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Liver and sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782861/foenumoside-b-isolated-from-lysimachia-foenum-graecum-extract-suppresses-lps-induced-inflammatory-response-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ap-1-inactivation-in-murine-macrophages-and-in-endotoxin-induced-shock-model
#1
Hye-Eun Choi, Hyun Jeong Kwak, Seul Ki Kim, Hyae Gyeong Cheon
Foenumoside B (FSB), a bioactive component isolated from the Lysimachia foenum-graecum extract (LFE), has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects, but the underlying molecular mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. Accordingly, the authors investigated the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of FSB in murine macrophages activated by LPS. FSB suppressed the LPS-induced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 at protein and mRNA levels and consequently decreased NO and PGE2 production in RAW264...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782519/increased-circulating-microrna-122-is-a-biomarker-for-discrimination-and-risk-stratification-in-patients-defined-by-sepsis-3-criteria
#2
Tim Rahmel, Simon T Schäfer, Ulrich H Frey, Michael Adamzik, Jürgen Peters
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is now operationally defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by an infection, identified by an acute change in SOFA-Score of at least two points, including clinical chemistry such as creatinine or bilirubin concentrations. However, little knowledge exists about organ-specific microRNAs as potentially new biomarkers. Accordingly, we tested the hypotheses that micro-RNA-122, the foremost liver-related micro-RNA (miR), 1) discriminates between sepsis and infection, 2) is an early predictor for mortality, and 3) improves the prognostic value of the SOFA-score...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776828/septic-acute-kidney-injury-patients-in-emergency-department-the-risk-factors-and-its-correlation-to-serum-lactate
#3
Yin-Chou Hsu, Chih-Wei Hsu
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in septic patients, imposing a heavy burden of illness in terms of morbidity and mortality. Serum lactate is a widely used marker predicting the severity of sepsis. A paucity of research has investigated septic AKI in emergency departments (EDs) and its correlation with initial serum lactate level. This study aimed at identifying risk factors for septic AKI and clarifying the link between initial serum lactate level and septic AKI in ED patients...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763440/endothelium-targeted-delivery-of-dexamethasone-by-anti-vcam-1-saint-o-somes-in-mouse-endotoxemia
#4
Ranran Li, Piotr S Kowalski, Henriëtte W M Morselt, Ilona Schepel, Rianne M Jongman, Adnan Aslan, Marcel H J Ruiters, Jan G Zijlstra, Grietje Molema, Matijs van Meurs, Jan A A M Kamps
Microvascular endothelial cells play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced inflammatory responses and multiple organ failure. Therefore, they represent an important target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of sepsis. Glucocorticosteroids were widely used in the treatment of sepsis but vast evidence to support their systemic use is lacking. The limited effects of glucocorticoids in the treatment of sepsis may be explained by differential effects of drug initiated NF-κB inhibition in different cell types and insufficient drug delivery in target cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762676/interleukin-38-is-a-protective-cytokine-for-lethal-sepsis
#5
Fang Xu, Shihui Lin, Xingxing Yan, Chuanjiang Wang, Hongmei Tu, Yibing Yin, Ju Cao
Background: IL-38 is the most recently characterized cytokine of the IL-1 family. However, its role in sepsis remains unknown. Methods: Circulating IL-38 was measured in two cohorts of adult and pediatric patients with sepsis. Using two murine models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxinemia and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, the effects of IL-38 on survival, inflammation, tissue injury, or bacterial clearance were assessed. Results: Serum IL-38 concentrations were significantly elevated in adult and pediatric patients with sepsis relative to corresponding healthy adult and pediatric controls, respectively...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760586/atorvastatin-and-diacerein-reduce-insulin-resistance-and-increase-disease-tolerance-in-rats-with-sepsis
#6
K L C da Silva, A P Camacho, F C Mittestainer, B M Carvalho, A Santos, D Guadagnini, A G Oliveira, M J A Saad
Background: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. At the onset of this condition, there is an over-production of pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to organ failure and death. The excess production of pro-inflammatory mediators also impairs insulin signaling, which may be a pathophysiological tissue marker of proinflammatory cytokine action before organ failure. Statins and diacerein have pleiotropic effects, such as the blockage of inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that these drugs may be an attractive therapeutic or prophylactic strategy against sepsis...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756955/multicenter-study-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-non-critically-ill-elderly-patients-compared-to-younger-patients-study-iaios-pn-incidence-and-assessment-of-iatrogenesis-in-older-subjects-receiving-parenteral-nutrition
#7
Javier Mateu-de Antonio, David Berlana, Montserrat Pons-Bussom, Maria B Badia-Tahull, María Teresa Miana-Mena, Beatriz Martínez-Castro, Neus Sunyer-Esquerrà, Mónica Sanmartin-Suñer, Juan González-Valdivieso, Elisabet Leiva-Badosa, Eva Martínez-Bernabé, Anna Murgadella-Sancho, Nuria Mirerachs-Aranda, Anna Vila-Bundó, Jordi Fernández-Morató, María Teresa Vitales-Farrero
OBJECTIVE: this study assessed the incidence of hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and liver function test (LFT) alterations among patients older and younger than 65 years receiving parenteral nutrition (PN). A secondary objective was to compare the incidence of any of these three events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: inclusion criteria were non-critically ill adult inpatients receiving PN for ≥ 7 days in 15 hospitals in Spain. Exclusion criteria were hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, LFT alterations, sepsis, shock, pancreatic/hepatobiliary surgery, renal failure, diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1, insulin-treated DM type 2, acute DM complications, or obesity prior to PN...
February 27, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755574/branched-chain-amino-acids-in-health-and-disease-metabolism-alterations-in-blood-plasma-and-as-supplements
#8
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are essential amino acids with protein anabolic properties, which have been studied in a number of muscle wasting disorders for more than 50 years. However, until today, there is no consensus regarding their therapeutic effectiveness. In the article is demonstrated that the crucial roles in BCAA metabolism play: (i) skeletal muscle as the initial site of BCAA catabolism accompanied with the release of alanine and glutamine to the blood; (ii) activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD); and (iii) amination of branched-chain keto acids (BCKAs) to BCAAs...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755021/a-single-center-experience-of-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-ptld-cases-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-incidence-outcomes-and-association-with-food-allergy
#9
Zeren Barış, Figen Özçay, Özlem Yılmaz Özbek, Nihan Haberal, Faik Sarıalioğlu, Mehmet Haberal
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated our 16-year single-center experience of pediatric post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) cases who underwent liver transplantation between 2001 and 2017. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 236 pediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation between 2001 and 2017, the clinical and laboratory data of eight patients diagnosed with PTLD were reviewed. The pre-transplant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status of 172 patients was also recorded...
May 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746564/multiple-bacterial-infections-increase-the-risk-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#10
Lan-Ting Yuan, Seng-Kee Chuah, Shih-Cheng Yang, Chih-Ming Liang, Cheng-Kun Wu, Wei-Chen Tai, Tsung-Hsing Hung, Seng-Howe Nguang, Jiunn-Wei Wang, Kuo-Lun Tseng, Ming-Kun Ku, Pin-I Hsu, Deng-Chyang Wu, Chien-Ning Hsu
OBJECTIVE: Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) are at increased risk for bacterial infections. It is not fully understood how exposure to infections induces further development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This study estimated risks of infection associated with HE among patients with LC. METHODS: A nested case-control study of 14,428 adult patients with LC was performed using the population-based Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 in Taiwan. Cases were cirrhotic patients who developed HE during follow-up...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741778/gadd45%C3%AE-plays-a-protective-role-in-acute-lung-injury-by-regulating-apoptosis-in-experimental-sepsis-in-vivo
#11
Sung-Je Moon, Hyun-Yong Kim, Yong-Hoon Kim, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Jung-Ran Noh, Hyun-Jong Kim, Ji-Hyun Choi, Jung H Hwang, Chul-Ho Lee
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to microbial infection. Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 beta (GADD45β) are induced by genotoxic stress and inflammatory cytokines. However, the role of GADD45β during bacterial infection remains unclear. This study was aimed at investigating the role of GADD45β in sepsis. We used GADD45β-knockout (KO) mice and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice. Experimental sepsis was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740793/immune-checkpoint-receptors-homeostatic-regulators-of-immunity
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Riva, Shilpa Chokshi
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an escalating global problem accounting for more than 3 million deaths annually. Bacterial infections are diagnosed in 25-47% of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and represent the most important trigger for acute decompensation, multi-organ failure, septic shock and death. Current guidelines recommend intensive antibiotic therapy, but this has led to the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. As such, there is a pressing need to explore new paradigms for anti-infective therapy and host-directed immunomodulatory therapies are a promising approach...
May 8, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736208/schizandrin-b-protects-lps-induced-sepsis-via-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-myd88-signaling-pathway
#13
Jianjun Xu, Caijiao Lu, Zhengjun Liu, Peng Zhang, Hailei Guo, Tingting Wang
Schizandrin B ( Sch B ) is the main component isolated from Schizandra fruit ( Schisandra chinensis ). While Sch B is established as having antioxidant, anti-proliferation and anti-inflammatory properties, but its activity in sepsis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Sch B in sepsis. Our experimental results demonstrated that Sch B inhibited production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and HMGB1 by LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, Sch B suppressed expression of iNOS, reduced production of PGE2, blocked expression of MyD88 and TLR4, suppressed the activity of NF-κB and decreased phosphorylation of MAPKs in LPS-activated RAW264...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733507/high-fat-diets-composed-of-palm-stearin-and-olive-oil-equally-exacerbate-liver-inflammatory-damage-and-metabolic-stress-in-mice
#14
Elena Meidan, Yula Kolesnikov, Oren Tirosh
SCOPE: People with fatty liver could be subjected to acute infections such as sepsis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high fat diets (HFD) of olive oil and palm stearin on liver inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6J male mice were treated with high fat diets with different sources of oils: Palm stearin and olive oil for 8 weeks followed by LPS injection. The proinflammatory effect of olive oil was also studied using gavage treatment and i...
May 7, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733266/complications-during-therapeutic-hypothermia-after-perinatal-asphyxia-a-comparison-with-trial-data
#15
Carlijn M J Diederen, Frank van Bel, Floris Groenendaal
Complications of therapeutic hypothermia (HT) after perinatal asphyxia of a cohort of infants were compared with complications reported in the Cochrane review. The occurrence during moderate HT of bradycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension, use of inotropes, pulmonary hypertension requiring NO inhalation, air leak syndrome, elevated liver enzymes, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, oliguria, thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and electrolyte disturbances was assessed in 168 infants with therapeutic HT following perinatal asphyxia and compared to the incidence of complications published previously in the Cochrane review...
May 7, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731716/protective-effect-of-casperome-%C3%A2-an-orally-bioavailable-frankincense-extract-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-systemic-inflammation-in-mice
#16
Konstantin Loeser, Semjon Seemann, Stefanie König, Isabell Lenhardt, Mona Abdel-Tawab, Andreas Koeberle, Oliver Werz, Amelie Lupp
Introduction: Despite recent advances in critical care, sepsis remains a crucial cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Therefore, the identification of new therapeutic strategies is of great importance. Since ancient times, frankincense is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, the present study intends to evaluate if Casperome® (Casp), an orally bioavailable soy lecithin-based formulation of standardized frankincense extract, is able to ameliorate systemic effects and organ damages induced by severe systemic inflammation using a murine model of sepsis, i...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725629/acute-kidney-injury-in-pregnancy-the-changing-landscape-for-the-21st-century
#17
REVIEW
Swati Rao, Belinda Jim
Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (Pr-AKI) remains a large public health problem, with decreasing incidences in developing countries but seemingly increasing incidences in the United States and Canada. These epidemiologic changes are reflective of the advances in medical and obstetric care, as well as changes in underlying maternal risk factors. The risk factors associated with advanced maternal age, such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and those associated with reproductive technologies such as multiple gestations, are increasing...
March 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716625/6-hydroxyethyl-starch-hes-130-0-4-diminishes-glycocalyx-degradation-and-decreases-vascular-permeability-during-systemic-and-pulmonary-inflammation-in-mice
#18
Andreas Margraf, Jan M Herter, Katharina Kühne, Anika Stadtmann, Thomas Ermert, Manuel Wenk, Melanie Meersch, Hugo Van Aken, Alexander Zarbock, Jan Rossaint
BACKGROUND: Increased vascular permeability is a pathophysiological hallmark of sepsis and results in increased transcapillary leakage of plasma fluid, hypovolemia, and interstitial edema formation. 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4) is commonly used to treat hypovolemia to maintain adequate organ perfusion and oxygen delivery. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 6% HES 130/0.4 on glycocalyx integrity and vascular permeability in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation and systemic inflammation in mice...
May 1, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708448/alcoholic-steatohepatitis-ash-and-alcoholic-hepatitis-ah-cascade-of-events-clinical-aspects-and-pharmacotherapy-options
#19
Rolf Teschke
Clinicians caring for patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH) are often confronted with the question of the best pharmacotherapy to be used. Areas covered: This article covers metabolic aspects of alcohol as the basis of understanding pharmacotherapy and to facilitate choosing the drug therapeutic options for patients with severe AH. Expert opinion: Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and alcoholic hepatitis (AH) as terms are often used interchangeably in scientific literature but a stringent differentiation is recommended for proper clarity...
April 30, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707522/early-lymphocyte-loss-and-increased-granulocyte-lymphocyte-ratio-predict-systemic-spread-of-streptococcus-pyogenes-in-a-mouse-model-of-acute-skin-infection
#20
Torsten G Loof, Aaqib Sohail, Mahmoud M Bahgat, Aravind Tallam, Haroon Arshad, Manas K Akmatov, Marina C Pils, Ulrike Heise, Andreas Beineke, Frank Pessler
Background: Group A streptococci may induce lymphopenia, but the value of lymphocyte loss as early biomarkers for systemic spread and severe infection has not been examined systematically. Methods: We evaluated peripheral blood cell indices as biomarkers for severity and spread of infection in a mouse model of Streptococcus pyogenes skin infection, using two isolates of greatly differing virulence. Internal organs were examined histologically. Results: After subcutaneous inoculation, strain AP1 disseminated rapidly to peripheral blood and internal organs, causing frank sepsis...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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