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Liver and sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932182/recovery-after-critical-illness-polyneuropathy-in-a-patient-with-orthotopic-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#1
J Watanabe, E Ito, M Hatano, T Tohyama, Y Okada, Y Takada
After liver transplantation, some patients show neuromuscular abnormalities. A 43-year-old man with liver cirrhosis due to hepatitis C virus underwent living-donor liver transplantation. He developed severe neuromuscular dysfunction after sepsis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. After the inflammatory reaction gradually improved, we observed bilateral weakness of the extremities and foot drop. Electrophysiological studies indicated primary axonal degeneration of peripheral motor and sensory fibers without inflammation...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932161/sofosbuvir-monotherapy-for-asymptomatic-and-noncirrhotic-hepatitis-c-infection-in-a-renal-retransplantation-recipient-a-case-report
#2
G Deng, J Ma, S Shen, Q Li, L Peng, S Meng, J Zhou, J Wu, D Liu
Renal transplant recipients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) have a high risk of progressing to cirrhosis, end-stage liver diseases, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is also considered as an independent risk for graft loss and is correlated with proteinuria, transplant glomerulopathy, HCV-associated glomerulonephritis, and chronic rejection. Previous therapy involving interferon alfa and ribavirin led to treatment complications, including toxicity, anemia, sepsis, and drug-drug interactions with calcineurin inhibitors, as well as reduced tolerability and efficacy...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924081/liver-guardian-modifier-and-target-of-sepsis
#3
REVIEW
Pavel Strnad, Frank Tacke, Alexander Koch, Christian Trautwein
Sepsis and septic shock are characterized by life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The liver has a central role during sepsis, and is essential to the regulation of immune defence during systemic infections by mechanisms such as bacterial clearance, acute-phase protein or cytokine production and metabolic adaptation to inflammation. However, the liver is also a target for sepsis-related injury, including hypoxic hepatitis due to ischaemia and shock, cholestasis due to altered bile metabolism, hepatocellular injury due to drug toxicity or overwhelming inflammation, as well as distinct pathologies such as secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922757/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-triggered-by-gaucher-disease-in-a-preterm-neonate
#4
Simone Schüller, Andishe Attarbaschi, Angelika Berger, Caroline Hutter, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Manuel Steiner
OBJECTIVE: To present the diagnostic workup in an extremely low birth weight infant patient with signs of both sepsis and hemophagocytosis. PARTICIPANTS: A preterm infant presented with clinical and laboratory signs of early-onset sepsis including hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, direct hyperbilirubinemia, and elevated liver enzymes. METHODS: Despite extensive septic workup, no underlying infection was detected. Additional hyperferritinemia and other elevated inflammatory parameters raised the suspicion of a primary or secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)...
December 6, 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918369/preadministration-of-hydrogen-rich-water-protects-against-lipopolysaccharide-induced-sepsis-and-attenuates-liver-injury
#5
Masumi Iketani, Jumi Ohshiro, Takuya Urushibara, Mayumi Takahashi, Tomio Arai, Hideo Kawaguchi, Ikuroh Ohsawa
Despite significant advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis remains the most common cause of death in intensive care units. We previously reported that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic and preventive antioxidant. Here, we show that preadministration of H2-dissolved water (HW) suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock in mice. Drinking HW for 3 days before LPS injection prolonged survival in a mouse model of sepsis. The H2 concentration immediately increased in the liver but not in the kidney after drinking HW...
December 1, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915250/importance-of-fumarate-and-nitrate-reduction-regulatory-protein-for-proliferation-for-intestinal-proliferation-of-vibrio-vulnificus
#6
Takehiro Kado, Takashige Kashimoto, Kohei Yamazaki, Shunji Ueno
The sepsis caused by Vibrio vulnificus is characterized by an average incubation period of 26 hours and a high mortality rate exceeding 50%. The fast growth and dissemination of V. vulnificus in vivo lead to poor clinical outcomes in patients. Therefore, elucidation of the proliferation mechanisms of this organism in vivo may lead to development of an effective therapeutic strategy. In this study, we focused on the low oxygen concentration in the intestinal milieu because of its drastic difference from that in the air...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899278/benznidazole-the-trypanocidal-drug-used-for-chagas-disease-induces-hepatic-nrf2-activation-and-attenuates-the-inflammatory-response-in-a-murine-model-of-sepsis
#7
Flavia Lambertucci, Omar Motiño, Silvina Villar, Juan Pablo Rigalli, María de Luján Alvarez, Viviana Catania, Paloma Martín-Sanz, Cristina Ester Carnovale, Ariel Darío Quiroga, Daniel Eleazar Francés, María Teresa Ronco
Molecular mechanisms on sepsis progression are linked to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cellular antioxidant capacity. Previous studies demonstrated that benznidazole (BZL), known for its antiparasitic action on Trypanosoma cruzi, has immunomodulatory effects, increasing survival in C57BL/6 mice in a model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mechanism by which BZL inhibits inflammatory response in sepsis is poorly understood. Also, our group recently reported that BZL is able to activate the nuclear factor erytroide-derived 2-Like 2 (NRF2) in vitro...
November 27, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889929/twenty-eight-years-of-intestinal-transplantation-in-paris-experience-of-the-oldest-european-centre
#8
F Lacaille, S Irtan, L Dupic, C Talbotec, F Lesage, V Colomb, N Salvi, F Moulin, F Sauvat, Y Aigrain, Y Revillon, O Goulet, C Chardot
AIM: Our aim is to describe our achievements in pediatric intestinal transplantation (ITx) and define areas for improvement. METHODS: After a period (1987-90) of 9 isolated small bowel transplants (SBTx) where only one patient survived with her graft, 110 ITx were performed on 101 children from 1994 to 2014: 60 SBTx, 45 liver-small bowel, 4 multivisceral (3 with kidneys), 1 modified multivisceral. Indications were short bowel syndrome (36), motility disorders (30), congenital enteropathies (34) and others (1)...
November 27, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888224/massive-haemolysis-gas-forming-liver-abscess-and-sepsis-due-to-clostridium-perfringens-bacteraemia
#9
Rafael García Carretero, Marta Romero Brugera, Oscar Vazquez-Gomez, Noelia Rebollo-Aparicio
Clostridial soft tissue infections are infrequent, but can be life-threatening when associated with certain underlying conditions, such as immunosuppression or malignancy. When bacteraemia occurs, it can be accompanied by haemolysis. Only surgical removal of the focus of infection and early onset of antibiotic therapy can prevent a very poor outcome. We describe the case of a man aged 65 years who presented with sepsis, haemolysis and rapid worsening. The identification of a gas-forming liver abscess, the early percutaneous drainage and the prompt initiation of antibiotic treatment were the key factors in the outcome of this patient...
November 25, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884339/dose-dependent-mortality-and-organ-injury-in-a-cecal-slurry-peritonitis-model
#10
Min Ji Lee, Kyuseok Kim, You Hwan Jo, Jae Hyuk Lee, Ji Eun Hwang
BACKGROUND: The cecal slurry model was introduced as an alternative method for creating an animal sepsis model. This study was performed to evaluate dose-dependent mortality and organ injury in a sepsis model of cecal slurry peritonitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5.0, 7.5, 10, or 15 mL/kg groups, according to the volume of cecal slurry administered into the peritoneal cavity. In the survival study, rats were observed for 14 d after sepsis induction...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882237/autologous-tumor-immunizing-devascularization-of-an-invasive-colorectal-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Pavel Vašek, Josef Krajnik, David J Kopsky, Vladimir Kalina, Marek Frydrych
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer. Approximately 20% of patients have at the time of presentation metastasized colorectal cancer, which is incurable in ~80% of cases. The present case report describes a typical case diagnosed with an advanced invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma, with two suspect hypodense lesions in the liver, as revealed by sonography. Judged inoperable for a curative outcome by radical resection, the patient was treated with a novel surgical technique based on stimulating the immune system, termed 'autologous tumor immunizing devascularization' (ATID)...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875571/short-and-long-term-mortality-rates-of-elderly-acute-kidney-injury-patients-who-underwent-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#12
Harin Rhee, Keum Sook Jang, Jong Man Park, Jin Suk Kang, Na Kyoung Hwang, Il Young Kim, Sang Heon Song, Eun Young Seong, Dong Won Lee, Soo Bong Lee, Ihm Soo Kwak
BACKGROUND: The world's population is aging faster and the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) needing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is increasing in elderly population. The outcome of AKI needing CRRT in elderly patients is known to be poor. However, the definitions of elderly used in the previous literatures were diverse and, there were few data that compared the long-term mortality rates of these patients with middle aged patients. This study was aimed to evaluate this issue...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873750/persistent-spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-secondary-to-candida-albicans-in-a-patient-with-alcoholic-cirrhosis-and-review-of-the-literature
#13
Aneela Majeed, Waqas Ullah, Umar Zahid, Mayar Al Mohajer
Candida albicans is a common human pathogen. Occasionally, it can cause peritonitis in immunocompromised and postsurgical patients. We report a case of a male patient who presented with abdominal pain and distention. He had a history of end-stage liver disease secondary to alcoholism. His peritoneal fluid culture revealed C albicans, and (1-3)-β-d glucan (BDG) level was elevated. His hospital course was complicated by sepsis and renal failure. He was treated with antifungals for spontaneous fungal peritonitis...
November 8, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865034/prevention-of-hepatitis-c-recurrence-by-bridging-sofosbuvir-ribavirin-from-pre-to-post-liver-transplant-a-real-life-strategy
#14
Maria Francesca Donato, Cristina Morelli, Renato Romagnoli, Federica Invernizzi, Chiara Mazzarelli, Rosa Maria Iemmolo, Marzia Montalbano, Ilaria Lenci, Sherrie Bhoori, Giulia Pieri, Sonia Berardi, Paolo Caraceni, Silvia Martini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection following liver transplant (LT) is associated with reduced graft and patients survival. Before transplant, Sofosbuvir/Ribavirin (SOF/R) treatment prevents recurrent HCV in 96% of those patients achieving viral suppression for at least 4 weeks before transplant. We evaluated whether a bridging SOF-regimen from pre to post-transplant is safe and effective to prevent HCV recurrence in those patients with less than 4 week HCV-RNA undetectability at the time of transplant...
November 19, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862040/central-extracorporeal-life-support-with-left-ventricular-decompression-to-berlin-heart-excor-a-reliable-bridge-to-bridge-strategy-in-crash-and-burn-patients
#15
Alexander Weymann, Mina Farag, Anton Sabashnikov, Javid Fatullayev, Mohamed Zeriouh, Bastian Schmack, Rawa Arif, Florian Müller, Christina Alt, Philip Raake, Nikhil Prakash Patil, Aron-Frederik Popov, Andre Rüdiger Simon, Matthias Karck, Arjang Ruhparwar
The aim of this study was to compare patients with severe biventricular heart failure who underwent Berlin Heart Excor implantation with (cardiogenic shock [CS] status) or without the need for preoperative extracorporeal life support (ECLS) as a bridge to long-term device. A total of 40 consecutive patients with severe biventricular heart failure underwent Berlin Heart Excor implantation with (CS status, n = 20, 50%) or without (control, n = 20, 50%) the need for preoperative ECLS as a bridge to long-term device from March 2007 to May 2015 at our institution...
November 8, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858246/sequential-therapy-consisting-of-glucocorticoid-infusions-followed-by-granulocyte-monocyte-absorptive-apheresis-in-patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#16
Kazuhiro Watanabe, Yoshihito Uchida, Kayoko Sugawara, Kayoko Naiki, Mie Inao, Nobuaki Nakayama, Satoshi Mochida
BACKGROUND: Activated leukocytes infiltrating the liver contribute to the provocation of alcoholic hepatitis. Glucocorticoid induces the demargination of leukocytes from the hepatic sinusoids, whereas granulocyte-monocyte absorptive apheresis (GMA) removes leukocytes from the circulation. Thus, the usefulness of a sequential therapy consisting of glucocorticoid infusions followed by GMA was evaluated in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis received intravenous injections of methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day) for 3 or 4 days, and then GMA was performed every day for 3 days...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850970/1334-mmf-protects-against-liver-injury-during-sepsis-via-regulation-of-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE-b-pathways
#17
Meiling Lu, Erzhen Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850265/626-multidrug-resistant-organism-sepsis-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients-a-burgeoning-problem
#18
Alicia Alcamo, Lauren Alessi, S Noona Vehovic, Diana Pang, Geoffrey Bond, Joseph Carcillo, Marian Michaels, Raj Aneja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849659/a-new-proposal-of-criteria-for-the-future-remnant-liver-volume-in-older-patients-undergoing-major-hepatectomy-for-biliary-tract-cancer
#19
Yoshihiro Watanabe, Satoshi Kuboki, Hiroaki Shimizu, Masayuki Ohtsuka, Hideyuki Yoshitomi, Katsunori Furukawa, Masaru Miyazaki
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether advanced age increases the risk of severe complications after major hepatectomy with bile duct resection (BDR) in patients with biliary tract cancer, and to establish new criteria for the percentage of the future remnant liver volume (%FLV) in older patients undergoing this operation. BACKGROUND: Advanced age is reported to inhibit liver regeneration and suppress immune function; however, little is known about the risk of aging in high-stress surgery, such as biliary tract surgery...
November 15, 2016: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849050/employing-escherichia-coli-derived-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-an-antigen-delivery-platform-elicits-protective-immunity-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection
#20
Weiwei Huang, Shijie Wang, Yufeng Yao, Ye Xia, Xu Yang, Kui Li, Pengyan Sun, Cunbao Liu, Wenjia Sun, Hongmei Bai, Xiaojie Chu, Yang Li, Yanbing Ma
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have proven to be highly immunogenic and induced an immune response against bacterial infection in human clinics and animal models. We sought to investigate whether engineered OMVs can be a feasible antigen-delivery platform for efficiently inducing specific antibody responses. In this study, Omp22 (an outer membrane protein of A. baumannii) was displayed on E. coli DH5α-derived OMVs (Omp22-OMVs) using recombinant gene technology. The morphological features of Omp22-OMVs were similar to those of wild-type OMVs (wtOMVs)...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
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