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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738155/engineering-aromatic-aromatic-interactions-to-nucleate-folding-in-intrinsically-disordered-regions-of-proteins
#1
Swati Balakrishnan, Siddhartha Peddibhotla Sarma
Aromatic interactions are known to be an important force in protein folding as they combine the stability of a hydrophobic interaction with the selectivity of a hydrogen bond. Much of our understanding of aromatic interactions comes from analyses of protein structures and from the contribution of these interactions to stabilizing secondary structure motifs in model peptides. In this study the structural consequences of aromatic interactions on protein folding have been explored in engineered mutants of the molten globule protein apo - cytochrome b5...
July 24, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737706/redox-properties-of-tryptophan-metabolism-and-the-concept-of-tryptophan-use-in-pregnancy
#2
REVIEW
Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Jing Gao, Xin Wu, Yulong Yin
During pregnancy, tryptophan (Trp) is required for several purposes, and Trp metabolism varies over time in the mother and fetus. Increased oxidative stress (OS) with high metabolic, energy and oxygen demands during normal pregnancy or in pregnancy-associated disorders has been reported. Taking the antioxidant properties of Trp and its metabolites into consideration, we made four hypotheses. First, the use of Trp and its metabolites is optional based on their antioxidant properties during pregnancy. Second, dynamic Trp metabolism is an accommodation mechanism in response to OS...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735627/inhibition-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activity-by-fatty-acids-and-prostaglandins-a-structure-function-analysis
#3
M Costabile, N K Bassal, J P Gerber, B P Hughes
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) catalyses the first and rate-limiting step in the metabolism of L-tryptophan. Degradation of L-Trp leads to the production of several immunosuppressive metabolites, including N-formyl kynurenine and kynurenine (Kyn). Apart from a normal physiological role, IDO-1 has also been identified to play a crucial role in immune suppression and tumour induced tolerance. Indeed, many primary tumours express high levels of IDO-1 compared to normal cells of the same stroma. IDO-1 is accepted as being an inducible negative regulator of T cell viability, proliferation and activation...
July 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733236/novel-tryptophan-metabolic-pathways-in-auxin-biosynthesis-in-silkworm
#4
Chiaki Yokoyama, Mami Takei, Yoshiaki Kouzuma, Shinji Nagata, Yoshihito Suzuki
In the course of our study of the biosynthetic pathway of auxin, a class of phytohormones, in insects, we proposed the biosynthetic pathway tryptophan (Trp)→indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx)→indole-3-acetadehyde (IAAld)→indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In this study, we identified two branches in the metabolic pathways in the silkworm, possibly affecting the efficiency of IAA production: Trp→indole-3-pyruvic acid→indole-3-lactic acid and IAAld→indole-3-ethanol. We also determined the apparent conversion activities (2...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733212/the-peroxyl-radical-induced-oxidation-of-escherichia-coli-ftsz-and-its-single-tryptophan-mutant-y222w-modifies-specific-side-chains-generates-protein-cross-links-and-affects-biological-function
#5
Elizabeth Escobar-Álvarez, Fabian Leinisch, Gissela Araya, Octavio Monasterio, Lasse G Lorentzen, Eduardo Silva, Michael J Davies, Camilo López-Alarcón
FtsZ (filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z) is a key protein in bacteria cell division. The wild-type Escherichia coli FtsZ sequence (FtsZwt) contains three tyrosine (Tyr, Y) and sixteen methionine (Met, M) residues. The Tyr at position 222 is a key residue for FtsZ polymerization. Mutation of this residue to tryptophan (Trp, W; mutant Y222W) inhibits GTPase activity resulting in an extended time in the polymerized state compared to FtsZwt. Protein oxidation has been highlighted as a determinant process for bacteria resistance and consequently oxidation of FtsZwt and the Y222W mutant, by peroxyl radicals (ROO•) generated from AAPH (2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) was studied...
July 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733204/the-polymorphism-xrcc1-arg194trp-and-8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine-increased-susceptibility-to-arsenic-related-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Yu-Mei Hsueh, Ying-Chin Lin, Wei-Jen Chen, Chao-Yuan Huang, Horng-Sheng Shiue, Yeong-Shiau Pu, Chi-Hung Chen, Chien-Tien Su
This study was designed to explore the relationship between X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene polymorphisms and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to investigate whether individuals with an XRCC1 risk genotype, a high level of 8-OHdG or a high urinary total arsenic concentration have a modified odds ratio (OR) of RCC. We recruited 180 RCC patients and 360 age- and sex-matched controls from a hospital-based pool. Image-guided biopsy or surgical resection of renal tumors was performed on RCC patients for pathological verification...
July 18, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732812/extracts-and-compounds-active-on-trp-ion-channels-from-waldheimia-glabra-a-ritual-medicinal-plant-from-himalaya
#7
Annamaria Giorgi, Angela Bassoli, Gigliola Borgonovo, Sara Panseri, Alessandra Manzo, Daniela Pentimalli, Aniello Schiano Moriello, Luciano De Petrocellis
BACKGROUND: Waldheimia glabra (Decne.) Regel is a wild plant from the Himalayan Mountains, commonly known as Smooth Ground Daisy. This plant is traditionally used by local populations in religious rituals (incense) or in traditional herbal medicine to treat skin diseases, headache, joint pain and fever. In literature few data are available on the investigation of this aromatic plant. PURPOSE: The present work aims at deepening knowledge about the chemical composition of W...
August 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732179/kgf-enhances-oral-epithelial-adhesion-and-rete-peg-elongation-via-integrins
#8
G L Sa, X P Xiong, J G Ren, J Y Wang, H F Xia, Z K Liu, S G He, Y F Zhao
Oral epithelial adhesion to the lamina propria underlies the physiologic function of the oral mucosa and contributes to resisting bacterial invasion, preventing body fluid loss, and maintaining routine chewing; thus, understanding the factors that positively influence oral epithelial adhesion is a research topic of great interest. Rete pegs contribute to oral epithelial adhesion by enlarging the contact areas, whereas integrins are the major molecules that mediate epithelial cell adhesion to the basement membrane...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731688/the-%C3%AF-configuration-of-the-www-motif-of-a-short-trp-rich-peptide-is-critical-for-targeting-bacterial-membranes-disrupting-preformed-biofilms-and-killing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
D Zarena, Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Fangyu Wang, Guangshun Wang
Tryptophan-rich peptides, being short and suitable for large-scale chemical synthesis, are attractive candidates for developing a new generation of antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria (superbugs). Although there are numerous pictures for membrane-bound structure of a single tryptophan (W), how multiple Trp amino acids assemble themselves and interact with bacterial membranes are poorly understood. This communication presents the three-dimensional structure for an eight-residue Trp-rich peptide (WWWLRKIW-NH2 with 50% W) determined by the improved 2D NMR method, which includes the measurements of 13C and 15N chemical shifts at natural abundance...
July 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731279/influence-of-l-amino-acids-on-aggregation-and-biofilm-formation-in-azotobacter-chroococcum-and-trichoderma-viride
#10
Velmourougane Kulandaivelu, Radha Prasanna
AIM: The effects of L-amino acids on growth and biofilm formation in Azotobacter chroococcum (Az) and Trichoderma viride (Tv) as single (Az, Tv) and staggered inoculated cultures (Az-Tv, Tv-Az) was investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: A preliminary study using a set of twenty L-amino acids, identified six amino acids (L-Glu, L-Gln, L-His, L-Ser, L-Thr, and L-Trp) which significantly enhanced growth and biofilm formation. Supplementation of these amino acids at different concentrations revealed that 40 mmol l(-1) was most effective...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730706/chromatographic-profiles-of-tryptophan-and-kynurenine-enantiomers-derivatized-with-s-4-3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl-7-n-n-dimethylaminosulfonyl-2-1-3-benzoxadiazole-using-lc-ms-ms-on-a-triazole-bonded-column
#11
Hideaki Iizuka, Takahiro Harashima, Shuhei Takahashi, Ryosuke Kuwabara, Yoko Naito, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Mayu Onozato, Hideaki Ichiba, Takeshi Fukushima
d- and l-Tryptophan (Trp) and d- and l-kynurenine (KYN) were derivatized with a chiral reagent, (S)-4-(3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7-(N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-PyNCS), and were separated enantiomerically by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a triazole-bonded column (Cosmosil HILIC) using tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection. Effects of column temperature, salt (HCO2 NH4 ) concentration, and pH of the mobile phase in the enantiomeric separation, followed by MS detection of (S)-DBD-PyNCS-d,l-Trp and -d,l-KYN, were investigated...
July 21, 2017: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727412/a-novel-host-guest-recognition-assisted-electrochemical-release-its-reusable-sensing-application-based-on-dna-cross-configuration-fueled-target-cycling-and-sdr-amplification
#12
Yuanyuan Chang, Ying Zhuo, Yaqin Chai, Ruo Yuan
In this work, an elegantly designed host-guest recognition-assisted electrochemical release was established and applied in a reusable electrochemical biosensor for the detection of microRNA-182-5p (miRNA-182-5p), a prostate cancer biomarker in prostate cancer, based on the DNA cross configuration-fueled target cycling and strand displacement reaction (SDR) amplification. With such design, the single target miRNA input could be converted to large numbers of single-stranded DNA (S1-Trp and S2-Trp) output which could be trapped by cucurbit[8]uril-methyl viologen (CB-8-MV2+) based on the host-guest recognition, significantly enhancing the sensitivity for miRNA detection...
July 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727082/comparison-of-amino-acid-digestibility-in-full-fat-soybean-two-soybean-meals-and-peanut-flour-between-broiler-chickens-and-growing-pigs
#13
C S Park, A Helmbrecht, J K Htoo, O Adeola
The aim of this study was to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in full-fat soybean (FFSB), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 430 g/kg CP (SBM-43), solvent-extracted soybean meal containing 470 g/kg CP (SBM-47), and peanut flour (PNF) fed to broiler chickens and pigs and to compare the digestibility of CP and AA between broiler chickens and pigs. Four diets were prepared to contain FFSB, SBM-43, SBM-47, and PNF as the sole source of N...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727075/amino-acid-digestibility-by-weanling-pigs-of-processed-ingredients-originating-from-soybeans-00-rapeseeds-or-a-fermented-mixture-of-plant-ingredients
#14
D M D L Navarro, Y Liu, T S Bruun, H H Stein
An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of processed soybean products, in conventional dehulled soybean meal (SBM-CV), in conventional 00-rapeseed expellers (RSE), and in a fermented coproduct mixture (FCM) that contained rapeseed meal, wheat, soy molasses, and potato peel fed to weanling pigs. The 4 processed soybean products included 2 sources of enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM-1 and ESBM-2), extruded soybean meal, and soy protein concentrate (SPC)...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727030/apparent-and-true-ileal-and-total-tract-digestibility-of-fat-in-canola-press-cake-or-canola-oil-and-effects-of-increasing-dietary-fat-on-amino-acid-and-energy-digestibility-in-growing-pigs
#15
X Zhou, E Beltranena, R T Zijlstra
Digestibility of remaining oil in canola press-cake (CPC) may be lower than that of extracted, liquid canola oil (CO) because oil may be partly entrapped in the CPC matrix. To determine true digestibility of fat in ingredients, endogenous fat losses should be estimated. Dietary fat may interact with digestion of other dietary components. To test these hypotheses, 10 ileal-cannulated pigs (initial BW, 25.4 kg) were fed 10 diets for 8 periods in a 10 × 8 Youden square. A basal diet was formulated based on wheat, barley, and canola meal...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726954/the-interaction-of-amino-acids-with-macrocyclic-ph-probes-of-pseudopeptidic-nature
#16
M Angeles Izquierdo, Prashant D Wadhavane, Laura Vigara, M Isabel Burguete, Francisco Galindo, Santiago V Luis
The fluorescence quenching, by a series of amino acids, of pseudopeptidic compounds acting as probes for cellular acidity has been investigated. It has been found that amino acids containing electron-rich aromatic side chains like Trp or Tyr, as well as Met quench the emission of the probes mainly via a collisional mechanism, with Stern-Volmer constants in the 7-43 M(-1) range, while other amino acids such as His, Val or Phe did not cause deactivation of the fluorescence. Only a minor contribution of a static quenching due to the formation of ground-state complexes has been found for Trp and Tyr, with association constants in the 9-24 M(-1) range...
July 20, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726391/tumor-associated-mutations-in-caspase-6-negatively-impact-catalytic-efficiency
#17
Kevin B Dagbay, Maureen E Hill, Elizabeth Barrett, Jeanne A Hardy
Unregulated, particularly suppressed programmed cell death is one of the distinguishing features of many cancer cells. The cysteine protease caspase-6, one of the executioners of apoptotic cell death, plays a crucial role in regulation of apoptosis. Several CASP6 gene somatic mutations in tumor tissues have been reported. This work explores the effect of CASP6 tumor-associated mutations on the catalytic efficiency and structure of caspase-6. In general, these mutations showed decreased overall catalytic turnover...
July 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726323/characterization-of-a-cathepsin-d-protease-from-cho-cell-free-medium-and-mitigation-of-its-impact-on-the-stability-of-a-recombinant-therapeutic-protein
#18
Amareth Lim, Brandon L Doyle, Gerard M Kelly, Angelia M Reed-Bogan, Lawrence H Breen, Parviz A Shamlou, Peter K Lambooy
During purification process development of a recombinant therapeutic protein, an endoproteolytic activity endogenous to the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and leading to degradation at particular hydrophobic amino acid residues (e.g., Phe and Trp) was observed when processing at acidic pH. The presence of residual levels of protease activity in purified protein batches affected the inherent activity of the product when stored as a solution. In order to develop a robust purification strategy to minimize this undesirable impact, identification and characterization of this protease was essential to ultimately ensure that a solution formulation was stable for many years...
July 20, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723153/understanding-the-reactivity-of-co3-%C3%A2-and-no2-%C3%A2-radicals-towards-s-containing-and-aromatic-amino-acids
#19
Sharmistha Karmakar, Ayan Datta
The reactivity of CO3-(.) and NO2(.) radicals towards six amino acid side chains namely, cysteine (Cys), methionine (Met), phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), histidine (His) and tryptophan (Trp), has been explored using state-of-art density functional theory (DFT) and transition state theory (TST). Three reaction mechanisms, namely hydrogen atom abstraction (HAT), radical adduct formation (RAF) and single electron transfer (SET) have been considered for detailed study. While CO3-(.) radical is highly reactive towards majority of amino acids, the reactivity of NO2(...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722259/l-ornithine-and-l-lysine-stimulate-gastrointestinal-motility-via-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1
#20
Junya Nakato, Yee Yin Ho, Ryo Omae, Takafumi Mizushige, Kunitoshi Uchida, Makoto Tominaga, Minji Kim, Tsuyoshi Goto, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Teruo Kawada, Saori Akiduki, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Kousaku Ohinata
SCOPE: The gastrointestinal (GI) tract senses and responds to intraluminal nutrients and these interactions often affect GI functions. We found that, among basic amino acids, L-ornithine (Orn) and L-lysine (Lys) stimulated but L-arginine (Arg) suppressed GI motility after oral administration (24 mmol/kg) in mice (Orn and Lys, 14.3 and 26.4% promotion; Arg, 7.7% suppression). We investigated the mechanism of the action of Orn and Lys on GI motility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Orn-induced promotion of small intestinal transit was significantly inhibited (P<0...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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