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Onkar B Auti, Pradeep K Kaushik, Prakash Ramachandra, Vimal Raj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 10, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Onkar Balasaheb Auti, Ranganath R, Murali Mohan Bv, Vimal Raj
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is serious public health problem in India and worldwide. The mortality rate in pulmonary TB is high in those with advanced disease and in presence of complications. It presents with wide variety of complications of which haematological complications are rare. Many cases were reported pulmonary TB associated with deep venous thrombosis, hepatic and portal venous thrombosis, central retinal venous thrombosis and sagittal sinus thrombosis in TB meningitis. We report a rare case of pulmonary TB with pulmonary venous thrombosis and atrial extension...
2017: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Andrew R Auty
Regulators continue to pursue a comprehensive, generalisable, transparent, reliable, accurate and universally commended injury risk assessment methodology for nanomaterials. After a decade of intensive effort, it emerges that many of the prototype risk metrics are uninformative. This situation has given rise to practical, if non-validated, guidance in the form of control banding recommendations. While informative these are often logically deficient and take no account of risk context as captured in the concept of risk appetite...
April 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Thibaud Porphyre, Carla Correia-Gomes, Margo E Chase-Topping, Kokouvi Gamado, Harriet K Auty, Ian Hutchinson, Aaron Reeves, George J Gunn, Mark E J Woolhouse
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a notifiable, highly contagious viral disease of swine which results in severe welfare and economic consequences in affected countries. To improve preparedness, it is critical to have some understanding of how CSF would spread should it be introduced. Based on the data recorded during the 2000 epidemic of CSF in Great Britain (GB), a spatially explicit, premises-based model was developed to explore the risk of CSF spread in GB. We found that large outbreaks of CSF would be rare and generated from a limited number of areas in GB...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Claire S White, Catherine B Lawrence, David Brough, Jack Rivers-Auty
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of progressive dementia, typified initially by short term memory deficits which develop into a dramatic global cognitive decline. The classical hall marks of Alzheimer's disease include the accumulation of amyloid oligomers and fibrils, and the intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau. It is now clear that inflammation also plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease through a number of neurotoxic mechanisms. Microglia are the key immune regulators of the CNS which detect amyloidopathy through cell surface and cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and respond by initiating inflammation through the secretion of cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β)...
March 2017: Brain Pathology
Paul R Bessell, Kate R Searle, Harriet K Auty, Ian G Handel, Bethan V Purse, B Mark de C Bronsvoort
Europe has seen frequent outbreaks of Bluetongue (BT) disease since 2006, including an outbreak of BT virus serotype 8 in central France during 2015 that has continued to spread in Europe during 2016. Thus, assessing the potential for BTv-8 spread and determining the optimal deployment of vaccination is critical for contingency planning. We developed a spatially explicit mathematical model of BTv-8 spread in Scotland and explored the sensitivity of transmission to key disease spread parameters for which detailed empirical data is lacking...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Isaura V A Martins, Jack Rivers-Auty, Stuart M Allan, Catherine B Lawrence
Obesity is associated with impaired memory in humans, and obesity induced by high-fat diets leads to cognitive deficits in rodents and in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unclear how high-fat diets contribute to memory impairment. Therefore, we tested the effect of a high-fat diet on memory in male and female control non-transgenic (Non-Tg) and triple-transgenic AD (3xTgAD) mice and determined if a high-fat diet caused similar ultrastructural abnormalities to those observed in AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Harriet Auty, Sarah Cleaveland, Imna Malele, Joseph Masoy, Tiziana Lembo, Paul Bessell, Stephen Torr, Kim Picozzi, Susan C Welburn
BACKGROUND: Identifying hosts of blood-feeding insect vectors is crucial in understanding their role in disease transmission. Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT), also known as acute sleeping sickness is caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and transmitted by tsetse flies. The disease is commonly associated with wilderness areas of east and southern Africa. Such areas hold a diverse range of species which form communities of hosts for disease maintenance. The relative importance of different wildlife hosts remains unclear...
2016: PloS One
Roger Newport, Kelly Auty, Mark Carey, Katie Greenfield, Ellen M Howard, Natasha Ratcliffe, Hayley Thair, Kristy Themelis
If British teenage boy asks you to pull his finger, it is usually an indication that he simultaneously wishes to break wind. If you were to tell him that you could pull his finger and stretch it to twice its length, you might expect a similarly irreverent response yet when we pulled the fingers of nearly 600 children and adolescents, 93% reported the illusion of stretching. Grossly distorted body representations need not be the preserve of clinical disorders and can reliably be induced in healthy participants across all ages...
October 2015: I-Perception
Michael J D Daniels, Jack Rivers-Auty, Tom Schilling, Nicholas G Spencer, William Watremez, Victoria Fasolino, Sophie J Booth, Claire S White, Alex G Baldwin, Sally Freeman, Raymond Wong, Clare Latta, Shi Yu, Joshua Jackson, Nicolas Fischer, Violette Koziel, Thierry Pillot, James Bagnall, Stuart M Allan, Pawel Paszek, James Galea, Michael K Harte, Claudia Eder, Catherine B Lawrence, David Brough
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 enzymes. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex responsible for the processing of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β and is implicated in many inflammatory diseases. Here we show that several clinically approved and widely used NSAIDs of the fenamate class are effective and selective inhibitors of the NLRP3 inflammasome via inhibition of the volume-regulated anion channel in macrophages, independently of COX enzymes...
August 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Riccardo Fusaroli, Anna Lambrechts, Dan Bang, Dermot M Bowler, Sebastian B Gaigg
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are reported to speak in distinctive ways. Distinctive vocal production should be better understood as it can affect social interactions and social development and could represent a non-invasive marker for ASD. We systematically review the existing scientific literature reporting quantitative acoustic analysis of vocal production in ASD and identify repeated and consistent findings of higher pitch mean and variability but not of other differences in acoustic features...
August 8, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Lisa M Zychowski, Amy Logan, Mary Ann Augustin, Alan L Kelly, Alexandru Zabara, James A O'Mahony, Charlotte E Conn, Mark A E Auty
Milk has been used commercially as a carrier for phytosterols, but there is limited knowledge on the effect of added plant sterols on the properties of the system. In this study, phytosterols dispersed in milk fat at a level of 0.3 or 0.6% were homogenized with an aqueous dispersion of whey protein isolate (WPI). The particle size, morphology, ζ-potential, and stability of the emulsions were investigated. Emulsion crystallization properties were examined through the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Synchrotron X-ray scattering at both small and wide angles...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Swati Chhatrapati, Anjana Sahu, Subhhash Sadashiv Auti, Swapnil Ganesh Aswar
INTRODUCTION: Polyvinyl Chloride Endotracheal Tube (PVC ETT) can be used as an alternative to Fastrach Silicone Wire-Reinforced Tube (FTST) for intubation through Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) as the latter is expensive and has low volume high pressure cuff. AIM: To evaluate the effects of orientation of PVC ETT (normal curve and reverse curve) on the success of intubation through ILMA, haemodynamic response and postoperative sore throat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty healthy adult patients of ASA physical status I & II scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia requiring endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into two groups...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
K S Jain, N Arya, N N Inamdar, P B Auti, S A Unawane, H H Puranik, M S Sanap, A D Inamke, V J Mahale, C S Prajapati, C J Shishoo
This review discusses the biological and medicinal significance of one of the most important and interesting heterocyclic ring systems, the pyrimidine and its condensed derivatives. Herein, various physiologically important molecules, as well as, therapeutically used drugs having a pyrimidine or condensed pyrimidine system in their chemical structures, have been covered. The chemistry and synthesis of pyrimidines have also been briefly discussed.
2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Jingshu Xu, Paul Begley, Stephanie J Church, Stefano Patassini, Selina McHarg, Nina Kureishy, Katherine A Hollywood, Henry J Waldvogel, Hong Liu, Shaoping Zhang, Wanchang Lin, Karl Herholz, Clinton Turner, Beth J Synek, Maurice A Curtis, Jack Rivers-Auty, Catherine B Lawrence, Katherine A B Kellett, Nigel M Hooper, Emma R L C Vardy, Donghai Wu, Richard D Unwin, Richard L M Faull, Andrew W Dowsey, Garth J S Cooper
Impairment of brain-glucose uptake and brain-copper regulation occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we sought to further elucidate the processes that cause neurodegeneration in AD by measuring levels of metabolites and metals in brain regions that undergo different degrees of damage. We employed mass spectrometry (MS) to measure metabolites and metals in seven post-mortem brain regions of nine AD patients and nine controls, and plasma-glucose and plasma-copper levels in an ante-mortem case-control study...
June 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Harriet Auty, Liam J Morrison, Stephen J Torr, Jennifer Lord
Many wilderness areas of East and Southern Africa are foci for Rhodesian sleeping sickness, a fatal zoonotic disease caused by trypanosomes transmitted by tsetse flies. Although transmission in these foci is traditionally driven by wildlife reservoirs, rising human and livestock populations may increase the role of livestock in transmission cycles. Deciphering transmission dynamics at wildlife and livestock interface areas is key to developing appropriate control. Data are lacking for key parameters, including host distributions, tsetse density, and mortality rates, and the relative roles of livestock and wildlife as hosts in fragmented habitats, limiting the development of meaningful models to assist in the assessment and implementation of control strategies...
August 2016: Trends in Parasitology
Kaito Sasaki, Rio Kita, Naoki Shinyashiki, Shin Yagihara
Dielectric relaxation process of ice-Ih has been investigated by many researchers. Pioneering studies focused on the temperature dependence of the dielectric relaxation time, τice, were reported by Auty in 1952 [ Auty, R. P.; Cole, R. H. J. Chem. Phys . 1952 , 120 , 1309 ] and Johari in 1981 [ Johari, G. P.; Whalley, E. J. Chem. Phys. 1981 , 75 , 1333 ]. However, the temperature dependences of τice found in these studies are not in agreement. While Auty et al. reported a single Arrhenius temperature dependence of τice for the entire 207-273 K temperature range, Johari et al...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Tomas Lafarga, Eimear Gallagher, Rotimi E Aluko, Mark A E Auty, Maria Hayes
The aim of this study was to develop bread containing a papain hydrolysate of bovine α- and β-globulins (GPH) with in vitro and in vivo antihypertensive activities. The physical characteristics of the formulated bread were assessed over a six day period and results suggested that the overall quality and acceptance of bread was not affected by the inclusion of GPH at a concentration of 4% (w/w). Bright field light microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy images were used to visualize the main ingredients of the bread...
March 2, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Thibaud Porphyre, Lisa A Boden, Carla Correia-Gomes, Harriet K Auty, George J Gunn, Mark E J Woolhouse
Modelling is an important component of contingency planning and control of disease outbreaks. Dynamic network models are considered more useful than static models because they capture important dynamic patterns of farm behaviour as evidenced through animal movements. This study evaluates the usefulness of a dynamic network model of swine fever to predict pre-detection spread via movements of pigs, when there may be considerable uncertainty surrounding the time of incursion of infection. It explores the utility and limitations of animal movement data to inform such models and as such, provides some insight into the impact of improving traceability through real-time animal movement reporting and the use of electronic animal movement databases...
February 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maria Hayes, Lars Fredrik Moen, Mark A E Auty, Tor Erling Lea
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains a significant hurdle for treatment of central nervous system (CNS) and mental health disorders. A prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) inhibitory peptide with the amino acid sequence proline-proline-leucine (PPL) was chemically synthesized labeled with 5-FAM and assessed using a transcytosis assay for its ability to cross the BBB. Transport of this peptide across the BBB was determined using an in vitro model of the human BBB, which utilizes the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3)...
January 13, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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