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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101399/stimulus-evoked-outer-segment-changes-occur-before-the-hyperpolarization-of-retinal-photoreceptors
#1
Yiming Lu, Benquan Wang, David R Pepperberg, Xincheng Yao
Transient retinal phototropism (TRP) has been predominantly observed in rod photoreceptors activated by oblique visible light stimulation. Dynamic confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have revealed rod outer segment (ROS) movement as the physical source of TRP. However, the physiological source of ROS movement is still not well understood. In this study, concurrent near-infrared imaging of TRP and electroretinogram (ERG) measurement of retinal electrophysiology revealed that ROS movement occurs before the onset of the ERG a-wave, which is known to reflect the hyperpolarization of retinal photoreceptors...
January 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101241/potential-role-of-melastatin-related-transient-receptor-potential-cation-channel-subfamily-m-gene-expression-in-the-pathogenesis-of-urinary-bladder-cancer
#2
Gülay Güleç Ceylan, Ebru Etem Önalan, Tuncay Kuloğlu, Gülten Aydoğ, İbrahim Keleş, Şenol Tonyali, Cavit Ceylan
Urinary bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. Ion channels and calcium homeostasis are involved in almost all basic cellular mechanisms. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM) takes its name from the melastatin protein, which is classified as potential tumor suppressor. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous studies in the literature investigating the role of these ion channels in bladder cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether bladder cancer is associated with mRNA expression levels of TRPM ion channel genes, and whether there is the potential to conduct further studies to establish novel treatment modalities...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098447/the-stories-tryptophans-tell-exploring-protein-dynamics-of-heptosyltransferase-i-from-escherichia-coli
#3
Joy M Cote, Carlos Andres Ramirez-Mondragon, Zarek S Siegel, Daniel Joseph Czyzyk, Jiali Gao, Yuk Yin Sham, Ishita Mukerji, Erika A Taylor
Heptosyltransferase I (HepI) catalyzes the addition of a single L-glycero-β-D-manno-heptose sugar (heptose) onto the membrane incorporated Kdo2-Lipid A as part of the biosynthesis of the core region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Gram-negative bacteria with gene knockouts of HepI have reduced virulence with enhanced susceptibility to hydrophobic antibiotics, making design of inhibitors against HepI of interest. Previous studies have shown that HepI protein dynamics are partially rate limiting, and therefore disruption of protein dynamics might provide a new strategy for inhibiting HepI...
January 18, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098246/tryptophan-metabolite-activation-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-regulates-il-10-receptor-expression-on-intestinal-epithelia
#4
J M Lanis, E E Alexeev, V F Curtis, D A Kitzenberg, D J Kao, K D Battista, M E Gerich, L E Glover, D J Kominsky, S P Colgan
IL-10 is a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine that inhibits the production of proinflammatory mediators. Signaling by IL-10 occurs through the IL-10 receptor (IL-10R), which is expressed in numerous cell types, including intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), where it is associated with development and maintenance of barrier function. Guided by an unbiased metabolomics screen, we identified tryptophan (Trp) metabolism as a major modifying pathway in interferon-γ (IFNγ)-dominant murine colitis. In parallel, we demonstrated that IFNγ induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Trp to kynurenine (Kyn), induces IL-10R1 expression...
January 18, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097901/skin-whitening-agents-medicinal-chemistry-perspective-of-tyrosinase-inhibitors
#5
Thanigaimalai Pillaiyar, Manoj Manickam, Vigneshwaran Namasivayam
Melanogenesis is a process to synthesize melanin, which is a primary responsible for the pigmentation of human skin, eye and hair. Although numerous enzymatic catalyzed and chemical reactions are involved in melanogenesis process, the enzymes such as tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 played a major role in melanin synthesis. Specifically, tyrosinase is a key enzyme, which catalyzes a rate-limiting step of the melanin synthesis, and the downregulation of tyrosinase is the most prominent approach for the development of melanogenesis inhibitors...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096238/activation-of-trpa1-channel-by-antibacterial-agent-triclosan-induces-vegf-secretion-in-human-prostate-cancer-stromal-cells
#6
Sandra Derouiche, Pascal Mariot, Marine Warnier, Eric Vancauwenberghe, Gabriel Bidaux, Pierre Gosset, Brigitte Mauroy, Jean-Louis Bonnal, Christian Slomianny, Philippe Delcourt, Etienne Dewailly, Natalia Prevarskaya, Morad Roudbaraki
Accruing evidence indicates that exposure to environmental compounds may adversely impact human health and promote carcinogenesis. Triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent widely used as a preservative in personal care products, has been shown to act as an endocrine disruptor in hormone-dependent tissues. Here we demonstrate a new molecular mechanism by which TCS stimulates the secretion by human prostate cancer stromal cells of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a factor known to promote tumour growth...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092830/trpv1-antagonism-by-piperazinyl-aryl-compounds-a-topomer-comfa-study-and-its-use-in-virtual-screening-for-identification-of-novel-antagonists
#7
Rajendra Kristam, Shashidhar N Rao, Anne Sudha D'Cruz, Vijayalakshmi Mahadevan, Vellarkad N Viswanadhan
Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid, member 1 (TRPV1), is a non-selective cation channel belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels. It occurs in the peripheral and central nervous system, activated by a variety of exogenous and endogenous stimuli, thus playing a key role in transmission of pain. This has been a target for chronic pain since more than a decade and a number of antagonists that progressed into clinical trials have failed due to the unexpected side effect of core body temperature rise, thus halting progress in this field...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092440/molecular-interactions-between-graphene-and-biological-molecules
#8
Xingquan Zou, Shuai Wei, Joshua Jasensky, Minyu Xiao, Qiuming Wang, Charles L Brooks, Zhan Chen
Applications of graphene have extended into areas of nanobio-technology such as nanobio-medicine, nanobio-sensing, as well as nanoelectronics with biomolecules. These applications involve interactions between proteins, peptides, DNA, RNA etc. and graphene, therefore understanding such molecular interactions is essential. For example, many applications based on using graphene and peptides require peptides to interact with (e.g., noncovalently bind to) graphene at one end, while simultaneously exposing the other end to the surrounding medium (e...
January 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092368/molecular-insights-into-lipid-assisted-ca-2-regulation-of-the-trp-channel-polycystin-2
#9
Martin Wilkes, M Gregor Madej, Lydia Kreuter, Daniel Rhinow, Veronika Heinz, Silvia De Sanctis, Sabine Ruppel, Rebecca M Richter, Friederike Joos, Marina Grieben, Ashley C W Pike, Juha T Huiskonen, Elisabeth P Carpenter, Werner Kühlbrandt, Ralph Witzgall, Christine Ziegler
Polycystin-2 (PC2), a calcium-activated cation TRP channel, is involved in diverse Ca(2+) signaling pathways. Malfunctioning Ca(2+) regulation in PC2 causes autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here we report two cryo-EM structures of distinct channel states of full-length human PC2 in complex with lipids and cations. The structures reveal conformational differences in the selectivity filter and in the large exoplasmic domain (TOP domain), which displays differing N-glycosylation. The more open structure has one cation bound below the selectivity filter (single-ion mode, PC2SI), whereas multiple cations are bound along the translocation pathway in the second structure (multi-ion mode, PC2MI)...
January 16, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087896/eag-channels-expressed-in-microvillar-photoreceptors-are-unsuited-to-diurnal-vision
#10
Esa-Ville Immonen, Andrew S French, Päivi H Torkkeli, Hongxia Liu, Mikko Vähäsöyrinki, Roman V Frolov
The principles underlying evolutionary selection of ion channels for expression in sensory neurons are unclear. Among species possessing microvillar photoreceptors the major ionic conductances have only been identified in Drosophila melanogaster. In Drosophila depolarization is provided by light-activated TRP channels with a minor contribution from TRPL channels, while repolarization is mediated by sustained voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels of the Shab family. Bright light stimulates Shab channels, further restricting depolarization and improving membrane bandwidth...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078622/evidence-that-polycystins-are-involved-in-hydra-cnidocyte-discharge
#11
Susan McLaughlin
Like other cnidarians, the freshwater organism Hydra is characterized by the possession of cnidocytes (stinging cells). Most cnidocytes are located on hydra tentacles, where they are organized along with sensory cells and ganglion cells into battery complexes. The function of the battery complexes is to integrate multiple types of stimuli for the regulation of cnidocyte discharge. The molecular mechanisms controlling the discharge of cnidocytes are not yet fully understood, but it is known that discharge depends on extracellular Ca(2+) and that mechanically induced cnidocyte discharge can be enhanced by the presence of prey extracts and other chemicals...
March 2017: Invertebrate Neuroscience: IN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077439/the-functional-expression-of-transient-receptor-potential-channels-in-the-mouse-endometrium
#12
Katrien De Clercq, Charlotte Van den Eynde, Aurélie Hennes, Rieta Van Bree, Thomas Voets, Joris Vriens
STUDY QUESTION: Does mouse endometrial epithelial cells and stromal cells have a similar transient receptor potential (TRP)-channel expression profile and to that found in the human endometrium? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mouse endometrial epithelial and stromal cells have a distinct TRP channel expression profile analogous to what has been found in human endometrium, and hence suggests the mouse a good model to investigate the role of TRP channels in reproduction. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: An optimal intercellular communication between epithelial and stromal endometrial cells is crucial for successful reproduction...
January 6, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076819/full-spectral-multiplexing-of-bioluminescence-resonance-energy-transfer-in-three-trpv-channels
#13
Hermanus Johannes Ruigrok, Guillaume Shahid, Bertrand Goudeau, Florence Poulletier de Gannes, Emmanuelle Poque-Haro, Annabelle Hurtier, Isabelle Lagroye, Pierre Vacher, Stéphane Arbault, Neso Sojic, Bernard Veyret, Yann Percherancier
Multiplexed bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays were developed to monitor the activation of several functional transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in live cells and in real time. We probed both TRPV1 intramolecular rearrangements and its interaction with Calmodulin (CaM) under activation by chemical agonists and temperature. Our BRET study also confirmed that: (1) capsaicin and heat promoted distinct transitions, independently coupled to channel gating, and that (2) TRPV1 and Ca(2+)-bound CaM but not Ca(2+)-free CaM were preassociated in resting live cells, while capsaicin activation induced both the formation of more TRPV1/CaM complexes and conformational changes...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071717/tryptophan-and-non-tryptophan-fluorescence-of-the-eye-lens-proteins-provides-diagnostics-of-cataract-at-the-molecular-level
#14
Anna Gakamsky, Rory R Duncan, Nicola M Howarth, Baljean Dhillon, Kim K Buttenschön, Daniel J Daly, Dmitry Gakamsky
The chemical nature of the non-tryptophan (non-Trp) fluorescence of porcine and human eye lens proteins was identified by Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Fluorescence Steady-State and Lifetime spectroscopy as post-translational modifications (PTM) of Trp and Arg amino acid residues. Fluorescence intensity profiles measured along the optical axis of human eye lenses with age-related nuclear cataract showed increasing concentration of fluorescent PTM towards the lens centre in accord with the increased optical density in the lens nucleolus...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069823/identification-of-a-residue-glu60-in-trap-required-for-inducing-efficient-transcription-termination-at-the-trp-attenuator-independent-of-binding-tryptophan-and-rna
#15
Natalie M McAdams, Andrea Patterson, Paul Gollnick
Transcription of the tryptophan (trp) operon in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by an attenuation mechanism. Attenuation is controlled by the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP). TRAP binds to a site in the 5' leader region of the nascent trp transcript in response to the presence of excess intracellular tryptophan. This binding induces transcription termination upstream of the structural genes of the operon. In prior attenuation models, the role of TRAP was only to alter the secondary structure of the leader region RNA so as to promote formation of the trp attenuator, which was presumed to function as an intrinsic terminator...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066924/side-chain-flexibility-and-coupling-between-the-s4-s5-linker-and-the-trp-domain-in-thermo-sensitive-trp-channels-insights-from-protein-modeling
#16
Sergio Romero-Romero, Froylan Gómez-Lagunas, Daniel Balleza
The transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily is subdivided into several subfamilies on the basis of sequence similarity, which is highly heterogeneous but shows a molecular architecture that resembles the one present in members of the Kv channel superfamily. Because of this diversity, they produce a large variety of channels with different gating and permeability properties. Elucidation of these particular features necessarily requires comparative studies based on structural and functional data. The present study aims to compilate, analyze, and determine, in a coherent way, the relationship between intrinsic side-chain flexibility and the allosteric coupling in members of the TRPV, TRPM, and TRPC families...
January 9, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062647/on-the-effect-of-alkaline-ph-and-cofactor-availability-in-the-conformational-and-oligomeric-state-of-escherichia-coli-glutamate-decarboxylase
#17
F Giovannercole, C Mérigoux, C Zamparelli, D Verzili, G Grassini, M Buckle, P Vachette, D De Biase
Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase (EcGad) is a homohexameric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme. It is the structural component of the major acid resistance system that protects E. coli from strong acid stress (pH < 3), typically encountered in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. In fact EcGad consumes one proton/catalytic cycle while yielding γ-aminobutyrate and carbon dioxide from the decarboxylation of l-glutamate. Two isoforms of Gad occur in E. coli (GadA and GadB) that are 99% identical in sequence...
January 5, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058293/quantification-of-small-molecule-protein-interactions-using-fret-between-tryptophan-and-the-pacific-blue-fluorophore
#18
Molly M Lee, Blake R Peterson
We report a new method to quantify the affinity of small molecules for proteins. This method is based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between endogenous tryptophan (Trp) residues and the coumarin-derived fluorophore Pacific Blue (PB). Tryptophan residues are frequently found in proteins near ligand-binding sites, making this approach potentially applicable to a wide range of systems. To improve access to PB, we developed a scalable multigram synthesis of this fluorophore, starting with inexpensive 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoic acid...
December 31, 2016: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056499/recognition-of-hiv-inactivating-peptide-triazoles-by-the-recombinant-soluble-env-trimer-bg505-sosip-664
#19
Kriti Acharya, Adel A Rashad, Francesca Moraca, Per Johan Klasse, John P Moore, Cameron Abrams, Irwin Chaiken
Peptide triazole (PT) antagonists interact with gp120 subunits of HIV-1 Env trimers to block host cell receptor interactions, trigger gp120 shedding, irreversibly inactivate virus and inhibit infection. Despite these enticing functions, understanding the structural mechanism of PT-Env trimer encounter has been limited. In this work, we combined competition interaction analysis and computational simulation to demonstrate PT binding to the recombinant soluble trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664, a stable variant that resembles native virus spikes in binding to CD4 receptor as well as known conformationally-dependent Env antibodies...
January 5, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054660/antimicrobial-and-anti-inflammatory-activities-of-three-chensinin-1-peptides-containing-mutation-of-glycine-and-histidine-residues
#20
Weibing Dong, Xiaoman Mao, Yue Guan, Yao Kang, Dejing Shang
The natural peptide chensinin-1 doesnot exhibit its desired biological properties. In this study, the mutant MC1-1 was designed by replacing Gly in the chensinin-1 sequence with Trp. Mutants MC1-2 and MC1-3 were designed based on the MC1-1 sequence to investigate the specific role of His residues. The mutated peptides presented α-helicity in a membrane-mimetic environment and exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities; in contrast to Trp residues, His residues were dispensable for interacting with the cell membrane...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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