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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802235/mitochondrial-abnormalities-and-synaptic-loss-underlie-memory-deficits-seen-in-mouse-models-of-obesity-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Isaura V A Martins, Jack Rivers-Auty, Stuart M Allan, Catherine B Lawrence
Obesity is associated with impaired memory in humans, and obesity induced by high-fat diets leads to cognitive deficits in rodents and in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear how high-fat diets contribute to memory impairment. Therefore, we tested the effect of a high-fat diet on memory in male and female control non-transgenic (Non-Tg) and triple-transgenic AD (3xTgAD) mice and determined if a high-fat diet caused similar ultrastructural abnormalities to those observed in AD...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706167/quantifying-heterogeneity-in-host-vector-contact-tsetse-glossina-swynnertoni-and-g-pallidipes-host-choice-in-serengeti-national-park-tanzania
#2
Harriet Auty, Sarah Cleaveland, Imna Malele, Joseph Masoy, Tiziana Lembo, Paul Bessell, Stephen Torr, Kim Picozzi, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Identifying hosts of blood-feeding insect vectors is crucial in understanding their role in disease transmission. Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT), also known as acute sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and transmitted by tsetse flies. The disease is commonly associated with wilderness areas of east and southern Africa. Such areas hold a diverse range of species which form communities of hosts for disease maintenance. The relative importance of different wildlife hosts remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648214/give-it-a-tug-and-feel-it-grow-extending-body-perception-through-the-universal-nature-of-illusory-finger-stretching
#3
Roger Newport, Kelly Auty, Mark Carey, Katie Greenfield, Ellen M Howard, Natasha Ratcliffe, Hayley Thair, Kristy Themelis
If British teenage boy asks you to pull his finger, it is usually an indication that he simultaneously wishes to break wind. If you were to tell him that you could pull his finger and stretch it to twice its length, you might expect a similarly irreverent response yet when we pulled the fingers of nearly 600 children and adolescents, 93% reported the illusion of stretching. Grossly distorted body representations need not be the preserve of clinical disorders and can reliably be induced in healthy participants across all ages...
October 2015: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509875/fenamate-nsaids-inhibit-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-protect-against-alzheimer-s-disease-in-rodent-models
#4
Michael J D Daniels, Jack Rivers-Auty, Tom Schilling, Nicholas G Spencer, William Watremez, Victoria Fasolino, Sophie J Booth, Claire S White, Alex G Baldwin, Sally Freeman, Raymond Wong, Clare Latta, Shi Yu, Joshua Jackson, Nicolas Fischer, Violette Koziel, Thierry Pillot, James Bagnall, Stuart M Allan, Pawel Paszek, James Galea, Michael K Harte, Claudia Eder, Catherine B Lawrence, David Brough
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 enzymes. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex responsible for the processing of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β and is implicated in many inflammatory diseases. Here we show that several clinically approved and widely used NSAIDs of the fenamate class are effective and selective inhibitors of the NLRP3 inflammasome via inhibition of the volume-regulated anion channel in macrophages, independently of COX enzymes...
2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501063/-is-voice-a-marker-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Riccardo Fusaroli, Anna Lambrechts, Dan Bang, Dermot M Bowler, Sebastian B Gaigg
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are reported to speak in distinctive ways. Distinctive vocal production should be better understood as it can affect social interactions and social development and could represent a non-invasive marker for ASD. We systematically review the existing scientific literature reporting quantitative acoustic analysis of vocal production in ASD and identify repeated and consistent findings of higher pitch mean and variability but not of other differences in acoustic features...
August 8, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27476512/effect-of-phytosterols-on-the-crystallization-behavior-of-oil-in-water-milk-fat-emulsions
#6
Lisa M Zychowski, Amy Logan, Mary Ann Augustin, Alan L Kelly, Alexandru Zabara, James A O'Mahony, Charlotte E Conn, Mark A E Auty
Milk has been used commercially as a carrier for phytosterols, but there is limited knowledge on the effect of added plant sterols on the properties of the system. In this study, phytosterols dispersed in milk fat at a level of 0.3 or 0.6% were homogenized with an aqueous dispersion of whey protein isolate (WPI). The particle size, morphology, ζ-potential, and stability of the emulsions were investigated. Emulsion crystallization properties were examined through the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Synchrotron X-ray scattering at both small and wide angles...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437330/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-tracheal-tube-orientation-on-success-of-intubation-through-intubating-laryngeal-mask-airway
#7
Swati Chhatrapati, Anjana Sahu, Subhhash Sadashiv Auti, Swapnil Ganesh Aswar
INTRODUCTION: Polyvinyl Chloride Endotracheal Tube (PVC ETT) can be used as an alternative to Fastrach Silicone Wire-Reinforced Tube (FTST) for intubation through Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) as the latter is expensive and has low volume high pressure cuff. AIM: To evaluate the effects of orientation of PVC ETT (normal curve and reverse curve) on the success of intubation through ILMA, haemodynamic response and postoperative sore throat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty healthy adult patients of ASA physical status I & II scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into two groups...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291985/the-chemistry-and-bio-medicinal-significance-of-pyrimidines-condensed-pyrimidines
#8
K S Jain, N Arya, N N Inamdar, P B Auti, S A Unawane, H H Puranik, M S Sanap, A D Inamke, V J Mahale, C S Prajapati, C J Shishoo
This review discusses the biological and medicinal significance of one of the most important and interesting heterocyclic ring systems, the pyrimidine and its condensed derivatives. Herein, various physiologically important molecules, as well as, therapeutically used drugs having a pyrimidine or condensed pyrimidine system in their chemical structures, have been covered. The chemistry and synthesis of pyrimidines have also been briefly discussed.
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276998/elevation-of-brain-glucose-and-polyol-pathway-intermediates-with-accompanying-brain-copper-deficiency-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-metabolic-basis-for-dementia
#9
Jingshu Xu, Paul Begley, Stephanie J Church, Stefano Patassini, Selina McHarg, Nina Kureishy, Katherine A Hollywood, Henry J Waldvogel, Hong Liu, Shaoping Zhang, Wanchang Lin, Karl Herholz, Clinton Turner, Beth J Synek, Maurice A Curtis, Jack Rivers-Auty, Catherine B Lawrence, Katherine A B Kellett, Nigel M Hooper, Emma R L C Vardy, Donghai Wu, Richard D Unwin, Richard L M Faull, Andrew W Dowsey, Garth J S Cooper
Impairment of brain-glucose uptake and brain-copper regulation occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we sought to further elucidate the processes that cause neurodegeneration in AD by measuring levels of metabolites and metals in brain regions that undergo different degrees of damage. We employed mass spectrometry (MS) to measure metabolites and metals in seven post-mortem brain regions of nine AD patients and nine controls, and plasma-glucose and plasma-copper levels in an ante-mortem case-control study...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27262917/transmission-dynamics-of-rhodesian-sleeping-sickness-at-the-interface-of-wildlife-and-livestock-areas
#10
REVIEW
Harriet Auty, Liam J Morrison, Stephen J Torr, Jennifer Lord
Many wilderness areas of East and Southern Africa are foci for Rhodesian sleeping sickness, a fatal zoonotic disease caused by trypanosomes transmitted by tsetse flies. Although transmission in these foci is traditionally driven by wildlife reservoirs, rising human and livestock populations may increase the role of livestock in transmission cycles. Deciphering transmission dynamics at wildlife and livestock interface areas is key to developing appropriate control. Data are lacking for key parameters, including host distributions, tsetse density, and mortality rates, and the relative roles of livestock and wildlife as hosts in fragmented habitats, limiting the development of meaningful models to assist in the assessment and implementation of control strategies...
August 2016: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27056192/dielectric-relaxation-time-of-ice-ih-with-different-preparation
#11
Kaito Sasaki, Rio Kita, Naoki Shinyashiki, Shin Yagihara
Dielectric relaxation process of ice-Ih has been investigated by many researchers. Pioneering studies focused on the temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation time, τice, were reported by Auty in 1952 [ Auty, R. P.; Cole, R. H. J. Chem. Phys . 1952 , 120 , 1309 ] and Johari in 1981 [ Johari, G. P.; Whalley, E. J. Chem. Phys. 1981 , 75 , 1333 ]. However, the temperature dependences of τice found in these studies are not in agreement. While Auty et al. reported a single Arrhenius temperature dependence of τice for the entire 207-273 K temperature range, Johari et al...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876970/addition-of-an-enzymatic-hydrolysate-of-bovine-globulins-to-bread-and-determination-of-hypotensive-effects-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#12
Tomas Lafarga, Eimear Gallagher, Rotimi E Aluko, Mark A E Auty, Maria Hayes
The aim of this study was to develop bread containing a papain hydrolysate of bovine α- and β-globulins (GPH) with in vitro and in vivo antihypertensive activities. The physical characteristics of the formulated bread were assessed over a six day period and results suggested that the overall quality and acceptance of bread was not affected by the inclusion of GPH at a concentration of 4% (w/w). Bright field light microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy images were used to visualize the main ingredients of the bread...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26833241/using-national-movement-databases-to-help-inform-responses-to-swine-disease-outbreaks-in-scotland-the-impact-of-uncertainty-around-incursion-time
#13
Thibaud Porphyre, Lisa A Boden, Carla Correia-Gomes, Harriet K Auty, George J Gunn, Mark E J Woolhouse
Modelling is an important component of contingency planning and control of disease outbreaks. Dynamic network models are considered more useful than static models because they capture important dynamic patterns of farm behaviour as evidenced through animal movements. This study evaluates the usefulness of a dynamic network model of swine fever to predict pre-detection spread via movements of pigs, when there may be considerable uncertainty surrounding the time of incursion of infection. It explores the utility and limitations of animal movement data to inform such models and as such, provides some insight into the impact of improving traceability through real-time animal movement reporting and the use of electronic animal movement databases...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26716467/transport-of-a-prolyl-endopeptidase-inhibitory-peptide-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-demonstrated-using-the-hcmec-d3-cell-line-transcytosis-assay
#14
Maria Hayes, Lars Fredrik Moen, Mark A E Auty, Tor Erling Lea
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a significant hurdle for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) and mental health disorders. A prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) inhibitory peptide with the amino acid sequence proline-proline-leucine (PPL) was chemically synthesized labeled with 5-FAM and assessed using a transcytosis assay for its ability to cross the BBB. Transport of this peptide across the BBB was determined using an in vitro model of the human BBB, which utilizes the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3)...
January 13, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26601459/cattle-trypanosomosis-the-diversity-of-trypanosomes-and-implications-for-disease-epidemiology-and-control
#15
REVIEW
H Auty, S J Torr, T Michoel, S Jayaraman, L J Morrison
Trypanosomosis is one of the most significant infectious threats to cattle in sub-Saharan Africa, and one form has also spread to Asia and South America. The disease is caused by a complex of trypanosome species, and the species and strain of parasite can have a profound influence upon the epidemiology of the host-parasite-vector relationships, the severity and course of infection, and, consequently, the implementation and development of control methods. This review will summarise our current knowledge of the relationship between trypanosome species/genotype and the phenotype of disease in cattle, and the implications that this has for ongoing efforts to develop diagnostics, drugs and vaccines for the control of cattle trypanosomosis...
August 2015: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26433687/an-evolutionary-perspective-on-the-immunomodulatory-role-of-hydrogen-sulphide
#16
J Rivers-Auty
Most preclinical studies on endogenous hydrogen sulphide signalling have given little consideration to the fact that the human body contains more bacterial cells than human cells, and that evolution provides the context for all biology. Whether hydrogen sulphide is pro or anti-inflammatory is heavily debated within the literature, yet researchers have not fully considered that invasive bacteria produce hydrogen sulphide, often at levels far above the endogenous levels of the host. Here I argue that if hydrogen sulphide is an endogenous signalling molecule with immunomodulatory functions, then it must have evolved in the presence of virulent bacteria which produce hydrogen sulphide...
November 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26409971/reduced-fat-cheddar-and-swiss-type-cheeses-harboring-exopolysaccharide-producing-probiotic-lactobacillus-mucosae-dpc-6426
#17
P M Ryan, Z Burdíková, T Beresford, M A E Auty, G F Fitzgerald, R P Ross, J J Sheehan, C Stanton
Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii...
December 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26379413/do-the-benefits-of-polyandry-scale-with-outbreeding
#18
Emily R Burdfield-Steel, Sam Auty, David M Shuker
There have been many potential explanations put forward as to why polyandry often persists despite the multiple costs it can inflict on females. One such explanation is avoidance of costs associated with mating with genetically incompatible males. Genetic incompatibility can be thought of as a spectrum from individuals that are genetically too similar (inbreeding) to those that are too dissimilar (outbreeding or hybridization). Here we look for evidence that the level of outbreeding influences the benefits of polyandry in the seed bug Lygaeus equestris...
September 2015: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26349432/scenario-planning-the-future-of-the-cattle-and-sheep-industries-in-scotland-and-their-resiliency-to-disease
#19
Lisa A Boden, Harriet Auty, Paul Bessell, Dominic Duckett, Jiayi Liu, Carol Kyle, Annie McKee, Lee-Ann Sutherland, John Reynolds, Barend M deC Bronsvoort, Iain J McKendrick
In this paper, we present a description of foresighting activities undertaken by EPIC, Scotland's Centre of Expertise on Animal Disease Outbreaks, to investigate the future uncertainty of animal health security in the Scottish sheep and cattle sectors. Using scenario planning methodologies, we explored four plausible but provocative long-term futures which identify dynamics underpinning the resilience of these agricultural sectors to animal disease. These scenarios highlight a number of important drivers that influence disease resilience: industry demographics, the role of government support and regulation and the capacity for technological innovation to support the industry to meet local and global market demand...
October 1, 2015: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26332156/potassium-efflux-fires-the-canon-potassium-efflux-as-a-common-trigger-for-canonical-and-noncanonical-nlrp3-pathways
#20
REVIEW
Jack Rivers-Auty, David Brough
Murine caspase-11 and its human orthologues, caspase-4 and caspase-5, activate an inflammatory response following cytoplasmic recognition of cell wall constituents from Gram-negative bacteria, such as LPS. This inflammatory response involves pyroptotic cell death and the concomitant release of IL-1α, as well as the production of IL-1β and IL-18 through the noncanonical NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) pathway. This commentary discusses three papers in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology that advance our understanding of the roles of caspase-11, -4, and -5 in the noncanonical pathway...
October 2015: European Journal of Immunology
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