation-strategies
#10
Magali Lahaye, Isabelle Aujoulat, Christiane Vermylen, Bénédicte Brichard
Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) improves the survival rate of children and adolescents with malignant and non-malignant conditions; however, the physical, psychological and social burden of such a procedure is considerable both during and after treatment. The present qualitative study investigated the long-term effects of HSCT after pediatric cancer. Thirty adolescent and young adult (AYA) survivors (Mage = 23.61 years, SD = 5.21) participated in individual interviews and were invited to speak about their life experiences following their treatment and strategies they use to deal with their past medical experiences and the long-term sequelae...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539263/nutrients-neurogenesis-and-brain-ageing-from-disease-mechanisms-to-therapeutic-opportunities
#11
REVIEW
Marco Fidaleo, Virve Cavallucci, Giovambattista Pani
Appreciation of the physiological relevance of mammalian adult neurogenesis has in recent years rapidly expanded from a phenomenon of homeostatic cell replacement and brain repair to the current view of a complex process involved in high order cognitive functions. In parallel, an array of endogenous or exogenous triggers of neurogenesis have also been identified, among which metabolic and nutritional cues have drawn significant attention. Converging evidence from animal and in vitro studies point to nutrient sensing and energy metabolism as major physiological determinants of neural stem cell fate, and modulators of the whole neurogenic process...
May 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538216/the-emerging-view-of-aging-as-a-reversible-epigenetic-process
#12
Micaela López-León, Rodolfo G Goya
The achievement of animal cloning and subsequent development of cell reprogramming technology are having a profound impact on our view of the mechanisms of aging in complex organisms. The experimental evidence showing that an adult somatic nucleus implanted into an enucleated oocyte can give rise to a whole new individual strongly suggests that the integrity of the genome of an adult nucleus is fully preserved. Here, we will review recent experimental evidence showing that pluripotency gene-based cell reprogramming can erase the epigenetic marks of aging and rejuvenate cells from old individuals reversing most signs of aging and that when induced pluripotent stem cells are differentiated back to the cell type of origin, the rejuvenated cells share many of the features of wild-type counterparts from young donors...
May 25, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537457/inhibition-of-mtor-kinase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#13
Yoko Tabe, Agostino Tafuri, Kazumasa Sekihara, Haeun Yang, Marina Konopleva
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in adults, remains a therapeutic challenge. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway is one of the key aberrant intracellular axes involved in AML. Areas covered: mTOR plays a critical role in sensing and responding to environmental determinants such as nutrient availability, stress, and growth factor concentrations; and in modulating key cellular functions such as proliferation, metabolism, and survival...
May 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536786/future-prospects-for-human-tissue-engineered-urethra-transplantation-decellularization-and-recellularization-based-urethra-regeneration
#14
Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh, Reza Abbasioun, Shabnam Sabetkish, Nastaran Sabetkish, Parvin Rahmani, Kamyar Tavakkolitabassi, Hamid Arshadi
To evaluate the histological characteristics of decellularized human urethra after transplantation into the rat omentum and compare in vivo cell seeding with perfusion-based and cell sheet urethral regeneration. Eight adult human male urethras accompanied with the surrounding corpus spongiosum were obtained. The tissues were decellularized with detergent-based method. The efficacy of decellularization and extracellular matrix preservation was evaluated by several techniques. Decellularized scaffolds were transplanted into the omentum of 12 male rats and located into the scrotum...
May 23, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536527/opiate-analgesics-as-negative-modulators-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-potential-implications-in-clinical-practice
#15
REVIEW
Valeria Bortolotto, Mariagrazia Grilli
During the past decade, studies of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (ahNG) have significantly progressed. At present, it is proposed that adult born neurons may contribute to a variety of hippocampal-related functions, including specific cognitive aspects and mood regulation. Several groups focussed on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPC), including clinically relevant drugs. Opiates were the first drugs shown to negatively impact neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536356/hla-c-kir-ligands-determine-the-impact-of-anti-thymocyte-globulin-atg-on-graft-versus-host-and-graft-versus-leukemia-effects-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#16
Johannes Clausen, Alexandra Böhm, Irene Straßl, Olga Stiefel, Veronika Buxhofer-Ausch, Sigrid Machherndl-Spandl, Josef König, Stefan Schmidt, Hansjörg Steitzer, Martin Danzer, Hedwig Kasparu, Ansgar Weltermann, David Nachbaur
Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulins (ATGs) are widely used for the prevention of acute and chronic graft versus host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, most prospective and retrospective studies did not reveal an overall survival (OS) benefit associated with ATG. Homozygosity for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C group 1 killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor ligands (KIR-L), i.e. C1/1 KIR-L status, was recently shown to be a risk factor for severe aGVHD...
March 28, 2017: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536315/-skeletal-muscle-stem-cell
#17
Shinsuke Yuasa
Adult skeletal muscle has its own stem cell population known as satellite cells. After muscle injury, quiescent satellite cells are activated and then proliferate and differentiate into mature skeletal muscle to ensure that muscle function is recovered. In our screen for myocyte differentiation-promoting factors, we noted markedly elevated expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor(G-CSFR, encoded by csf3r)in the skeletal muscle developing area. Furthermore, G-CSFR was transiently expressed in regenerating myocytes of adult injured skeletal muscle, and extrinsic G-CSF supported short-term and long-term muscle regeneration in mouse model of skeletal muscle injury...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536281/distinct-roles-of-hes1-in-normal-stem-cells-and-tumor-stem-like-cells-of-the-intestine
#18
Norihiro Goto, Taro Ueo, Akihisa Fukuda, Kenji Kawada, Yoshiharu Sakai, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Makoto M Taketo, Tsutomu Chiba, Hiroshi Seno
Cancer stem cells (CSC) have attracted attention as therapeutic targets, however, CSC-targeting therapy may disrupt normal tissue homeostasis because many CSC molecules are also expressed by normal stem cells (NSC). Here we demonstrate that NSC-specific and CSC-specific roles of the stem cell transcription factor Hes1 in the intestine enable the feasibility of a specific cancer therapy. Hes1 expression was upregulated in NSC and intestinal tumors. Lineage tracing experiments in adult mouse intestine revealed that Hes1 deletion in Lgr5+ or Bmi1+ NSC resulted in loss of self-renewal but did not perturb homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534535/the-potential-of-organoids-in-urological-cancer-research
#19
REVIEW
Shangqian Wang, Dong Gao, Yu Chen
Technical advances in the development of organoid systems enable cell lines, primary adult cells, or stem or progenitor cells to develop into diverse, multicellular entities, which can self-renew, self-organize, and differentiate. These 3D organoid cultures have proven to be of value in increasing our understanding of the biology of disease and offer the potential of regenerative and genetic therapies. The successful application of 3D organoids derived from adult tissue into urological cancer research can further our understanding of these diseases and could also provide preclinical cancer models to realize the precision medicine paradigm by therapeutic screening of individual patient samples ex vivo...
May 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534349/an-overview-of-high-dose-chemotherapy-with-autologous-stem-cell-rescue-for-germ-cell-tumors-in-current-practice
#20
Nuri Karadurmus, Ugur Sahin, Bilgin Bahadir Basgoz, Fikret Arpaci, Taner Demirer
Testicular cancer is a frequent tumor of adolescent and young adult males. Chemotherapy has been reported to provide cure rates as high as 80% even in the presence of advanced testicular cancer. Studies regarding testicular cancer started after the advent of high dose chemotherapy (HDC) plus atologous stem cell rescue (ASCR) for the treatment of solid tumors in 1980s. Testicular cancer is highly responsive to HDC. Einhorn et al. have reported long-lasting remissions reaching up to 40% among patients with platinum-refractory disease...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
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