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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224136/a-summary-of-the-biological-processes-disease-associated-changes-and-clinical-applications-of-dna-methylation
#1
Gitte Brinch Andersen, Jörg Tost
DNA methylation at cytosines followed by guanines, CpGs, forms one of the multiple layers of epigenetic mechanisms controlling and modulating gene expression through chromatin structure. It closely interacts with histone modifications and chromatin remodeling complexes to form the local genomic and higher-order chromatin landscape. DNA methylation is essential for proper mammalian development, crucial for imprinting and plays a role in maintaining genomic stability. DNA methylation patterns are susceptible to change in response to environmental stimuli such as diet or toxins, whereby the epigenome seems to be most vulnerable during early life...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223882/recurrent-renal-cancer-in-birt-hogg-dub%C3%A3-syndrome-a-case-report
#2
Hammad Ather, Nida Zahid
INTRODUCTION: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease. It is caused by constitutional mutations in the FLCN gene. Since BHDS is a rare syndrome therefore it is unknown to many physicians. However, it is important to identify this rare syndrome at early stages because incidence of renal cancer in BHD patients is very high and its detection at early stages can prevent its metastasis. Hence, we want to present a case of BHDS and draw the attention of the treating physician to this rare inherited disorder and discuss its appropriate diagnosis and management...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223564/indocyanine-green-assisted-parametrial-dissection-during-type-c1-radical-hysterectomy-after-sentinel-lymph-node-biopsy-in-early-stage-cervical-cancer
#3
Nicolò Bizzarri, Valentina Ghirardi, Ali Kucukmetin
OBJECTIVES: The standard treatment for FIGO stage 1B1 cervical cancer is radical hysterectomy (RH) [1]. Indocyanine-green (ICG) is a drug injected within the cervical stroma to detect the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in cervical cancer [2,3]. ICG travels through the lymphatic channels in the lateral parametrium, which results enhanced with green, before reaching the SLNs. This could help identifying the surgical landmarks. The aim of this video is to propose a new approach to perform parametrial dissection as part of RH under the guidance of ICG...
December 6, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222807/long-non-coding-rna-expression-in-bladder-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Mohammad Taheri, Mir Davood Omrani, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
The advent of novel high-throughput sequencing methods has facilitated identification of non-coding RNAs with fundamental roles in cellular biological and pathological conditions. A group of these consisting of at least 200 nucleotides are called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Their participation in the pathogenesis of cancer has been highlighted in recent years. Bladder cancer, one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide, exhibits altered expression levels of several lncRNAs. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have assessed the effects of silencing RNAs on cancer cell phenotypes and in vivo tumor growth...
December 8, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222441/robust-rna-based-in-situ-mutation-detection-delineates-colorectal-cancer-subclonal-evolution
#5
Ann-Marie Baker, Weini Huang, Xiao-Ming Mindy Wang, Marnix Jansen, Xiao-Jun Ma, Jeffrey Kim, Courtney M Anderson, Xingyong Wu, Liuliu Pan, Nan Su, Yuling Luo, Enric Domingo, Timon Heide, Andrea Sottoriva, Annabelle Lewis, Andrew D Beggs, Nicholas A Wright, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Emily Park, Ian Tomlinson, Trevor A Graham
Intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) is a major underlying cause of therapy resistance and disease recurrence, and is a read-out of tumor growth. Current genetic ITH analysis methods do not preserve spatial context and may not detect rare subclones. Here, we address these shortfalls by developing and validating BaseScope-a novel mutation-specific RNA in situ hybridization assay. We target common point mutations in the BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA oncogenes in archival colorectal cancer samples to precisely map the spatial and morphological context of mutant subclones...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221926/plasma-protein-profiling-of-patients-with-intraductal-papillary-mucinous-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas-as-potential-precursor-lesions-of-pancreatic-cancer
#6
Maria Ilies, Praveen Kumar Sappa, Cristina Adela Iuga, Felicia Loghin, Manuela Gesell Salazar, Frank Ulrich Weiss, Georg Beyer, Markus M Lerch, Uwe Völker, Julia Mayerle, Elke Hammer
Efforts for the early diagnosis of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have recently been driven to one of the precursor lesions, namely intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN). Only a few studies have focused on IPMN molecular biology and its overall progression to cancer. Therefore, IPMN lacks comprehensive characterization which makes its clinical management controversial. In this study, we characterized plasma proteins in the presence of IPMNs in comparison to healthy controls, chronic pancreatitis, and PDAC by a proteomics approach using data-independent acquisition based mass spectrometry...
December 5, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221277/worse-survival-after-curative-resection-in-patients-with-pathological-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-adjoining-pulmonary-cavity-formation
#7
Hiroyuki Kimura, Hisashi Saji, Tomoyuki Miyazawa, Hiroki Sakai, Masataka Tsuda, Yoichi Wakiyama, Hideki Marushima, Koji Kojima, Haruhiko Nakamura
Background: A few investigators have suggested an association between lung cancer and pulmonary cavity. However, this clinical association and its carcinogenic correlations are not well recognized. This study aimed to clarify the clinical features and to demonstrate the associated survival outcomes after curative surgery in patients with early non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) adjoining pulmonary cavity formation. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 275 patients with pathological stage I NSCLC by re-evaluating their chest computed tomography images...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221133/endogenous-glutamine-decrease-is-associated-with-pancreatic-cancer-progression
#8
Cecilia Roux, Chiara Riganti, Sammy Ferri Borgogno, Roberta Curto, Claudia Curcio, Valeria Catanzaro, Giuseppe Digilio, Sergio Padovan, Maria Paola Puccinelli, Monica Isabello, Silvio Aime, Paola Cappello, Francesco Novelli
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is becoming the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. The mortality is very high, which emphasizes the need to identify biomarkers for early detection. As glutamine metabolism alteration is a feature of PDAC, its in vivo evaluation may provide a useful tool for biomarker identification. Our aim was to identify a handy method to evaluate blood glutamine consumption in mouse models of PDAC. We quantified the in vitro glutamine uptake by Mass Spectrometry (MS) in tumor cell supernatants and showed that it was higher in PDAC compared to non-PDAC tumor and pancreatic control human cells...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219283/comparative-differences-between-t1a-b-and-t1e-m-as-substages-in-t1-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder
#9
Turgay Turan, Özgür Efiloğlu, Bilal Günaydin, Şeyma Özkanli, Emrah Nikerel, Gökhan Atiş, Turhan Çaşkurlu, Asif Yildirim
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of the depth of lamina propria invasion in patients with T1 bladder cancer and to display comparative differences between the T1a/b and T1e/m substaging systems. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 106 patients with primary stage T1 urothelial bladder tumours who underwent surgery between January 2009 and December 2014. Pathologic specimens were re-evaluated to confirm the diagnosis of T1 and substaging by the same pathologist using two systems: T1a and T1b, and T1m and T1e...
December 11, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218663/laparoscopic-extended-cholecystectomy-for-t3-gallbladder-cancer
#10
Sungho Kim, Yoo-Seok Yoon, Ho-Seong Han, Jai Young Cho, YoungRok Choi
BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) has been contraindicated for laparoscopic surgery since this procedure was introduced [1, 2]. Recently, however, there have been several reports of laparoscopic extended cholecystectomy for GBC, but most cases involved early GBC confined to the GB [3, 4]. This video describes our technique of laparoscopic extended cholecystectomy for T3 GBC. METHODS: A 77-year-old female presented with a gallbladder mass, which was incidentally detected during evaluation of back pain...
December 7, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218272/blood-based-biomarkers-in-lung-cancer-prognosis-and-treatment-decisions
#11
REVIEW
Meng Xu-Welliver, David P Carbone
Despite recent advances, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains a devastating disease with overall poor prognosis. Major contributing factors include obstacles to diagnosing the disease early in its course during the asymptomatic stage as well as diversity and complexity of its biology underlying tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Advances in molecularly targeted therapies which drives the development of personalized cancer care require precise and comprehensive understanding of tumor biology, not only at the time of diagnosis but also during treatment course and surveillance...
December 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218114/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-global-circular-rnas-expression-profiles-between-shee-and-sheec-cell-lines
#12
Jiachun Sun, Xiaozhi Yuan, Xiangming Li, Dengkui Wang, Tanyou Shan, Wei Wang, Qiuyan Wan, Xinshuai Wang, Junqiang Yan, Shegan Gao
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is widely regarded as one of the most lethal types of cancer around the world. The fact that early detection of ESCC could dramatically improve the treatment outcome of the patients has sparked considerable interest in searching for reliable and accurate diagnostic biomarkers. Recently, circular RNAs (circRNA) have emerged as a new type of non-coding RNAs with significant RNase resistance, wide abundance and remarkable internal diversity. There is also increasing evidence suggesting that circRNAs could be implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer and other diseases...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217634/anthracycline-cardiotoxicity-an-update-on-mechanisms-monitoring-and-prevention
#13
REVIEW
Peter A Henriksen
Anthracycline chemotherapy causes dose-related cardiomyocyte injury and death leading to left ventricular dysfunction. Clinical heart failure may ensue in up to 5% of high-risk patients. Improved cancer survival together with better awareness of the late effects of cardiotoxicity has led to growing recognition of the need for surveillance of anthracycline-treated cancer survivors with early intervention to treat or prevent heart failure. The main mechanism of anthracycline cardiotoxicity is now thought to be through inhibition of topoisomerase 2β resulting in activation of cell death pathways and inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis...
December 7, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217587/different-mutational-rates-and-mechanisms-in-human-cells-at-pregastrulation-and-neurogenesis
#14
Taejeong Bae, Livia Tomasini, Jessica Mariani, Bo Zhou, Tanmoy Roychowdhury, Daniel Franjic, Mihovil Pletikos, Reenal Pattni, Bo-Juen Chen, Elisa Venturini, Bridget Riley-Gillis, Nenad Sestan, Alexander E Urban, Alexej Abyzov, Flora M Vaccarino
Somatic mosaicism in the human brain may alter function of individual neurons. We analyzed genomes of single cells from the forebrains of three human fetuses (15 to 21 weeks post-conception) using clonal cell populations. We detected 200-400 single nucleotide variations (SNVs) per cell. SNV patterns resembled those found in cancer cell genomes, indicating a role of background mutagenesis in cancer. SNVs with a frequency of >2% in brain were shared with the spleen, revealing a pregastrulation origin. We reconstructed cell lineages for the first five post-zygotic cleavages and calculated a mutation rate of ~1...
December 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217428/clinical-significance-of-galnacylated-glycans-in-cholangiocarcinoma-values-for-diagnosis-and-prognosis
#15
Waraporn Saentaweesuk, Atit Silsirivanit, Kulthida Vaeteewoottacharn, Kanlayanee Sawanyawisuth, Chawalit Pairojkul, Ubon Cha'on, Somsiri Indramanee, Somchai Pinlaor, Thidarut Boonmars, Norie Araki, Chaisiri Wongkham
Cancer cells exhibited the aberrant cancer-associated glycans that are potential biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of the cancer. In this study, Sophora japonica agglutinin (SJA) was used to detect SJA-specific N-acetylgalactosamine-associated glycans (SNAG) in liver tissues and sera from cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) patients. Whether SNAG could be the diagnostic and prognostic markers for CCA was evaluated. SJA-histochemistry revealed that SNAG was undetec2 in normal bile ducts but was highly expressed in hyperplastic/dysplastic bile ducts and CCA...
December 4, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216918/effect-of-structured-training-programme-on-the-knowledge-and-behaviors-of-breast-and-cervical-cancer-screening-among-the-female-teachers-in-turkey
#16
Ayla Bayık Temel, Şafak Dağhan, Şenay Kaymakçı, Renginar Öztürk Dönmez, Zeynep Arabacı
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer and cervical cancer are the most common cancers among women in the world. Many studies on the early detection of cancer have been conducted among women worldwide, but few studies have been performed in the world on female teachers regarding breast self-examination (BSE), mammography (MMG) and Pap smear test (PST). As teachers interact with students, this could play an important role in health education and in developing healthy behavior such as cancer screening...
December 7, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216685/patient-compliance-with-surveillance-colonoscopy-patient-factors-and-the-use-of-a-graded-recall-system
#17
Chahaya Gauci, Rebecca Lendzion, Kim-Chi Phan-Thien, Denis King, Dayashan S Perera
BACKGROUND: Surveillance colonoscopy allows for the early detection and improved treatment outcomes in colorectal neoplasms but compliance rates and factors require further investigation. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study examining 816 patients recalled for surveillance colonoscopy at an Australian colorectal practice over a 6-month period. Primary outcome was compliance with colonoscopy within 12 months of recall. The secondary outcome of this study was to identify factors affecting compliance including patient factors and the practices' graded recall system...
December 7, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216597/role-of-dopamine-receptors-in-the-anticancer-activity-of-onc201
#18
Christina Leah B Kline, Marie B Ralff, Amriti R Lulla, Jessica M Wagner, Phillip H Abbosh, David T Dicker, Joshua E Allen, Wafik S El-Deiry
ONC201/TIC10 is a first-in-class small molecule inducer of TRAIL that causes early activation of the integrated stress response. Its promising safety profile and broad-spectrum efficacy in vitro have been confirmed in Phase I/II trials in several advanced malignancies. Binding and reporter assays have shown that ONC201 is a selective antagonist of the dopamine D2-like receptors, specifically, DRD2 and DRD3. We hypothesized that ONC201's interaction with DRD2 plays a role in ONC201's anticancer effects. Using cBioportal and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses, we confirmed that DRD2 is expressed in different cancer cell types in a cell type-specific manner...
December 4, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216565/incidence-prevalence-mortality-disability-adjusted-life-years-and-risk-factors-of-cancer-in-australia-and-comparison-with-oecd-countries-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#19
Yohannes Adama Melaku, Sarah L Appleton, Tiffany K Gill, Felix A Ogbo, Elizabeth Buckley, Zumin Shi, Tim Driscoll, Robert Adams, Benjamin C Cowie, Christina Fitzmaurice
BACKGROUND: Comparative evidence on the burden, trend, and risk factors of cancer is limited. Using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we aimed to assess cancer burden - incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) - and attributable risk factors for Australia between 1990 and 2015, and to compare them with those of 34 members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). METHODS: The general GBD cancer estimation methods were used with data input from vital registration systems and cancer registries...
December 4, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216344/prostate-cancer-updates-on-current-strategies-for-screening-diagnosis-and-clinical-implications-of-treatment-modalities
#20
Jing-Yan Tian, Feng-Jun Guo, Guo-You Zheng, Aamir Ahmad
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men by way of diagnosis, and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Early detection and intervention remains key to its optimum clinical management. This review provides the most updated information on the recent methods of prostate cancer screening, imaging and treatment modalities. Wherever possible, clinical trial data has been supplemented to provide a comprehensive overview of current prostate cancer research and development. Considering the recent success of immunotherapy in prostate cancer, we discuss cell, DNA and viruses based, as well as combinatorial immunotherapeutic strategies in detail...
December 5, 2017: Carcinogenesis
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