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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943528/scopoletin-stimulates-melanogenesis-via-camp-pka-pathway-and-partially-p38-activation
#1
Dae-Sung Kim, Su-Bin Cha, Min-Cheol Park, Seol-A Park, Hye-Soo Kim, Won-Hong Woo, Yeun-Ja Mun
Scopoletin was recently shown to stimulate melanogenesis through cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. In this study, we investigated the molecular events of melanogenesis-induced by scopoletin. After exposure to scopoletin, the protein levels of tyrosinase and tyrosianse related protein-1 (TRP-1) were significantly increased in B16F10 cells. The mRNA levels of tyrosinase and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were also enhanced by scopoletin. cAMP production and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were increased by scopoletin treatment...
September 22, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943398/cold-sensing-trpm8-channel-participates-in-circadian-control-of-the-brown-adipose-tissue
#2
Maria Nathália Moraes, Leonardo Vinicius Monteiro de Assis, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Miguel Luiz Batista Junior, Ali D Güler, Ana Maria de Lauro Castrucci
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are known to regulate energy metabolism, and TRPM8 has become an interesting player in this context. Here we demonstrate the role of the cold sensor TRPM8 in the regulation of clock gene and clock controlled genes in brown adipose tissue (BAT). We investigated TrpM8 temporal profile in the eyes, suprachiasmatic nucleus and BAT; only BAT showed temporal variation of TrpM8 transcripts. Eyes from mice lacking TRPM8 lost the temporal profile of Per1 in LD cycle. This alteration in the ocular circadian physiology may explain the delay in the onset of locomotor activity in response to light pulse, as compared to wild type animals (WT)...
September 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939805/kynurenine-aminotransferase-activity-of-aro8-aro9-engage-tryptophan-degradation-by-producing-kynurenic-acid-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Kazuto Ohashi, Romanas Chaleckis, Masak Takaine, Craig E Wheelock, Satoshi Yoshida
Kynurenic acid (KA) is a tryptophan (Trp) metabolite that is synthesised in a branch of kynurenine (KYN) pathway. KYN aminotransferase (KAT) catalyses deamination of KYN, yielding KA. Although KA synthesis is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to humans, the cellular benefits of synthesising KA are unclear. In this study, we constructed a KAT-null yeast mutant defective in KA synthesis to clarify the cellular function of KA. Amino acid sequence analysis and LC/MS quantification of KA revealed that Aro8 and Aro9 are the major KATs...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938599/a-pathways-based-prediction-model-for-classifying-breast-cancer-subtypes
#4
Tong Wu, Yunfeng Wang, Ronghui Jiang, Xinliang Lu, Jiawei Tian
Breast cancer is highly heterogeneous and is classified into four subtypes characterized by specific biological traits, treatment responses, and clinical prognoses. We performed a systemic analysis of 698 breast cancer patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas project database. We identified 136 breast cancer genes differentially expressed among the four subtypes. Based on unsupervised clustering analysis, these 136 core genes efficiently categorized breast cancer patients into the appropriate subtypes. Functional enrichment based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis identified six functional pathways regulated by these genes: JAK-STAT signaling, basal cell carcinoma, inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, non-small cell lung cancer, glutamatergic synapse, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936784/cryo-em-structures-of-the-mammalian-endo-lysosomal-trpml1-channel-elucidate-the-combined-regulation-mechanism
#5
Sensen Zhang, Ningning Li, Wenwen Zeng, Ning Gao, Maojun Yang
TRPML1 channel is a non-selective group-2 transient receptor potential (TRP) channel with Ca(2+) permeability. Located mainly in late endosome and lysosome of all mammalian cell types, TRPML1 is indispensable in the processes of endocytosis, membrane trafficking, and lysosome biogenesis. Mutations of TRPML1 cause a severe lysosomal storage disorder called mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV). In the present study, we determined the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of Mus musculus TRPML1 (mTRPML1) in lipid nanodiscs and Amphipols...
September 21, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936701/low-energy-collisions-of-protonated-enantiopure-amino-acids-with-chiral-target-gases
#6
K Kulyk, O Rebrov, M Ryding, R D Thomas, E Uggerud, M Larsson
Here we report on the gas-phase interactions between protonated enantiopure amino acids (L- and D-enantiomers of Met, Phe, and Trp) and chiral target gases [(R)- and (S)-2-butanol, and (S)-1-phenylethanol] in 0.1-10.0 eV low-energy collisions. Two major processes are seen to occur over this collision energy regime, collision-induced dissociation and ion-molecule complex formation. Both processes were found to be independent of the stereo-chemical composition of the interacting ions and targets. These data shed light on the currently debated mechanisms of gas-phase chiral selectivity by demonstrating the inapplicability of the three-point model to these interactions, at least under single collision conditions...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936334/synthesis-of-bioactive-and-stabilized-cyclic-peptides-by-macrocyclization-using-c-sp-3-h-activation
#7
Jian Tang, Yadong He, Hongfei Chen, Wangjian Sheng, Huan Wang
Cyclic peptides have attracted increasing attention in recent years due to their ability to inhibit protein-protein interactions. Current strategies to prepare cyclic peptides often rely on functional amino acid side chains or the incorporation of unnatural amino acids, thus limiting their structural diversity. Here, we describe the development of a highly versatile peptide macrocyclization strategy through a palladium-catalyzed C(sp(3))-H activation and the synthesis of cyclic peptides featuring unique hydrocarbon linkages between the β-carbon of amino acids and the aromatic side chains of Phe and Trp...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936178/a-comparison-of-oral-sensory-effects-of-three-trpa1-agonists-in-young-adult-smokers-and-non-smokers
#8
Eva Ø Hansen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Shellie A Boudreau
This study profiled intra-oral somatosensory and vasomotor responses to three different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) agonists (menthol, nicotine, and cinnamaldehyde) in smoking and non-smoking young adults. Healthy non-smokers (N = 30) and otherwise healthy smokers (N = 25) participated in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study consisting of three experimental sessions in which they received menthol (30 mg), nicotine (4 mg), or cinnamaldehyde (25 mg) chewing gum...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936166/nucleus-accumbens-mc4-r-stimulation-reduces-food-and-ethanol-intake-in-adult-rats-regardless-of-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-during-adolescence
#9
Francisca Carvajal, José M Lerma-Cabrera, Manuel Alcaraz-Iborra, Montserrat Navarro, Todd E Thiele, Inmaculada Cubero
The melanocortin (MC) system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R) stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in hypothalamic and limbic areas...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929575/development-of-an-optical-sensor-for-chlortetracycline-detection-based-on-the-fluorescence-quenching-of-l-tryptophan
#10
Hui Zhang, Hongyun Chen, Shuang Pan, Huan Yang, Jingjing Yan, Xiaoli Hu
A simple and selective spectrofluorimetric method for the detection of chlortetracycline (CTC) was studied. In pH 7.4 buffer medium l-tryptophan (l-Trp), applied as the fluorescence probe, interacted with CTC resulting in fluorescence quenching of the probe. CTC was detected with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths at λex /λem  = 275/350 nm. Notably, quenching of fluorescence intensities was positively proportional to the CTC concentration over the range of 0.65-30 μmol L(-1) and the limit of detection was 0...
September 20, 2017: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928655/effects-of-simvastatin-beyond-dyslipidemia-exploring-its-antinociceptive-action-in-an-animal-model-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-type-i
#11
Graziela Vieira, Juliana Cavalli, Elaine C D Gonçalves, Tainara R Gonçalves, Larissa R Laurindo, Maíra Cola, Rafael C Dutra
Simvastatin is a lipid-lowering agent that blocks the production of cholesterol through inhibition of 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. In addition, recent evidence has suggested its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive actions during inflammatory and pain disorders. Herein, we investigated the effects of simvastatin in an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome-type I, and its underlying mechanisms. Chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP) was induced by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury of the left hind paw...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927486/hplc-determination-of-total-tryptophan-in-infant-formula-and-adult-pediatric-nutritional-formula-following-enzymatic-hydrolysis-single-laboratory-validation-first-action-2017-03
#12
Jonathan Draher, Norman White
A method for tryptophan (Trp) analysis designed to comply with AOAC Standard Method Performance Requirement 2014.013 is described. Unlike AOAC 988.15, which uses alkaline hydrolysis, this method uses enzymatic hydrolysis to release the Trp from the intact protein. The method achieves an LOQ of 0.18 mg/100 g Trp on a ready-to-feed basis with mean recoveries ranging from 93.8 to 104.9%. Repeatability ranged from 0.2 to 5.0%. Intermediate precision ranged from 1.0 to 6.9%. The analytical range was determined to be 0...
September 19, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926717/multiple-metabolic-pathways-for-metabolism-of-l-tryptophan-in-i-fusarium-graminearum-i
#13
Kun Luo, Caro-Lyne DesRoches, Anne Johnston, Linda J Harris, Hui-Yan Zhao, Thérèse Ouellet
<i>Fusarium graminearum </i>is a plant pathogen that can cause the devastating cereal grain disease fusarium head blight (FHB) in temperate regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that <i>F. graminearum </i>can synthetize indole-3-acetic acid (auxin) using L-tryptophan (L-TRP)-dependent pathways. In the present study, we have taken a broader approach to examine the metabolism of L-TRP in <i>F. graminearum </i>liquid culture. Our results showed that <i>F. graminearum </i>was able to transiently produce the indole tryptophol when supplied with L-TRP...
September 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926633/effects-of-salinity-on-the-cellular-physiological-responses-of-natrinema-sp-j7-2
#14
Yunjun Mei, Huan Liu, Shunxi Zhang, Ming Yang, Chun Hu, Jian Zhang, Ping Shen, Xiangdong Chen
The halophilic archaea (haloarchaea) live in hyersaline environments such as salt lakes, salt ponds and marine salterns. To cope with the salt stress conditions, haloarchaea have developed two fundamentally different strategies: the "salt-in" strategy and the "compatible-solute" strategy. Although investigation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the tolerance to high salt concentrations has made outstanding achievements, experimental study from the aspect of transcription is rare. In the present study, we monitored cellular physiology of Natrinema sp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926414/exploration-of-quantitative-sensory-testing-in-latent-trigger-points-and-referred-pain-areas
#15
Silvia Ambite-Quesada, José L Arías-Buría, Carol A Courtney, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate somato-sensory nerve fibre function by applying different quantitative sensory testing including thermal, mechanical and vibration thresholds over latent trigger points (TrP) and in its associated referred pain area. METHODS: A total of 20 subjects with unilateral latent TrPs in the extensor carpi radialis brevis were included. Warmth detection threshold (WDT), cold detection threshold CDT) and heat/cold pain thresholds (HPT, CPT), mechanical detection (MDT) and pain (MPT) thresholds, vibration threshold (VT), and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were blinded assessed over the TrP, in the referred pain area, and in the respective contra-lateral mirror areas...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925503/quantitative-analysis-of-mouse-dural-afferent-neurons-expressing-trpm8-vglut3-and-nf200
#16
Lynn Ren, Michelle Jaehee Chang, Zhiyu Zhang, Ajay Dhaka, Zhaohua Guo, Yu-Qing Cao
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the abundance of dural afferent neurons expressing transient receptor potential channel melastatin 8 (TRPM8), vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3), and neurofilament 200 (NF200) in adult mice. BACKGROUND: With the increasing use of mice as a model system to study headache mechanisms, it is important to understand the composition of dural afferent neurons in mice. In a previous study, we have measured the abundance of mouse dural afferent neurons that express neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide as well as two TRP channels TRPV1 and TRPA1, respectively...
September 19, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924972/targeting-nociceptive-trp-channels-to-treat-chronic-pain-current-state-of-the-field
#17
REVIEW
Magdalene M Moran, Arpad Szallasi
Control of chronic pain is frequently inadequate and/or associated with intolerable adverse effects, prompting a frantic search for new therapeutics and new therapeutic targets. Nearly two decades of preclinical and clinical research supports the involvement of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels in temperature perception, nociception and sensitization. Although there has been considerable excitement around the therapeutic potential of this channel family since the cloning and identification of TRPV1 as the capsaicin receptor more than 20 years ago, only modulators of a few channels have been tested clinically...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924868/photodegradation-pathways-of-protein-disulfides-human-growth-hormone
#18
Daniel Steinmann, Olivier Mozziconacci, Rupesh Bommana, John F Stobaugh, Y John Wang, Christian Schöneich
PURPOSE: Comprehensive product characterization was performed for the photodegradation of protein disulfides, representatively of human growth hormone (somatotropin; hGH), in order to provide a product database, which will be useful for the general analysis of protein stability. METHODS: HGH was photo-irradiated at λ = 254 and λ > 295 nm and tryptic digests were analyzed by HPLC-MS to investigate light-induced disulfide degradation pathways. RESULTS: A total of 60 products were detected, and structures/tentative structures were assigned to the products by MS(2) and MS(3) analysis...
September 18, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920433/fluorotryptophan-incorporation-modulates-the-structure-and-stability-of-transthyretin-in-a-site-specific-manner
#19
Xun Sun, H Jane Dyson, Peter E Wright
Abnormal deposition of aggregated wild-type (WT) human transthyretin (TTR) and its pathogenic variants is responsible for cardiomyopathy and neuropathy related to TTR amyloidosis. The tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence measurements typically used to study structural changes of TTR do not yield site-specific information on the two Trp residues per TTR protomer. To obtain such information, tryptophan labeled with fluorine at the 5 and 6 positions (5FW and 6FW) was incorporated into TTR. Fluorescence of 5FW and 6FW-labeled WT-TTR (WT-5FW and WT-6FW) and a single-Trp mutant W41Y showed that the photophysics of incorporated fluoro-Trp is consistent with site-specific solvation of the indole ring of W41 and W79...
September 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916042/urinary-intermediates-of-tryptophan-as-indicators-of-the-gut-microbial-metabolism
#20
Tereza Pavlova, Veronika Vidova, Julie Bienertova-Vasku, Petr Janku, Martina Almasi, Jana Klanova, Zdenek Spacil
While over 10% of the human metabolome is directly associated with the gut microbial metabolism, specific metabolites are largely uncharacterized. Therefore, methods for the identification and quantification of microbiota-associated metabolites in biological fluids such as urine or plasma are necessary in order to elucidate the molecular basis of host-microbiota interaction. In this study, we focused on the tryptophan metabolism, employing quantitative assays by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry, specifically selected reaction monitoring (SRM)...
September 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
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