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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430867/emerging-evidence-for-the-role-of-differential-tumor-microenvironment-in-breast-cancer-racial-disparity-a-closer-look-at-the-surroundings
#1
Sachin Kumar Deshmukh, Sanjeev K Srivastava, Nikhil Tyagi, Aamir Ahmad, Ajay P Singh, Ahmed Al Ghadhban, Donna L Dyess, James E Carter, Kari Dugger, Seema Singh
Although increased awareness leading to early detection and prevention, as well as advancements in treatment strategies, have resulted in superior clinical outcomes, African American women with breast cancer continue to have greater mortality rates, compared to Caucasian American counterparts. Moreover, African American women are more likely to have breast cancer at a younger age and be diagnosed with aggressive tumor sub-types. Such racial disparities can be attributed to socioeconomic differences, but it is increasingly being recognized that these disparities may indeed be due to certain genetic and other non-genetic biological differences...
April 18, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430742/utility-of-single-photon-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-for-sentinel-lymph-node-localization-in-breast-cancer-patients
#2
Agnieszka Giżewska, Ewa Witkowska-Patena, Sebastian Osiecki, Andrzej Mazurek, Zofia Stembrowicz-Nowakowska, Mirosław Dziuk
OBJECTIVES: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is currently a routine technique in breast cancer management and preoperative scintigraphic imaging plays a crucial role in the process of SLN detection. The guidelines recommend performing planar acquisition and optional single-photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. The aim of this study was to verify whether routine performing of SPECT/CT in addition to planar imaging increases the sensitivity of SLN detection in patients with early-stage breast cancer...
April 20, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430705/disparities-in-female-breast-cancer-stage-at-diagnosis-in-new-jersey-a-spatial-temporal-analysis
#3
Lisa M Roche, Xiaoling Niu, Antoinette M Stroup, Kevin A Henry
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in early detection of breast cancer, disparities persist in stage at diagnosis, which is an important prognostic factor. METHODS: We used the space-time scan statistic in SaTScan to identify geographic areas and time periods with significantly elevated proportions of female breast cancer diagnosed at the in situ or distant stage in New Jersey. The analyses were conducted with census tracts as the geographic unit of analysis, elliptical spatial windows, 3-year temporal windows, and Poisson models...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430229/light-scattering-from-normal-and-cervical-cancer-cells
#4
Xiaogang Lin, Nan Wan, Lingdong Weng, Yong Zhou
The light scattering characteristic plays a very important role in optic imaging and diagnostic applications. For optical detection of the cell, cell scattering characteristics have an extremely vital role. In this paper, we use the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm to simulate the propagation and scattering of light in biological cells. The two-dimensional scattering cell models were set up based on the FDTD algorithm. The cell models of normal cells and cancerous cells were established, and the shapes of organelles, such as mitochondria, were elliptical...
April 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428969/targeted-lung-cancer-treatments-and-eye-metastasis
#5
REVIEW
Paul Zarogoulidis, Sofia Baka, Sofia Labaki, George Lazaridis, Georgia Trakada
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of death due to cancer. We do not have effective tools for the early detection of lung cancer, so patients are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. However, novel therapies based on molecular pathways (such as those involving the epidermal growth factor receptor, anaplastic lymphoma kinase, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-Raf, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS, c-Met proto-oncogene protein, and RET proto-oncogene protein) are now commonly used in the treatment of lung cancer...
2017: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427517/interim-18-fdg-pet-ct-during-radiochemotherapy-in-the-management-of-pelvic-malignancies-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Mahila Ferrari, Laura Lavinia Travaini, Delia Ciardo, Cristina Garibaldi, Laura Gilardi, Robert Glynne-Jones, Chiara Maria Grana, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giulia Marvaso, Sara Ronchi, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Roberto Orecchia, Marta Cremonesi
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) is widely applied in oncology for disease staging, assessment of therapy response, relapse diagnosis, follow-up and target volume delineation. In particular, it can detect early response during chemoradiotherapy (interim) because functional modifications usually precede morphological ones. This ability is crucial to the radiation oncologist for the management of patients, to avoid persisting with ineffective therapy - often leading toxicity - and to shift to potentially more effective alternatives...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427201/wnt5a-planar-cell-polarity-signaling-pathway-in-urothelial-carcinoma-a-potential-prognostic-biomarker
#7
Mark Saling, Jordan K Duckett, Ian Ackers, Karen Coschigano, Scott Jenkinson, Ramiro Malgor
Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Bladder cancers detected at an early stage have a very high five-year survival rate, but when detected after local metastasis the rate is only about 50%. Our group recently reported a positive correlation between the expression of Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt proteins family, and histopathological grade and stage of urothelial carcinoma (UC). The objective of this study was to analyze UC cases reported in Athens, Ohio and investigate the major components of Wnt5a / planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway in UC human tissue samples and UC cell lines...
March 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426874/the-association-between-breast-cancer-and-s100p-methylation-in-peripheral-blood-by-multicenter-case-control-studies
#8
Rongxi Yang, Sarah Stöcker, Sarah Schott, Jörg Heil, Frederik Marme, Katarina Cuk, Bowang Chen, Michael Golatta, Yan Zhou, Christian Sutter, Barbara Wappenschmidt, Rita Schmutzler, Peter Bugert, Bin Qu, Claus R Bartram, Christof Sohn, Andreas Schneeweiss, Barbara Burwinkel
Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cancer in women worldwide. Changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood could be associated with malignant diseases. Making use of screening results by llumina 27K Methylation Assay, we validated demethylation of five CpG sites of S100P gene in blood cell DNA of BC patients by three independent retrospective studies with subjects from different centers (Validation I: 235 familial BC case and 206 controls, odds ratio per -1% methylation > 1.03, and P < 6.00 × 10-8 for all five CpG sites; Validation II: 189 sporadic BC case and 189 controls, odds ratio per -1% methylation > 1...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425973/edim-tktl1-apo10-blood-test-an-innate-immune-system-based-liquid-biopsy-for-the-early-detection-characterization-and-targeted-treatment-of-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Johannes F Coy
Epitope detection in monocytes (EDIM) represents a liquid biopsy exploiting the innate immune system. Activated monocytes (macrophages) phagocytose unwanted cells/cell fragments from the whole body including solid tissues. As they return to the blood, macrophages can be used for a non-invasive detection of biomarkers, thereby providing high sensitivity and specificity, because the intracellular presence of biomarkers is due to an innate immune response. Flow cytometry analysis of blood enables the detection of macrophages and phagocytosed intracellular biomarkers...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425921/plasma-micro-rna-alterations-appear-late-in-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Oskar Franklin, Pär Jonsson, Ola Billing, Erik Lundberg, Daniel Öhlund, Hanna Nyström, Christina Lundin, Henrik Antti, Malin Sund
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to study whether plasma microRNAs (miRNA) can be used for early detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) by analyzing prediagnostic plasma samples collected before a PC diagnosis. BACKGROUND: PC has a poor prognosis due to late presenting symptoms and early metastasis. Circulating miRNAs are altered in PC at diagnosis but have not been evaluated in a prediagnostic setting. METHODS: We first performed an initial screen using a panel of 372 miRNAs in a retrospective case-control cohort that included early-stage PC patients and healthy controls...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425855/tumor-targeting-peptides-ligands-for-molecular-imaging-and-therapy
#11
Ning Zhao, Yeshan Qin, Hongguang Liu, Z Cheng
The aberrant proliferation of tumor cells and abundant vasculature in tumor tissues are closely correlated with receptors that are specifically dysregulated in tumor cells. These tumor-associated targets are critical in early diagnosis and therapy selection. Ligands such as antibodies, proteins, polypeptides and polysaccharides that specifically bind to these targets can significantly improve the detection and cure rate when used as tumor imaging probes or anti-tumor agents. Compared to other targeting ligands, peptides have attracted increasingly more attention in tumor diagnostics and therapeutics because of their small sizes, high affinity, stability, ease of modification and low immunogenicity...
April 19, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425536/cisplatin-resistance-in-cell-models-evaluation-of-metallomic-and-biological-predictive-biomarkers-to-address-early-therapy-failure
#12
Marta Espina, Mario Corte-Rodríguez, Leticia Aguado, María Montes-Bayón, Marta I Sierra, Pablo Martínez-Camblor, Elisa Blanco-González, L María Sierra
Cisplatin, one of the most extensively used metallodrugs in cancer treatment, presents the important drawback of patient resistance. This resistance is the consequence of different processes including those preventing the formation of DNA adducts and/or their quick removal. Thus, a tool for the accurate detection and quantitation of cisplatin-induced adducts might be valuable for predicting patient resistance. To prove the validity of such an assumption, highly sensitive plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) strategies were applied to determine DNA adduct levels and intracellular Pt concentrations...
April 20, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424913/can-further-gastrectomy-be-avoided-in-patients-with-incomplete-endoscopic-resection
#13
Hee Sung Kim, Ji Yong Ahn, Seon Ok Kim, Byung Sik Kim
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic resection (ER) is a widely accepted treatment for patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) with no lymph node metastasis. Occasionally, however, additional surgery is needed due to an incomplete resection. The purpose of this study was to detect clinical factors which might identify patients at greater risk of additional surgery after ER and to suggest an alternative treatment strategy for these patients. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzed 350 patients with gastric cancer who underwent radical gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy after ER in a single institution between July 2004 and July 2014...
April 19, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423721/downregulation-of-phosphorylated-mkk4-is-associated-with-a-poor-prognosis-in-colorectal-cancer-patients
#14
Wang Pu-Ning, Huang Jun, Duan Ying-Hua, Zhou Jia-Min, Huang Pin-Zhu, Fan Xin-Juan, Huang Yan, Wang Lei, Liu Huan-Liang, Wang Jian-Ping, Huang Mei-Jin
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) is a key mediator of Jun N-terminal kinase signaling and influences malignant metastasis. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to assess phosphorylated MMK4 (pMKK4) levels and examine their association with the clinicopathological features of a pilot set of patient samples consisting of normal colonic mucosa (NCM), colorectal adenoma (CA), and colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues. pMKK4 levels were also assessed in a validation set of CRC cases with accompanying follow-up data to confirm their clinicopathological and prognostic significance...
March 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423694/epstein-barr-virus-ebv-encoded-small-rnas-ebers-associated-with-poor-prognosis-of-head-and-neck-carcinomas
#15
Turunen Aaro, Rautava Jaana, Grénman Reidar, Syrjänen Kari, Syrjänen Stina
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the main cause of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), also found in other head and neck carcinomas (HNSCCs) where its role remains controversial. RESULTS: EBV was found in 80% and 21% of the samples with PCR and ISH (in cancer cells), respectively. Eight of ISH-positive samples were not NPCs. EBER-RNA detection in carcinoma cells was associated with worse prognosis, whether or not NPCs were included. HPV/EBV and HSV/HPV coinfections associated with a shorter survival...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423671/genome-wide-dna-methylation-analysis-reveals-molecular-subtypes-of-pancreatic-cancer
#16
Nitish Kumar Mishra, Chittibabu Guda
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States with a five-year patient survival rate of only 6%. Early detection and treatment of this disease is hampered due to lack of reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers. Recent studies have shown that dynamic changes in the global DNA methylation and gene expression patterns play key roles in the PC development; hence, provide valuable insights for better understanding the initiation and progression of PC. In the current study, we used DNA methylation, gene expression, copy number, mutational and clinical data from pancreatic patients...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423643/pole-and-pold1-screening-in-155-patients-with-multiple-polyps-and-early-onset-colorectal-cancer
#17
Clara Esteban-Jurado, David Giménez-Zaragoza, Jenifer Muñoz, Sebastià Franch-Expósito, Miriam Álvarez-Barona, Teresa Ocaña, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Sabela Carballal, María López-Cerón, Maria Marti-Solano, Marcos Díaz-Gay, Tom van Wezel, Antoni Castells, Luis Bujanda, Judith Balmaña, Victoria Gonzalo, Gemma Llort, Clara Ruiz-Ponte, Joaquín Cubiella, Francesc Balaguer, Rosa Aligué, Sergi Castellví-Bel
Germline mutations in POLE and POLD1 have been shown to cause predisposition to colorectal multiple polyposis and a wide range of neoplasms, early-onset colorectal cancer being the most prevalent. In order to find additional mutations affecting the proofreading activity of these polymerases, we sequenced its exonuclease domain in 155 patients with multiple polyps or an early-onset colorectal cancer phenotype without alterations in the known hereditary colorectal cancer genes. Interestingly, none of the previously reported mutations in POLE and POLD1 were found...
March 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423598/next-generation-mapping-reveals-novel-large-genomic-rearrangements-in-prostate-cancer
#18
Weerachai Jaratlerdsiri, Eva K F Chan, Desiree C Petersen, Claire Yang, Peter I Croucher, M S Riana Bornman, Palak Sheth, Vanessa M Hayes
Complex genomic rearrangements are common molecular events driving prostate carcinogenesis. Clinical significance, however, has yet to be fully elucidated. Detecting the full range and subtypes of large structural variants (SVs), greater than one kilobase in length, is challenging using clinically feasible next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Next generation mapping (NGM) is a new technology that allows for the interrogation of megabase length DNA molecules outside the detection range of single-base resolution NGS...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423528/level-of-fact-defines-the-transcriptional-landscape-and-aggressive-phenotype-of-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Daria Fleyshman, Laura Prendergast, Alfiya Safina, Geraldine Paszkiewicz, Mairead Commane, Kelsey Morgan, Kristopher Attwood, Katerina Gurova
Although breast cancer (BrCa) may be detected at an early stage, there is a shortage of markers that predict tumor aggressiveness and a lack of targeted therapies. Histone chaperone FACT, expressed in a limited number of normal cells, is overexpressed in different types of cancer, including BrCa. Recently, we found that FACT expression in BrCa correlates with markers of aggressive BrCa, which prompted us to explore the consequences of FACT inhibition in BrCa cells with varying levels of FACT.FACT inhibition using a small molecule or shRNA caused reduced growth and viability of all BrCa cells tested...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423493/clinical-significance-of-detecting-circulating-tumor-cells-in-colorectal-cancer-using-subtraction-enrichment-and-immunostaining-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-se-ifish
#20
Wei Wu, Zhenzhen Zhang, Xian Hua Gao, Zhen Shen, Yan Jing, Haibo Lu, Heng Li, Xiaoye Yang, Xiangbin Cui, Yuqing Li, Zheng Lou, Peng Liu, Cun Zhang, Wei Zhang
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are useful in early detection of colorectal cancer. This study described a newly developed platform, integrated subtraction enrichment and immunostaining-fluorescence in situ hybridization (SE-iFISH), to assess CTCs in colorectal cancer. CTCs were detected by SE-iFISH in 40 of 44 preoperative colorectal cancer patients, and yielded a sensitivity of 90.9%, which was significantly higher than CellSearch system (90.9% vs. 43.2%, P=0.033). No significant association was found between tumor stage, survival and preoperative CTC number...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
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