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Liver and sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647569/sepsis-in-alcohol-related-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Thierry Gustot, Javier Fernandez, Gyongyi Szabo, Agustin Albillos, Alexandre Louvet, Rajiv Jalan, Richard Moreau, Christophe Moreno
Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) remains the most important cause of death due to alcohol. Infections, particularly bacterial infections, are one of the most frequent and severe complications of advanced ALD, as alcoholic cirrhosis and severe alcoholic hepatitis (sAH). The specific mechanisms responsible of this altered host defence become to be deciphered. The aim of the present work is to review the current knowledge about infectious complications in ALD and the pathophysiological mechanisms, distinguishing the role of alcohol consumption and the contribution of different forms of ALD...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646428/effects-of-carvacrol-on-survival-mesenteric-blood-flow-aortic-function-and-multiple-organ-injury-in-a-murine-model-of-polymicrobial-sepsis
#2
Erdem Kamil Ozer, Mustafa Tugrul Goktas, Aysun Toker, Hulagu Bariskaner, Ceyhan Ugurluoglu, Alper Bektas Iskit
Carvacrol (CRV) has strong cytoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to demonstrate the possible protective effects of CRV on survival, mesenteric artery blood flow (MBF), vascular reactivity, and oxidative and inflammatory injuries in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Wistar rats were allocated into the following four groups: Sham, CLP, Sham + CRV, and CLP + CRV. The animals were orally administered with CRV (80 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (corn oil; 1 mL/kg/day) for 7 days...
June 23, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644566/clinical-characteristics-and-outcome-of-liver-transplantation-for-alagille-syndrome-in-children
#3
Tao Zhou, Jianjun Zhang, Yi Luo, Yuan Liu, Sy Zhuang, Feng Xue, Longzhi Han, Qiang Xia
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics and outcome of liver transplantation for Alagille syndrome in children. METHOD: By retrospectively reviewing the medical records of 9 Alagille syndrome patients(AGS) with liver transplantation(LT) in Renji Hospital between 2006 and 2015,After operative,the height and weight Z score were compared with preoperative. RESULT: There were 9 patients included in the study; cholestasis and peculiar faces were seen in all of the patients (100%), heart defect in 8 patients (88...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640135/hospitalization-with-hypoglycemia-in-patients-without-diabetes-mellitus-a-retrospective-study-using-a-national-inpatient-database-in-japan-2008-2012
#4
Akahito Sako, Hideo Yasunaga, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hidetaka Hamasaki, Hisayuki Katsuyama, Tetsuro Tsujimoto, Atsushi Goto, Hidekatsu Yanai
We aimed to examine prevalence, patient characteristics, etiology, and clinical outcomes of hospitalized patients who had hypoglycemia without a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, using a Japanese nationwide database.This was a retrospective observational study using a national database of acute-care inpatients in Japan. Nondiabetic patients aged ≥15 years who were hospitalized for hypoglycemia were eligible. We estimated the annual numbers of hospitalized cases in Japan. We also investigated the patient characteristics, and risk factors of in-hospital mortality...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637971/esculentoside-a-ameliorates-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced-acute-kidney-injury-in-rats
#5
Guodong Sun, Wei Yang, Yang Zhang, Mingyan Zhao
Esculentoside A (EsA), a saponin isolated from Phytolacca esculenta, can attenuate acute liver and lung injury. However, whether EsA has a protective effect against sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been reported. In this study, EsA (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg) was given to rats with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that EsA improved the survival of septic rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EsA lowered the kidney tubular damage score and decreased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine...
June 22, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634578/neonatal-venous-thromboembolism
#6
REVIEW
Kristina M Haley
Neonates are the pediatric population at highest risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and the incidence of VTE in the neonatal population is increasing. This is especially true in the critically ill population. Several large studies indicate that the incidence of neonatal VTE is up almost threefold in the last two decades. Central lines, fluid fluctuations, sepsis, liver dysfunction, and inflammation contribute to the risk profile for VTE development in ill neonates. In addition, the neonatal hemostatic system is different from that of older children and adults...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628912/liver-kinase-b1-amp-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-activation-attenuated-the-progression-of-endotoxemia-in-the-diabetic-mice
#7
Yan Yang, Ruolan Dong, Danli Hu, Zhihui Chen, Menglu Fu, Dao Wen Wang, Xizhen Xu, Ling Tu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sepsis is a common disease that continues to increase in prevalence worldwide, and diabetes mellitus may make the situation worse. This study was designed to determine the role of Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1)/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway in diabetic mice complicated with systemic endotoxemia. METHODS: The effects of LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway activation on endotoxemia were investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice (STZ-mice) and db/db diabetic mice...
June 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628637/survival-bacterial-clearance-and-thrombocytopenia-are-improved-in-polymicrobial-sepsis-by-targeting-nuclear-transport-shuttles
#8
Ruth Ann Veach, Yan Liu, Jozef Zienkiewicz, Lukasz S Wylezinski, Kelli L Boyd, James L Wynn, Jacek Hawiger
The rising tide of sepsis, a leading cause of death in the US and globally, is not adequately controlled by current antimicrobial therapies and supportive measures, thereby requiring new adjunctive treatments. Severe microvascular injury and multiple organ failure in sepsis are attributed to a "genomic storm" resulting from changes in microbial and host genomes encoding virulence factors and endogenous inflammatory mediators, respectively. This storm is mediated by stress-responsive transcription factors that are ferried to the nucleus by nuclear transport shuttles importins/karyopherins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625265/-protective-effect-of-curcumin-on-hepatocytes-in-rats-with-sepsis
#9
Haiyan Yin, Minshan Qiu, Dan He, Rui Zhang, Pei Tao, Yanwen Liang, Yuegui Yang, Yanqi Guo, Xiaoling Ye
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of curcumin on hepatocytes in rats with sepsis. METHODS: Eighty healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham operation group, sepsis group, Xuebijing group and curcumin group (20 rats in each group) according to the random number table method. The animal model of sepsis was established by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In the sham operation group, the cecum was removed only after the operation...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625255/-effect-of-vitamin-d3-on-the-severity-and-prognosis-of-patients-with-sepsis-a-prospective-randomized-double-blind-placebo-study
#10
Fulai Ding, Bin Zang, Jiahong Fu, Kaiqiang Ji
OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship between vitamin D3 and the severity as well as prognosis in patients with sepsis, and to explore whether exogenous vitamin D3 can improve the prognosis in patients with sepsis. METHODS: A prospective randomized double-blind placebo study was conducted. Fifty-seven patients with sepsis admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Shengjing Hospital Affiliated to China Medical University from March to November in 2015 were enrolled...
February 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622511/metabolic-adaptation-establishes-disease-tolerance-to-sepsis
#11
Sebastian Weis, Ana Rita Carlos, Maria Raquel Moita, Sumnima Singh, Birte Blankenhaus, Silvia Cardoso, Rasmus Larsen, Sofia Rebelo, Sascha Schäuble, Laura Del Barrio, Gilles Mithieux, Fabienne Rajas, Sandro Lindig, Michael Bauer, Miguel P Soares
Sepsis is an often lethal syndrome resulting from maladaptive immune and metabolic responses to infection, compromising host homeostasis. Disease tolerance is a defense strategy against infection that preserves host homeostasis without exerting a direct negative impact on pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that induction of the iron-sequestering ferritin H chain (FTH) in response to polymicrobial infections is critical to establish disease tolerance to sepsis. The protective effect of FTH is exerted via a mechanism that counters iron-driven oxidative inhibition of the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and in doing so, sustains endogenous glucose production via liver gluconeogenesis...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622502/just-a-spoonful-of-sugar-helps-the-tolerance-go-up
#12
Alexander V Chervonsky
Survival of deleterious infections depends significantly on how much stress the affected organism can tolerate. In this issue, Weis et al. find that mice can survive sepsis by maintaining normoglycemia through ferritin's capacity to inactivate Fe(2+) ions that otherwise induce free radicals impacting gluconeogenesis in the liver.
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622312/clinical-features-and-prognostic-factors-of-klebsiella-endophthalmitis-10-year-experience-in-an-endemic-region
#13
C Y Chung, E S Wong, C C H Liu, M O M Wong, K K W Li
AimsTo identify the clinical features and prognostic factors of endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.MethodsThis is a retrospective case series of all patients with Klebsiella endophthalmitis managed from January 2006 to December 2015 by Kowloon East Ophthalmic Service. Statistical analysis involved hypothesis testing on the SPSS 18.0 software (SPSS). A significance level of P<0.05 was taken.ResultsIn the 10-year period, K. pneumoniae accounted for 19 out of 39 cases of endogenous endophthalmitis (48...
June 16, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616781/impact-of-hyperglycemia-on-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-expression-during-resuscitated-murine-septic-shock
#14
Tamara Merz, Josef A Vogt, Ulrich Wachter, Enrico Calzia, Csaba Szabo, Rui Wang, Peter Radermacher, Oscar McCook
BACKGROUND: Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) was shown to have a regulatory role in glucose metabolism. Circulatory shock can induce metabolic stress, thereby leading to hyperglycemia and mitochondrial dysfunction. In vitro data suggest an effect of high glucose on CSE expression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hyperglycemia on CSE expression in resuscitated murine septic shock. METHODS: Normo- (80-150 mg/dl) and hyperglycemic (>200 mg/dl) male C57/BL6J mice (n = 5-6 per group) underwent cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis or sham procedure (n = 6 per group) and, 15 h afterwards, were anesthetized again, surgically instrumented and received intensive care treatment, including antibiotics, lung protective mechanical ventilation, circulatory support, and intravenous (i...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616405/endoscopic-treatment-for-distal-malignant-biliary-obstruction
#15
REVIEW
Kazuya Matsumoto, Yohei Takeda, Takumi Onoyama, Soichiro Kawata, Hiroki Kurumi, Hiroki Koda, Taro Yamashita, Hajime Isomoto
Distal malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) leads to obstructive jaundice as a result of when the bile excretion from the liver is disturbed and induces hepatic failure and sepsis, which when complicated with cholangitis, it becomes necessary to perform drainage for the MBO. For biliary drainage, we can perform a surgical bypass operation, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) via duodenal papilla, or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD), which is a transgastrointestinal biliary drainage...
April 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614777/increased-circulating-endocan-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-relation-to-bacterial-infection-and-severity-of-disease
#16
J Zuwala-Jagiello, K Simon, M Kukla, E Murawska-Cialowicz, J Gorka-Dynysiewicz, E Grzebyk, M Pazgan-Simon
Life expectancy of patients with liver cirrhosis is closely linked to the degree of liver dysfunction and the occurrence of bacterial infection. An early diagnosis of infection helps to initiate adequate and timely measures and improves outcome of cirrhotic patients. Endocan is a newly recognized biomarker of sepsis. However, there have been no studies of the trends in endocan levels in cirrhotic patients with bacterial infection and their associations with markers of infection and inflammation. This study sought to assess the diagnostic value of serum levels of endocan, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in 126 patients with cirrhosis: 51 with decompensated infected cirrhosis, 56 with decompensated uninfected and 19 with compensated uninfected cirrhosis at inclusion...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614081/spontaneous-fungal-peritonitis-a-rare-but-severe-complication-of-liver-cirrhosis
#17
Marta Gravito-Soares, Elisa Gravito-Soares, Sandra Lopes, Graça Ribeiro, Pedro Figueiredo
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the most common infectious complication in cirrhosis. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis is rare and remains unknown. In this work, spontaneous fungal peritonitis as well as risk factors and prognosis are characterized. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study of 253 consecutive admissions by peritonitis in cirrhotic patients was carried out between 2006 and 2015. Comparison of patients with spontaneous fungal peritonitis (cases) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with positive microbiologic ascitic fluid culture (controls) was performed...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612150/single-versus-multiple-solid-organ-injuries-following-blunt-abdominal-trauma
#18
Ayman El-Menyar, Husham Abdelrahman, Ammar Al-Hassani, Ruben Peralta, Hiba AbdelAziz, Rifat Latifi, Hassan Al-Thani
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the pattern of solid organ injuries (SOIs) and analyze the characteristics, management and outcomes based on the multiplicity of SOIs. METHODS: A retrospective study in a Level 1 trauma center was conducted and included patients admitted with blunt abdominal trauma between 2011 and 2014. Data were analyzed and compared for patients with single versus multiple SOIs. RESULTS: A total of 504 patients with SOIs were identified with a mean age of 28 ± 13 years...
June 13, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604569/use-of-four-factor-prothrombin-complex-concentrate-in-the-reversal-of-warfarin-induced-and-nonvitamin-k-antagonist-related-coagulopathy
#19
Hannah Young, Jeremy L Holzmacher, Richard Amdur, Stephen Gondek, Babak Sarani, Mary E Schroeder
: To evaluate the efficacy of international normalized ratio (INR) reversal using four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) in nonmedication-induced coagulopathy. We performed a single-site, retrospective cohort study of patients receiving off-label use of 4F-PCC. Cohorts included liver dysfunction if they had acute liver decompensation or cirrhosis without other causative factors of liver failure such as sepsis, coagulopathy of acute sepsis (CAS) if they had documentation of sepsis and no underlying liver disorder, known factor deficiencies, or medication-induced coagulopathy, or warfarin if they were taking warfarin...
June 9, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603411/effect-of-small-dose-levosimendan-on-mortality-rates-and-organ-functions-in-chinese-elderly-patients-with-sepsis
#20
Xin Wang, Shikui Li
AIM: As a primary cause of death not only in Western countries but also in the People's Republic of China, sepsis is diagnosed as abnormal organ functions as a result of a disordered response to a severe infection. This study was designed to assess the effect of small-dose levosimendan without a loading dose on mortality rates and organ functions in Chinese elderly patients with sepsis. METHODS: Following a prospective, randomized, and double-blinded design, 240 Chinese elderly patients with sepsis shock were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU)...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
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