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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327359/regulation-of-secretion-and-enzymatic-activity-of-lipoprotein-lipase-by-c-mannosylation
#1
Sawako Okamoto, Takeyoshi Murano, Takehiro Suzuki, Shiho Uematsu, Yuki Niwa, Yukiko Sasazawa, Naoshi Dohmae, Hideaki Bujo, Siro Simizu
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a crucial enzyme in lipid metabolism and transport, and its enzymatic deficiency causes metabolic disorders, such as hypertriglyceridemia. LPL has one predicted C-mannosylation site at Trp(417). In this study, we demonstrated that LPL is C-mannosylated at Trp(417) by mass spectrometry. Furthermore, by using wild-type and a C-mannosylation-defective mutant of LPL-overexpressing cell lines, we revealed that both secretion efficiency and enzymatic activity of C-mannosylation-defective mutant LPL were lower than those of wild-type...
March 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324107/functional-characterization-of-transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-c5-in-female-murine-gonadotropes
#2
Andreas Beck, Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Petra Weissgerber, Veit Flockerzi, Marc Freichel, Ulrich Boehm
Gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland secrete gonadotropins regulating gonadal function in mammals. Recent results have implicated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) cation channels in pituitary physiology, however, if and how TRP channels contribute to gonadotrope function is not known. Here we report that 14 out of 28 TRP channels encoded in the mouse genome are expressed in murine gonadotropes with highest expression levels found for TRPC5 in juvenile females. We show that TRP channel expression in these cells exhibits considerable plasticity and that it depends on gender as well as on the developmental and hormonal status of the animal...
January 30, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321929/the-effect-of-butin-on-the-vitiligo-mouse-model-induced-by-hydroquinone
#3
Shi-Xia Huo, Qiong Wang, Xin-Min Liu, Chun-Hui Ge, Li Gao, Xiao-Ming Peng, Ming Yan
Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd has been traditionally used in the treatment of vitiligo in Uyghur medicine. This study used butin, the main component of V. anthelmintica, to study the influence on hydroquinone-induced vitiligo in mice. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 4.25 mg/kg), and butin (0.425, 4.25, and 42.5 mg/kg) groups. The number of melanin-containing hair follicles, basal layer melanocytes, melanin-containing epidermal cells, the expression of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), the malondialdehyde (MDA), and cholinesterase (CHE) activity in serum were measured...
March 21, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320943/prion-protein-dynamics-before-aggregation
#4
Kinshuk Raj Srivastava, Lisa J Lapidus
Prion diseases, like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson disease, are rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorders caused by misfolding followed by aggregation and accumulation of protein deposits in neuronal cells. Here we measure intramolecular polypeptide backbone reconfiguration as a way to understand the molecular basis of prion aggregation. Our hypothesis is that when reconfiguration is either much faster or much slower than bimolecular diffusion, biomolecular association is not stable, but as the reconfiguration rate becomes similar to the rate of biomolecular diffusion, the association is more stable and subsequent aggregation is faster...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316028/improved-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-glioblastoma-cancer-using-novel-68-ga-labeled-peptides-targeting-the-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-upar
#5
Mathias Dyrberg Loft, Yao Sun, Changhao Liu, Camilla Christensen, Daijuan Huang, Andreas Kjaer, Zhen Cheng
The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in several cancers including glioblastoma (GBM) and is an established biomarker for metastatic potential. The uPAR-targeting peptide AE105-NH2 (Ac-Asp-Cha-Phe-(D)Ser-(D)Arg-Tyr-Leu-Trp-Ser-CONH2) is a promising candidate for non-invasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of uPAR. Despite the optimal physical properties of (68)Ga for peptide-based PET imaging, low tumor uptakes have previously been reported using (68)Ga-labeled AE105-NH2-based tracers...
March 18, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314892/abnormal-kynurenine-pathway-of-tryptophan-catabolism-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Ping Song, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Huan Wang, Ming-Hui Zou
Kynurenine pathway (KP) is the primary path of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism in most mammalian cells. The KP generates several bioactive catabolites, such as kynurenine (Kyn), kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), xanthurenic acid (XA), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA). Increased catabolite concentrations in serum are associated with several cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart disease, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, as well as their risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and aging...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314815/the-phosphorylation-state-of-the-drosophila-trp-channel-modulates-the-frequency-response-to-oscillating-light-in-vivo
#7
Olaf Voolstra, Elisheva Rhodes-Mordov, Ben Katz, Jonas-Peter Bartels, Claudia Oberegelsbacher, Susanne Katharina Schotthöfer, Bushra Yasin, Hanan Tzadok, Armin Huber, Baruch Minke
Drosophila photoreceptors respond to oscillating light of high frequency (∼100 Hz), while the detected maximal frequency is modulated by the light rearing conditions, thus maintaining high sensitivity to light and high temporal resolution. However, the molecular basis for this adaptive process is unclear. Here, we report that dephosphorylation of the light-activated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channel at S936 is a fast, graded, light-, and Ca(2+)-dependent process that is partially modulated by the rhodopsin phosphatase Retinal Degeneration C (RDGC)...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302170/identification-of-residues-important-for-the-activity-of-aldehyde-deformylating-oxygenase-through-investigation-into-the-structure-activity-relationship
#8
Qing Wang, Luyao Bao, Chenjun Jia, Mei Li, Jian-Jun Li, Xuefeng Lu
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of fatty alk(a/e)nes in cyanobacteria. However, cADO (cyanobacterial ADO) showed extreme low activity with the k cat value below 1 min(-1), which would limit its application in biofuel production. To identify the activity related key residues of cADO is urgently required. RESULTS: The amino acid residues which might affect cADO activity were identified based on the crystal structures and sequence alignment of cADOs, including the residues close to the di-iron center (Tyr39, Arg62, Gln110, Tyr122, Asp143 of cADO-1593), the protein surface (Trp 178 of cADO-1593), and those involved in two important hydrogen bonds (Gln49, Asn123 of cADO-1593, and Asp49, Asn123 of cADO-sll0208) and in the oligopeptide whose conformation changed in the absence of the di-iron center (Leu146, Asn149, Phe150 of cADO-1593, and Thr146, Leu148, Tyr150 of cADO-sll0208)...
March 16, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301373/rediscovering-scavenger-receptor-type-bi-surprising-new-roles-for-the-hdl-receptor
#9
Menno Hoekstra, Mary Sorci-Thomas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is classically known for its role in antiatherogenic reverse cholesterol transport as it selectively takes up cholesterol esters from HDL. Here, we have highlighted recent literature that describes novel functions for SR-BI in physiology and disease. RECENT FINDINGS: A large population-based study has revealed that patients heterozygous for the P376L mutant form of SR-BI showed significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-cholesterol and had increased risk of cardiovascular disease, demonstrating that SR-BI in humans is a significant determinant of cardiovascular disease...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300587/enzyme-inhibition-kinetics-and-molecular-interactions-of-patatin-peptides-with-angiotensin-i-converting-enzyme-and-renin
#10
Yu Fu, Adeola M Alashi, Jette F Young, Margrethe Therkildsen, Rotimi E Aluko
In this work, the inhibitory effects of potato patatin-derived peptides Trp-Gly (WG) and Pro-Arg-Tyr (PRY) on angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and renin activities were investigated using kinetics, intrinsic fluorescence and molecular docking. The results indicated that PRY was a more potent ACE- and renin-inhibitory peptide than WG. Enzyme inhibition kinetics showed that WG and PRY inhibited ACE activity through mixed-type and competitive modes, respectively. The inhibitory mechanism of WG and PRY towards renin was determined to be mixed-type...
March 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294062/warming-up-to-new-possibilities-with-the-capsaicin-receptor-trpv1-mtor-ampk-and-erythropoietin
#11
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a superfamily of ion channels termed after the trp gene in Drosophila that are diverse in structure and control a wide range of biological functions including cell development and growth, thermal regulation, and vascular physiology. Of significant interest is the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) receptor, also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, that is a non-selective cation channel sensitive to a host of external stimuli including capsaicin and camphor, venoms, acid/basic pH changes, and temperature...
March 13, 2017: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287172/killing-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-salmonella-enteritidis-and-neutralization-of-lipopolysaccharide-by-17-residue-bovine-lactoferricins-improved-activity-of-trp-ala-containing-molecules
#12
Ya Hao, Na Yang, Xiumin Wang, Da Teng, Ruoyu Mao, Xiao Wang, Zhanzhan Li, Jianhua Wang
Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) has potent antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic activities but is also hemolytic. Our objective was to identify LfcinB17-31 derivatives with reduced hemolysis and improved antimicrobial activity via substituting Cys3, Arg4, Gln7, Met10, and Gly14 with more hydrophobic residues. Two peptides, Lfcin4 and Lfcin5, showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis and lower hemolytic activity than the parent peptide LfcinB17-31. These peptides permeabilized the outer and inner membranes of S...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284645/influence-of-stormflow-and-baseflow-phosphorus-pressures-on-stream-ecology-in-agricultural-catchments
#13
Mairead Shore, Sinead Murphy, Per-Erik Mellander, Ger Shortle, Alice R Melland, Lucy Crockford, Vincent O'Flaherty, Lauren Williams, Ger Morgan, Phil Jordan
Stormflow and baseflow phosphorus (P) concentrations and loads in rivers may exert different ecological pressures during different seasons. These pressures and subsequent impacts are important to disentangle in order to target and monitor the effectiveness of mitigation measures. This study investigated the influence of stormflow and baseflow P pressures on stream ecology in six contrasting agricultural catchments. A five-year high resolution dataset was used consisting of stream discharge, P chemistry, macroinvertebrate and diatom ecology, supported with microbial source tracking and turbidity data...
March 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283907/nanoparticles-generated-from-a-tryptophan-derivative-physical-characterization-and-anti-cancer-drug-delivery
#14
Taru Dube, Saurabh Mandal, Jiban Jyoti Panda
Surging reports of peptide-based nanosystems and their growing potency in terms of biological utility demand for the search of newer and simpler peptide-based systems that could serve as smart templates for the development of self-assembled nanostructures. Use of simple amino acids as monomeric building blocks for synthesizing ensembles of nanostructures have gained momentum in this direction with some reports focusing on the development of nanosystems from single or modified single amino acids. In this work, we have demonstrated self-assembly and nanoparticle formation ability of a single amino acid derivative, N-alpha-(9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl)-N(in)-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-tryptophan [Fmoc-Trp(Boc)-OH]...
March 10, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283753/cosmetic-applications-of-glucitol-core-containing-gallotannins-from-a-proprietary-phenolic-enriched-red-maple-acer-rubrum-leaves-extract-inhibition-of-melanogenesis-via-down-regulation-of-tyrosinase-and-melanogenic-gene-expression-in-b16f10-melanoma-cells
#15
Hang Ma, Jialin Xu, Nicholas A DaSilva, Ling Wang, Zhengxi Wei, Liangran Guo, Shelby L Johnson, Wei Lu, Jun Xu, Qiong Gu, Navindra P Seeram
The red maple (Acer rubrum) is a rich source of phenolic compounds which possess galloyl groups attached to different positions of a 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol core. While these glucitol-core containing gallotannins (GCGs) have reported anti-oxidant and anti-glycative effects, they have not yet been evaluated for their cosmetic applications. Herein, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic effects of a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract [Maplifa(™); contains ca. 45% ginnalin A (GA) along with other GCGs] were investigated using enzyme and cellular assays...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283577/distinct-roles-of-light-activated-channels-trp-and-trpl-in-photoreceptors-of-periplaneta-americana
#16
Paulus Saari, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Esa-Ville Immonen, Roman V Frolov
Electrophysiological studies in Drosophila melanogaster and Periplaneta americana have found that the receptor current in their microvillar photoreceptors is generated by two light-activated cationic channels, TRP (transient receptor potential) and TRPL (TRP-like), each having distinct properties. However, the relative contribution of the two channel types to sensory information coding by photoreceptors remains unclear. We recently showed that, in contrast to the diurnal Drosophila in which TRP is the principal phototransduction channel, photoreceptors of the nocturnal P...
March 10, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280881/tryptophan-depletion-affects-compulsive-behaviour-in-rats-strain-dependent-effects-and-associated-neuromechanisms
#17
A Merchán, S V Navarro, A B Klein, S Aznar, L Campa, C Suñol, M Moreno, P Flores
RATIONALE: Compulsive behaviour, present in different psychiatric disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia and drug abuse, is associated with altered levels of monoamines, particularly serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and its receptor system. OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated whether 5-HT manipulation, through a tryptophan (TRP) depletion by diet in Wistar and Lister Hooded rats, modulates compulsive drinking in schedule-induced polydipsia (SIP) and locomotor activity in the open-field test...
March 9, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276145/ljmot1-a-high-affinity-molybdate-transporter-from-lotus-japonicus-is-essential-for-molybdate-uptake-but-not-for-the-delivery-to-nodules
#18
Guilan Duan, Tsuneo Hakoyama, Takehiro Kamiya, Hiroki Miwa, Fabien Lombardo, Shusei Sato, Satoshi Tabata, Zheng Chen, Toshihiro Watanabe, Takuro Shinano, Toru Fujiwara
Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential nutrient for plants, and is required for nitrogenase activity of legumes. However, the pathways of Mo uptake from soils and then delivery to the nodules have not been characterized in legumes. In this study, we characterized a high-affinity Mo transporter (LjMOT1) from Lotus japonicus. Mo concentrations in an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized line (ljmot1) decreased by 70-95% compared with wild type (WT). By comparing the DNA sequences of four AtMOT1 homologs between mutant and WT lines, one point mutation was found in LjMOT1, which altered Trp(292) to a stop codon; no mutation was found in the other homologous genes...
March 9, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268250/antioxidant-effect-of-thiazolidine-molecules-in-cell-culture-media-improves-stability-and-performance
#19
Jennifer Kuschelewski, Alisa Schnellbaecher, Sascha Pering, Maria Wehsling, Aline Zimmer
The ability of cell culture media components to generate reactive species as well as their sensitivity to oxidative degradation, affects the overall stability of media and the behavior of cells cultured in vitro. This study investigates the influence of thiazolidine molecules, formed from the condensation between cysteine and alpha-ketoacids, on the stability of these complex mixtures and on the performance of cell culture processes aiming to produce therapeutically relevant monoclonal antibodies. Results presented in this study indicate that 2-methyl-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid and 2-(2-carboxyethyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid, obtained by condensation of cysteine with pyruvate or alpha-ketoglutarate respectively, are able to stabilize cell culture media formulations, in particular redox sensitive molecules like folic acid, thiamine, L-methionine (met) and L-tryptophan (trp)...
March 7, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264493/ovalbumin-with-glycated-carboxyl-groups-shows-membrane-damaging-activity
#20
Ching-Chia Tang, Yi-Jun Shi, Ying-Jung Chen, Long-Sen Chang
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA) showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA) was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d)-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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