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I Lengyel, F Toth, D Biyashev, I Szatmari, K Monory, C Tomboly, G Toth, S Benyhe, A Borsodi
Endomorphins are natural amidated opioid tetrapeptides with the following structure: Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-1), and Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-2). Endomorphins interact selectively with the μ-opioid or MOP receptors and exhibit nanomolar or sub-nanomolar receptor binding affinities, therefore they suggested to be endogenous agonists for the μ-opioid receptors. Endomorphins mediate a number of characteristic opioid effects, such as antinociception, however there are several physiological functions in which endomorphins appear to act in a fashion that does not involve binding to and activation of the μ-opioid receptor...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Naoki Wada, Takahiro Shimizu, Shun Takai, Nobutaka Shimizu, Anthony J Kanai, Pradeep Tyagi, Hidehiro Kakizaki, Naoki Yoshimura
AIMS: To examine the effects of a different number of daily bladder squeezes on bladder dysfunction in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Spinal cord was transected at the Th8/9 in female C57BL/6N mice. Their bladders were manually squeezed to eliminate urine inside every day for 4 weeks. The mice were divided into three groups depending on the number of bladder squeezes; A: once daily, B: twice daily, C: three times daily. Four weeks after transection, single-filling cystometry were performed under an awake condition...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Paula Honório de Melo Martimiano, André de Sa Braga Oliveira, Véronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Mikaël Croyal, Audrey Aguesse, Isabelle Grit, Khadija Ouguerram, Sandra Lopes de Souza, Bertrand Kaeffer, Francisco Bolaños-Jiménez
Early malnutrition is a risk factor for depression and schizophrenia. Since the offspring of malnourished dams exhibit increased brain levels of serotonin (5-HT), a tryptophan-derived neurotransmitter involved in the pathophysiology of these mental disorders, it is believed that the deleterious effects of early malnutrition on brain function are due in large part to altered serotoninergic neurotransmission resulting from impaired tryptophan (Trp) metabolism. However, tryptophan is also metabolized through the kynurenine (KYN) pathway yielding several neuroactive compounds including kynurenic (KA), Qinolinic (QA) and Xanthurenic (XA) acids...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Zahra Aghili, Saba Taheri, Hojjat Alizadeh Zeinabad, Leila Pishkar, Ali Akbar Saboury, Arash Rahimi, Mojtaba Falahati
Herein, the interaction of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) with iron nanoparticle (Fe NP) was investigated by spectroscopic and docking studies. The zeta potential analysis revealed that addition of Fe NP (6.45±1.03 mV) to HEWL (8.57±0.54 mV) can cause to greater charge distribution of nanoparticle-protein system (17.33±1.84 mV). In addition, dynamic light scattering (DLS) study revealed that addition of Fe NP (92.95±6.11 nm) to HEWL (2.68±0.37 nm) increases suspension potential of protein/nanoparticle system (51...
2016: PloS One
Karissa Leduc, Shanna Williams, Carlos Gomez-Garibello, Victoria Talwar
In this study, preschool-aged children's lie-telling behaviour was examined in relation to mental state understanding and executive functioning. Sixty-seven children aged between 25 and 43 months (Mage in months  = 34.80, SD = 4.39) participated in a temptation resistance paradigm (TRP). Children completed emerging ToM tasks measuring the following mental states: (1) diverse beliefs, (2) diverse desires, and (3) knowledge access. Children also completed measures of inhibitory control and working memory...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Samane Naeeminejad, Reza Assaran Darban, Sima Beigoli, Mohammad Reza Saberi, Jamshidkhan Chamani
The interaction between synthesized heterocyclic benzene sulfonamide compounds, N-(7-benzyl-5,6-biphenyl-2m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-benzene sulfonamide (HBS1), N-(7-benzyl-5,6-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-methyl- benzene sulfonamide (HBS2) and N-(7-benzyl-5,6-biphenyl-2-m-tolyl-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-yl)-4-chloro-benzene sulfonamide (HBS3) with Hb was studied by fluorescence quenching, zeta potentional, circular dichroism and molecular modeling techniques. The fluorescence spectroscopy experiments were performed in order to study the conformational changes, possibly due to a discrete reorganization of Trp residues during binding between HBS derivatives and Hb...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Fangyan Yu, Shruti Sharma, Agnieszka Skowronek, Kai Sven Erdmann
A primary cilium is present on most eukaryotic cells and represents a specialized organelle dedicated to signal transduction and mechanosensing. Defects in cilia function are the cause for several human diseases called ciliopathies. The serologically defined colon cancer antigen-3 (SDCCAG3) is a recently described novel endosomal protein mainly localized at early and recycling endosomes and interacting with several components of membrane trafficking pathways. Here we describe localization of SDCCAG3 to the basal body of primary cilia...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ruiwen Yang, Xingfang Li, Songyi Lin, Zuoming Zhang, Feng Chen
In the present study, two novel peptides Lys-Trp-Phe-Cys-Thr (KWFCT) and Gln-Trp-Phe-Cys-Thr (QWFCT) were purified and identified from 3 to 10kDa pine nut (Pinus koraiensis) meal protein. Their cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities in vitro were determined. Additionally, pulsed electric field technology, antioxidant activities, and circular dichroism were used together to investigate the relationship between antioxidant activities and secondary structure. The results showed that neither peptide demonstrated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ariel Lewis-Ballester, Farhad Forouhar, Sung-Mi Kim, Scott Lew, YongQiang Wang, Shay Karkashon, Jayaraman Seetharaman, Dipanwita Batabyal, Bing-Yu Chiang, Munif Hussain, Maria Almira Correia, Syun-Ru Yeh, Liang Tong
Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) play a central role in tryptophan metabolism and are involved in many cellular and disease processes. Here we report the crystal structure of human TDO (hTDO) in a ternary complex with the substrates L-Trp and O2 and in a binary complex with the product N-formylkynurenine (NFK), defining for the first time the binding modes of both substrates and the product of this enzyme. The structure indicates that the dioxygenation reaction is initiated by a direct attack of O2 on the C2 atom of the L-Trp indole ring...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kasper D Tidemand, Hans E M Christensen, Niclas Hoeck, Pernille Harris, Jane Boesen, Günther H Peters
Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) catalyses the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin, which is associated with a variety of disorders such as depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Full-length TPH2 is poorly characterized due to low purification quantities caused by its inherent instability. Three truncated variants of human TPH2 (rch TPH2; regulatory and catalytic domain, NΔ47-rch TPH2; truncation of 47 residues in the N terminus of rch TPH2, and ch TPH2; catalytic domain) were expressed, purified, and examined for changes in transition temperature, inactivation rate, and oligomeric state...
October 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Kenichi Sakurai, Shigeru Fujisaki, Keita Adachi, Shuhei Suzuki, Yuki Masuo, Saki Nagashima, Yukiko Hara, Katsuhisa Enomoto, Tomohiro Hirano, Ryouichi Tomita, Kenji Gonda
We evaluated the clinical significance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase(IDO)in intra-cystic tumors of the breast. IDO activitycan be measured byusing the tryptophan(Trp)/kynurenine(Kyn)ratio. Trp and Kyn were measured by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). We took liquid from 3 intra-cystic papilloma cases and 5 intra-cystic breast cancer cases. Then, we measured the Trp/Kyn ratio in these samples, and we evaluated the difference in the Trp/Kyn ratio between the papilloma group and the breast cancer group...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Tomohiro Hirano, Kenichi Sakurai, Shigeru Fujisaki, Keita Adachi, Shuhei Suzuki, Yuki Masuo, Saki Nagashima, Yukiko Hara, Katsuhisa Enomoto, Ryouichi Tomita, Kenji Gonda
Locallyadvanced breast cancer lesions often compromise the patient's qualityof life(QOL). Mohs paste is a histopathological fixative containing zinc chloride as the main ingredient. It has been applied to perform chemosurgeryon skin tumors. In recent years, this paste has reportedlybeen veryeffective for controlling various symptoms of skin metastases in inoperable advanced cancer, such as pungent odor and hemorrhage, in the field of palliative care. We evaluated the clinical significance of immunosuppressive acidic protein(IAP)and C-reactive protein(CRP)in the serum of patients with locallyadvanced breast cancer duringMohs paste treatment...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Kenichi Sakurai, Shigeru Fujisaki, Keita Adachi, Shuhei Suzuki, Yuki Masuo, Saki Nagashima, Yukiko Hara, Tomohiro Hirano, Katsuhisa Enomoto, Ryouichi Tomita, Kenji Gonda
We evaluated the clinical significance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase(IDO)during fulvestrant therapyfor multiple metastatic breast cancer patients. IDO activitycan be measured using the tryptophan(Trp)/kynurenine(Kyn)ratio. Trp and Kyn were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The serum Trp/Kyn level in patients with multiple metastatic breast cancer was lower than in patients without metastases. IDO activityincreased after breast cancer metastases developed. IDO activitywas correlated with the number of metastatic lesions during toremifene and fulvestrant therapy...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Raquel Tonello, Camilla Fusi, Serena Materazzi, Ilaria M Marone, Francesco De Logu, Silvia Benemei, Muryel C Gonçalves, Elisabetta Coppi, Celio J Castro-Junior, Marcus Vinicius Gomez, Pierangelo Geppetti, Juliano Ferreira, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Peptides from venomous animals have long been important tools for understanding pain mechanisms and for the discovery of pain treatments. Here, we hypothesized that Phα1β, a peptide purified from the armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer venom, produces analgesia by blocking the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, human IMR90 fibroblasts or HEK293 cells expressing the human TRPA1 (hTRPA1-HEK293), TRPV1 (hTRPV1-HEK293) or TRPV4 (hTRPV4-HEK293), were used for calcium imaging and electrophysiology...
October 19, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Cassandra E Deering-Rice, Chris Stockmann, Erin G Romero, Zhenyu Lu, Darien Shapiro, Brian L Stone, Bernhard Fassl, Flory Nkoy, Derek A Uchida, Robert M Ward, John M Veranth, Christopher A Reilly
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of TRPV1 would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared to the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1 I315M and T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash. The I585V variant was less responsive to coal fly ash particles, due to reduced translation of protein and an apparent role for I585 in activation by particles...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lovish Marwaha, Yashika Bansal, Raghunath Singh, Priyanka Saroj, Rupinder Kaur Sodhi, Anurag Kuhad
TRP channels have been discovered as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons involved in the detection of noxious stimuli. Desensitization of TRPV1 located on dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia exhibits analgesic effect and makes it potential therapeutic target for treatment of neuropathic pain. With this background, the present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of niflumic acid, a TRPV1 modulator, on stavudine (STV)-induced neuropathic pain in rats. Stavudine (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via tail vein in rats to induce neuropathic pain...
October 18, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Lovish Marwaha, Yashika Bansal, Raghunath Singh, Priyanka Saroj, Ranjana Bhandari, Anurag Kuhad
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating disease which affects central as well as peripheral nervous system. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are ligand-gated ion channels that detect physical and chemical stimuli and promote painful sensations via nociceptor activation. TRP channels have physiological role in the mechanisms controlling several physiological responses like temperature and mechanical sensations, response to painful stimuli, taste, and pheromones. TRP channel family involves six different TRPs (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8, and TRPA1) which are expressed in pain sensing neurons and primary afferent nociceptors...
October 18, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Yoshiaki Manse, Kiyofumi Ninomiya, Ryosuke Nishi, Iyori Kamei, Yushi Katsuyama, Takahito Imagawa, Saowanee Chaipech, Osamu Muraoka, Toshio Morikawa
An aqueous acetone extract from the fruit of Alpinia galanga (Zingiberaceae) demonstrated inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in theophylline-stimulated murine B16 melanoma 4A5 cells (IC50=7.3μg/mL). Through bioassay-guided separation of the extract, a new 7-O-9'-linked neolignan, named galanganol D diacetate (1), was isolated along with 16 known compounds including 14 phenylpropanoids (2-15). The structure of 1, including its absolute stereochemistry in the C-7 position, was elucidated by means of extensive NMR analysis and total synthesis...
October 6, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Brenda Gomes Fanchiotti, Marcella Piffer Zamprogno Machado, Letícia Camilato de Paula, Mahmut Durmuş, Tebello Nyokong, Arlan da Silva Gonçalves, André Romero da Silva
The photobleaching of an unsubstituted phthalocyanine (gallium(III) phthalocyanine chloride (GaPc)) and a substituted phthalocyanine (1,4-(tetrakis[4-(benzyloxy)phenoxy]phthalocyaninato) indium(III) chloride (InTBPPc)) was monitored for the free photosensitizers and for the phthalocyanines encapsulated into nanoparticles of PEGylated poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG). Phosphate-buffered solutions (PBS) and organic solutions of the free GaPc or the free InTBPPc, and suspensions of each encapsulated photosensitizer (2-15μmol/L) were irradiated using a laser diode of 665nm with a power of 1-104mW and a light dose of 7...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Mariana Certal, Adriana Vinhas, Aurora Barros-Barbosa, Fátima Ferreirinha, Maria Adelina Costa, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Nucleotides released during heart injury affect myocardium electrophysiology and remodelling through P2 purinoceptors activation in cardiac myofibroblasts. ATP and UTP endorse [Ca(2) +]i accumulation and growth of DDR-2/a-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts from adult rat ventricles via P2Y4 and P2Y2 receptors activation, respectively. Ventricular myofibroblasts also express ADP-sensitive P2Yi, P2Yi2 and P2Yi3 receptors as demonstrated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and western blot analysis, but little information exists on ADP effects in these cells...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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