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Xanthine oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638888/modulation-of-key-biochemical-markers-relevant-to-stroke-by-antiaris-africana-leaf-extract-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Omotayo B Ilesanmi, Afolabi C Akinmoladun, Olanrewaju Sam Olayeriju, Ibrahim Olabayode Saliu, M Tolulope Olaleye, Afolabi A Akindahunsi
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays a significant role in stroke pathogenesis. Hence, plants rich in antioxidant phytochemicals have been suggested as effective remedies for prevention and treatment of stroke and other neurological diseases. Antiaris africana Engl. (Moraceae) is traditionally used for the management of brain-related problems but there is paucity of data on its anti-stroke potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced by a 30 min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion/ 2 h reperfusion (BCCAO/R) in the brain of male Wistar rats...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638581/images-in-clinical-medicine-tophi
#2
Amr Salama, Richard Alweis
Tophi (plural of tophus, Latin for "stone") are stone-like deposits of monosodium urate in the soft tissues, synovial tissues, or in bones near the joints. They are pathognomonic for gout, the most common inflammatory arthritis in the United States, with an estimated lifetime prevalence of 4%. It is usually the end result of loss of the balance between uric acid production and excretion. It can be found anywhere in the body especially in areas of friction or trauma. It is usually painless and rarely to present as the initial manifestation of gout...
March 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636950/structural-evidence-of-quercetin-multi-target-bioactivity-a-reverse-virtual-screening-strategy
#3
Diego Carvalho, Margot Paulino, Fabio Polticelli, Florencia Arredondo, Robert J Williams, Juan A Abin-Carriquiry
The ubiquitous flavonoid quercetin is broadly recognized for showing diverse biological and health-promoting effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities. The therapeutic potential of quercetin and similar compounds for preventing such diverse oxidative stress-related pathologies has been generally attributed to their direct antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, accumulated evidence indicates that quercetin is also able to interact with multiple cellular targets influencing the activity of diverse signaling pathways...
June 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633495/estradiol-protects-against-cardio-respiratory-dysfunctions-and-oxidative-stress-in-intermittent-hypoxia
#4
Sofien Laouafa, Alexandra Ribon-Demars, François Marcouiller, Damien Roussel, Aida Bairam, Vincent Pialoux, Vincent Joseph
Study Objectives: We tested the hypothesis that estradiol (E2) protects against cardio-respiratory disorders and oxidative stress induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in adult female rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley female rats (230-250g) were ovariectomized (OVX) and implanted with osmotic pumps delivering vehicle (Veh) or E2 (0.5 mg/kg/day). After 14 days of recovery, the rats were exposed to chronic CIH (21%-10% O2 - 8 hours/day - 10 cycles/hour) or room air (RA)...
June 19, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630638/cichorium-intybus-l-promotes-intestinal-uric-acid-excretion-by-modulating-abcg2-in-experimental-hyperuricemia
#5
Yu Wang, Zhijian Lin, Bing Zhang, Anzheng Nie, Meng Bian
BACKGROUND: Excessive production and/or reduced excretion of uric acid could lead to hyperuricemia, which could be a major cause of disability. Hyperuricemia has received increasing attention in the last few decades due to its global prevalence. Cichorium intybus L., commonly known as chicory, is a perennial herb of the asteraceae family. It was previously shown to exert potent hypouricemic effects linked with decreasing uric acid formation in the liver by down-regulating the activity of xanthine oxidase, and increasing uric acid excretion by up-regulating the renal OAT3 mRNA expression...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625358/disruption-of-xanthine-oxidoreductase-gene-attenuates-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#6
Yoshie Haga, Toshio Ohtsubo, Noboru Murakami, Hideko Noguchi, Yasuo Kansui, Kenichi Goto, Kiyoshi Matsumura, Takanari Kitazono
AIMS: We examined the roles of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. MAIN METHODS: XOR+/+ and XOR+/- mice were subjected to 24-h reperfusion after a 45-min bilateral renal artery occlusion or sham operation. We evaluated the renal damage based on the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr), and histological changes were detected by PAS staining. Xanthine dehydrogenase, oxidase (XO) and XOR activities, amounts of blood and urine 8-OHdG, and expressions of TNF-α and MCP-1 mRNA were examined...
June 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623927/caffeoylquinic-acid-derivatives-rich-extract-from-gnaphalium-pensylvanicum-willd-ameliorates-hyperuricemia-and-acute-gouty-arthritis-in-animal-model
#7
Yan Jiang, Yan Lin, Yi-Juan Hu, Xiao-Jun Song, Hong-Hua Pan, Hong-Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: The Gnaphalium pensylvanicum willd. is used in China as a folk medicine to treat anti-inflammatory, cough and rheumatism arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the extract of G. pensylvanicum to treat hyperuricemia and acute gouty arthritis in animal model. METHODS: G. pensylvanicum extract was evaluated in an experimental model with potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia in mice which was used to evaluate anti-hyperuricemia activity and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition...
June 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622967/new-markers-of-urinary-tract-infection
#8
REVIEW
Anna Masajtis-Zagajewska, Michal Nowicki
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic...
June 13, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608311/potential-role-of-allopurinol-in-preventing-contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Zahra Ghelich Khan, Azita Hajhossein Talasaz, Hamidreza Pourhosseini, Kianoush Hosseini, Mohammad Javad Alemzadeh Ansari, Arash Jalali
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a major drawback in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Significant uricosuria has been reported following contrast exposure. Allopurinol-a xanthine oxidase inhibitor-has been suggested to prevent the formation of oxygen-free radicals, which may contribute to CIN. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible efficacy of allopurinol in preventing CIN. METHODS: In this double-blind placebo-controlled trial, patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min who were admitted for elective PCI, were randomized to receive either allopurinol 600 mg or a placebo administered 24 h before the procedure, and again immediately before the procedure...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605979/phytochemical-investigation-of-rumex-thyrsiflorus-fingerh
#10
Orsolya Orbán-Gyapai, Peter Forgo, Judit Hohmann, Andrea Vasas
In the course of our pharmacological screening of Polygonaceae species occurring in the Carpathian Basin the extracts prepared from the roots of Rumex thyrsiflorus showed promising antiproliferative, xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antibacterial activities. The present work deals with the isolation of compounds from the root of the plant. After multistep separation process, four compounds were obtained from the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the methanol extract of the root. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined as 1-palmitoylglycerol, β-sitosterol, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B5...
June 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603122/chromatographic-fractionation-antioxidant-and-antibacterial-activities-of-urginea-maritima-methanolic-extract
#11
Oum Elkheir Belhaddad, Noureddine Charef, Samra Amamra, Fatima Zerargui, Abderrahmane Baghiani, Seddik Khennouf, Lekhmici Arrar
The present work concerns a phytochemical study of Urginea maritima L. from Algeria, and an evaluation of antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract (UMME) and its chromatographic fractions. UMME was fractionated using open glass chromatography on silica gel and antioxidant effects were evaluated using DPPH and β-carotene/linoleate assays. The phytochemical screening revealed that the bulb of plant contains flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, reducing compounds, anthraquinones combined, anthocyanins, mucilage, triterpenes and steroids...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601914/left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-as-therapeutic-target-is-it-the-ideal-marker
#12
REVIEW
V Katsi, G Georgiopoulos, A Laina, E Koutli, J Parissis, C Tsioufis, P Nihoyannopoulos, D Tousoulis
Heart failure (HF) consists the fastest growing clinical cardiac disease. HF patients are categorized on the basis of underlying left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) into HF with preserved EF (HFpEF), reduced LVEF (HFrEF), and mid-range LVEF (HFmrEF). While LVEF is the most commonly used surrogate marker of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, the implementation of two-dimensional echocardiography in estimating this parameter imposes certain caveats on current HF classification. Most importantly, LVEF could fluctuate in repeated measurements or even recover after treatment, thus blunting the borders between proposed categories of HF and enabling upward classification of patients...
June 10, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590138/vibrational-probes-of-molybdenum-cofactor-protein-interactions-in-xanthine-dehydrogenase
#13
Chao Dong, Jing Yang, Stefan Reschke, Silke Leimkühler, Martin L Kirk
The pyranopterin dithiolene (PDT) ligand is an integral component of the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) found in all molybdoenzymes with the sole exception of nitrogenase. However, the roles of the PDT in catalysis are still unknown. The PDT is believed to be bound to the proteins by an extensive hydrogen-bonding network, and it has been suggested that these interactions may function to fine-tune Moco for electron- and atom-transfer reactivity in catalysis. Here, we use resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy to probe Moco-protein interactions using heavy-atom congeners of lumazine, molecules that bind tightly to both wild-type xanthine dehydrogenase (wt-XDH) and its Q102G and Q197A variants following enzymatic hydroxylation to the corresponding violapterin product molecules...
June 7, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573244/investigation-of-antihemolytic-xanthine-oxidase-inhibition-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-properties-of-salvia-verbenaca-l-aerial-part-extracts
#14
Farida Belkhiri, Abderrahmane Baghiani, Mohammed Mihoub Zerroug, Lekhmici Arrar
BACKGROUND: In this study, Salvia verbenaca L. aerial part extracts (SVEs): were screened for their antihemolytic, xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To investigate SVEs antihemolytic activity, the 2,2,-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) was used to induce erythrocyte oxidative hemolysis. In XO inhibition test, xanthine was used as substrate and cytochrome c for generating superoxide anions...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558868/anti-hyperuricemic-and-anti-inflammatory-actions-of-vaticaffinol-isolated-from-dipterocarpus-alatus-in-hyperuricemic-mice
#15
Yu-Sheng Chen, Chao-Jun Chen, Wei Yan, Hui-Ming Ge, Ling-Dong Kong
The present study was designed to examine the anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory effects and possible mechanisms of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from ethanol extracts of Dipterocarpus alatus, in oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. At 1 h after 250 mg·kg(-1) potassium oxonate was given, vaticaffinol at 20, 40, and 60 mg·kg(-1) was intragastrically administered to hyperuricemic mice once daily for seven consecutive days. Vaticaffinol significantly decreased serum uric acid levels and improved kidney function in hyperuricemic mice...
May 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554615/utilization-of-quercetin-and-quercetin-glycosides-from-onion-allium-cepa-l-solid-waste-as-an-antioxidant-urease-and-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors
#16
Shivraj Hariram Nile, Arti Shivraj Nile, Young Soo Keum, Kavita Sharma
This study aimed to determine the flavonol glycosides from onion solid waste (OSW) using HPLC analysis, with antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. We found considerable amount of quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside (QMG: 254.85), quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside (QDG: 162.34), quercetin (Q: 60.44), and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside (IMG: 23.92) (mg/100g) dry weight (DW) of OSW. For OSW, the methanol and ethanol showed the strongest antioxidant activities, followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts...
November 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554381/effects-of-high-hydrostatic-pressure-or-hydrophobic-modification-on-thermal-stability-of-xanthine-oxidase
#17
Ali Halalipour, Michael R Duff, Elizabeth E Howell, José I Reyes-De-Corcuera
The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the kinetics of thermal inactivation of xanthine oxidase (XOx) from bovine milk was studied. Inactivation of XOx followed pseudo-first-order kinetics at 0.1-300MPa and 55.0-70.0°C. High pressure up to at least 300MPa stabilized XOx at all the studied temperatures. The highest stabilization effect of HHP on XOx was at 200-300MPa at 55.0 and 58.6°C, and at 250-300MPa at 62.3-70.0°C. The stability of XOx increased 9.5 times at 300MPa and 70.0°C compared to atmospheric pressure at the same temperature...
August 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553435/therapeutic-hypothermia-reduces-oxidative-damage-and-alters-antioxidant-defenses-after-cardiac-arrest
#18
Fernanda S Hackenhaar, Tássia M Medeiros, Fernanda M Heemann, Camile S Behling, Jordana S Putti, Camila D Mahl, Cleber Verona, Ana Carolina A da Silva, Maria C Guerra, Carlos A S Gonçalves, Vanessa M Oliveira, Diego F M Riveiro, Silvia R R Vieira, Mara S Benfato
After cardiac arrest, organ damage consequent to ischemia-reperfusion has been attributed to oxidative stress. Mild therapeutic hypothermia has been applied to reduce this damage, and it may reduce oxidative damage as well. This study aimed to compare oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in patients treated with controlled normothermia versus mild therapeutic hypothermia during postcardiac arrest syndrome. The sample consisted of 31 patients under controlled normothermia (36°C) and 11 patients treated with 24 h mild therapeutic hypothermia (33°C), victims of in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552532/taurine-decreased-uric-acid-levels-in-hyperuricemic-rats-and-alleviated-kidney-injury
#19
Ying Feng, Fang Sun, Yongchao Gao, Jiancheng Yang, Gaofeng Wu, Shumei Lin, Jianmin Hu
Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days...
July 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545814/carboxylated-aurone-derivatives-as-potent-inhibitors-of-xanthine-oxidase
#20
Oksana V Muzychka, Oleksandr L Kobzar, Antonina V Popova, Mykhaylo S Frasinyuk, Andriy I Vovk
Xanthine oxidase is a potential target for treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, a number of A- and B-ring carboxylated aurone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase in vitro. According to the results obtained, two different ranges of inhibitory activity were observed. The aurones with carboxylic acid group at the 4'-position of B-ring were found to be potent inhibitors of the enzyme with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The effects of these compounds were about 50 fold higher than of A-ring modified aurones with carboxymethoxy group at the 6-position...
May 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
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