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Xanthine oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330320/xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-and-antioxidant-potential-of-indian-muscodor-species
#1
Neha Kapoor, Sanjai Saxena
Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme responsible for hyperuricemia, a pre-disposing factor for Gout and oxidative stress-related diseases. Only two clinically approved xanthine oxidase inhibitors Allopurinol and Febuxostat are currently used for treatment of hyperuricemia. However, owing to their side effects there is a need for new non-purine-based selective inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. In the process of exploring novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors and anti-oxidants, we screened the culture filtrate of 07 novel species of Muscodor, a sterile endophytic fungi isolated from Cinnamomum and Aegle marmelos...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328528/ocimum-gratissimum-linn-leaf-extract-inhibits-free-radical-generation-and-suppressed-inflammation-in-carrageenan-induced-inflammation-models-in-rats
#2
Abayomi M Ajayi, Mary O Ologe, Benneth Ben-Azu, Samuel E Okhale, Bulus Adzu, Olusegun G Ademowo
BACKGROUND: Ocimum gratissimum leaf is used in managing rheumatism and other inflammatory conditions. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic extract obtained by sequential methanol extraction of O. gratissimum leaves (MEOg). METHODS: The methanol extract (MEOg) was obtained after sequential maceration (n-hexane, chloroform and methanol) of dried O. gratissimum leaves. The fingerprint of the extract was obtained using a high-performance liquid chromatrographic method...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319894/resolvin-d1-via-prevention-of-ros-mediated-shp2-inactivation-protects-endothelial-adherens-junction-integrity-and-barrier-function
#3
Rima Chattopadhyay, Somasundaram Raghavan, Gadiparthi N Rao
Resolvins are a novel class of lipid mediators that play an important role in the resolution of inflammation, although the underlying mechanisms are not very clear. To explore the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of resolvins, we have studied the effects of resolvin D1 (RvD1) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial barrier disruption as it is linked to propagation of inflammation. We found that LPS induces endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption via xanthine oxidase (XO)-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 inactivation and Fyn-related kinase (Frk) activation leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of α-catenin and VE-cadherin and their dissociation from each other affecting adherens junction (AJ) integrity and thereby increasing endothelial barrier permeability...
March 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319893/role-of-macrophages-in-age-related-oxidative-stress-and-lipofuscin-accumulation-in-mice
#4
Carmen Vida, Irene Martínez de Toda, Julia Cruces, Antonio Garrido, Mónica Gonzalez-Sanchez, Mónica De la Fuente
The age-related changes in the immune functions (immunosenescence) may be mediated by an increase of oxidative stress and damage affecting leukocytes. Although the "oxidation-inflammation" theory of aging proposes that phagocytes are the main immune cells contributing to "oxi-inflamm-aging", this idea has not been corroborated. The aim of this work was to characterize the age-related changes in several parameters of oxidative stress and immune function, as well as in lipofuscin accumulation ("a hallmark of aging"), in both total peritoneal leukocyte population and isolated peritoneal macrophages...
March 9, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303711/phenolic-elderberry-extracts-anthocyanins-procyanidins-and-metabolites-influence-glucose-and-fatty-acid-uptake-in-human-skeletal-muscle-cells
#5
Giang Thanh Thi Ho, Eili Tranheim Kase, Helle Wangensteen, Hilde Barsett
Uptake of glucose and fatty acids in skeletal muscle is of interest for type 2 diabetes treatment. The aim was to study glucose and fatty acid uptake in skeletal muscle cells, antioxidant effects, and inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes by elderberries. Enhanced glucose and oleic acid uptake in human skeletal muscle cells were observed after treatment with phenolic elderberry extracts, anthocyanins, procyanidins, and their metabolites. The 96% EtOH and the acidified MeOH extracts were highly active...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302963/potassium%C3%A2-oxonate-induces-acute-hyperuricemia-in-the-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-chinensis
#6
Dong-Hong Tang, You-Song Ye, Chen-Yun Wang, Zhe-Li Li, Hong Zheng, Kai-Li Ma
Potassium oxonate, a selectively competitive uricase inhibitor, produced hyperuricemia (HUA) in rodents in a previous study. In this study, we employed the tree shrew as an animal model to study potassium oxonate-induced HUA. The effect of allopurinol (ALLO), a uric acid reducer, was also examined in this model. Potassium oxonate at doses of 5, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 1000 mg/kg was given intraperitoneally to tree shrews. The results showed that potassium oxonate can effectively increase the levels of uric acid in tree shrews at doses ranging from 40 to 100 mg/kg...
March 16, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302902/risk-of-febuxostat-associated-myopathy-in-patients-with-ckd
#7
Chung-Te Liu, Chun-You Chen, Chien-Yi Hsu, Po-Hsun Huang, Feng-Yen Lin, Jaw-Wen Chen, Shing-Jong Lin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Febuxostat, a nonpurine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is widely used to treat hyperuricemia. Although febuxostat-associated rhabdomyolysis was reported in some patients with CKD, the association between CKD and febuxostat-associated myopathy remains uncertain. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Our retrospective cohort study included 1332 patients using febuxostat in Taipei Medical University-Wanfang Hospital from February of 2014 to January of 2016...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302506/xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity-of-nicotino-isonicotinohydrazides-a-systematic-approach-from-in-vitro-in-silico-to-in-vivo-studies
#8
Humaira Zafar, Muhammad Hayat, Sumayya Saied, Momin Khan, Uzma Salar, Rizwana Malik, M Iqbal Choudhary, Khalid Mohammed Khan
Change in life style and eating habits has led to an increased prevalence of hyperuricemia worldwide. The role of hyperuricemia is no more restricted to gout, but it has a central role in progression of CVD, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and arthritis. Among the different factors involved in regulation of serum uric acid, xanthine oxidase (XO) is the best pharmacological target to control the levels of serum uric acid as it catalyzes the final steps in uric acid production. In the current study, a systemic search for the inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, starting from synthesis to in vitro screening and leading to in vivo studies is presented...
February 28, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302027/in-silico-design-and-admet-studies-of-natural-compounds-as-inhibitors-of-xanthine-oxidase-xo-enzyme
#9
Neelam Malik, Priyanka Dhiman, Anurag Khatkar
BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidase a ubiquitous enzyme has been found to be involved in various pathological disorders including gout, hyperuricemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. Inhibitors of xanthine oxidase thus find a crucial role in the therapeutic treatment of these deadly diseases. OBJECTIVE: Considering the side effects of today's treatment regimen here we choose nature based compounds to act as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. In the present work, we performed in-silico docking of natural compounds to reveal the underlying mechanism of inhibition of xanthine oxidase...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290251/dinuclear-cyclam-complex-as-a-non-cytotoxic-anti-hyperurecemic-lead-in-vitro-to-in-vivo-studies
#10
Humaira Zafar, Najlae Hamdi, Mohammed Lachkar, Brahim El Bali, Ajmal Khan, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary
BACKGROUND: Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism in humans and its increased level in serum leads to hyperuricemia. Among the different regulatory factors to control the level of uric acid in humans, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a well-established pharmacological target, as it is directly involved in uric acid production. METHODS: The aim of the study was to present a systematic approach to analyze the xanthine oxidase inhibition studies from in vitro leading to in vivo...
March 8, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286211/synthesis-screening-and-docking-of-fused-pyrano-3-2-d-pyrimidine-derivatives-as-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitor
#11
Manroopraj Kaur, Amandeep Kaur, Suhani Mankotia, Harbinder Singh, Arshdeep Singh, Jatinder Vir Singh, Manish Kumar Gupta, Sahil Sharma, Kunal Nepali, Preet Mohinder Singh Bedi
In view of developing effective xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme inhibitors, a series of 100 pyrano[3,2-d]pyrimidine derivatives was synthesized and evaluated for its in vitro XO enzyme inhibition. Structure activity relationship has also been established. Among all the synthesized compounds, 4d, 8d and 9d were found to be the most potent enzyme inhibitors with IC50 values of 8μM, 8.5μM and 7μM, respectively. Compound 9d was further investigated in enzyme kinetic studies and the Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that the compound 9d was mixed type inhibitor...
March 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285367/comparison-of-protective-effect-of-ascorbic-acid-on-redox-and-endocannabinoid-systems-interactions-in-in-vitro-cultured-human-skin-fibroblasts-exposed-to-uv-radiation-and-hydrogen-peroxide
#12
Agnieszka Gęgotek, Katarzyna Bielawska, Michał Biernacki, Ilona Zaręba, Arkadiusz Surażyński, Elżbieta Skrzydlewska
The mechanisms of biological activity of commonly used natural compounds are constantly examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare ascorbic acid efficacy in counteracting the consequences of UV and hydrogen peroxide treatment on lipid mediators and their regulative action on antioxidant abilities. Skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA and UVB irradiation, treated with hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid. The redox system was estimated through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (electron spin resonance spectrometer) and antioxidants level/activity (HPLC/spectrometry) which activity was evaluated by the level of phospholipid metabolites: 4-hydroxynonenal, malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostanes and endocannabinoids (GC/LC-MS) in the human skin fibroblasts...
March 11, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282408/the-renal-phenotype-of-allopurinol-treated-hprt-deficient-mouse
#13
Cristina Zennaro, Federica Tonon, Paola Zarattini, Milan Clai, Alessandro Corbelli, Michele Carraro, Marialaura Marchetti, Luca Ronda, Gianluca Paredi, Maria Pia Rastaldi, Riccardo Percudani
Excess of uric acid is mainly treated with xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, also called uricostatics because they block the conversion of hypoxanthine and xanthine into urate. Normally, accumulation of upstream metabolites is prevented by the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) enzyme. The recycling pathway, however, is impaired in the presence of HPRT deficiency, as observed in Lesch-Nyhan disease. To gain insights into the consequences of purine accumulation with HPRT deficiency, we investigated the effects of the XO inhibitor allopurinol in Hprt-lacking (HPRT-/-) mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274615/oxidative-metabolism-of-curcumin-glucuronide-by-peroxidases-and-isolated-human-leukocytes
#14
Paula B Luis, Odaine N Gordon, Fumie Nakashima, Akil I Joseph, Takahiro Shibata, Koji Uchida, Claus Schneider
Conjugation with glucuronic acid is a prevalent metabolic pathway of orally administrated curcumin, the bioactive diphenol of the spice turmeric. The major in vitro degradation reaction of curcumin is autoxidative transformation resulting in oxygenation and cyclization of the heptadienedione chain to form cyclopentadione derivatives. Here we show that curcumin-glucuronide is much more stable than curcumin, degrading about two orders of magnitude slower. Horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of curcumin-glucuronide occurred at about 80% of the rate with curcumin, achieving efficient transformation...
March 6, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273883/chemotypic-characterization-and-biological-activity-of-rosmarinus-officinalis
#15
Prabodh Satyal, Tyler H Jones, Elizabeth M Lopez, Robert L McFeeters, Nasser A Awadh Ali, Iman Mansi, Ali G Al-Kaf, William N Setzer
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16...
March 5, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273649/modeling-and-optimizing-inhibitory-activities-of-nelumbinis-folium-extract-on-xanthine-oxidase-using-response-surface-methodology
#16
Mangmang Sang, Guangyan Du, Jia Hao, Linlin Wang, Erwei Liu, Yi Zhang, Tao Wang, Xiumei Gao, Lifeng Han
Xanthine oxidase (XOD), which could oxidize hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid, is a key enzyme in the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and also a well-known target for the drug development to treat gout. In our study, the total alkaloids of Nelumbinis folium markedly inhibited XOD activity, with IC50 value being 3.313μg/mL. UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS and 3D docking analysis indicated that roemerine was a potential active ingredient. A response surface methodology combined with central composite design experiment was further developed and validated for the optimization of the reaction conditions between the total alkaloids of Nelumbinis folium and XOD, which could be considered as a meaningful research for the development of XOD inhibitor rapidly and sensitively...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265554/protective-role-of-hesperidin-against-%C3%AE-radiation-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-rat-testis
#17
Nadia Z Shaban, Ahmed M Ahmed Zahran, Fatma H El-Rashidy, Ahmad S Abdo Kodous
BACKGROUND: Gamma (γ) ray, an electromagnetic radiation, is occasionally accompanying the emission of an alpha or beta particle. Exposure to such radiation can cause cellular changes such as mutations, chromosome aberration and cellular damage which depend upon the total amount of energy, duration of exposure and the dose. Ionizing radiation can impair spermatogenesis and can cause mutations in germ cells. In general, type B spermatogonia are sensitive to this type of radiation. The current study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of hesperidin (H), as a polyphenolic compound, on rat testis injury induced by γ-radiation...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264757/supplementation-of-sperm-media-with-zinc-d-aspartate-and-co-enzyme-q10-protects-bull-sperm-against-exogenous-oxidative-stress-and-improves-their-ability-to-support-embryo-development
#18
Vincenza Barbato, Riccardo Talevi, Sabrina Braun, Anna Merolla, Sam Sudhakaran, S Longobardi, Roberto Gualtieri
High levels of reactive oxygen species in the semen of infertile patients or spontaneously generated during in vitro sperm handling may impair sperm quality, fertilization and embryo developmental competence. We recently reported that zinc, d-aspartate and co-enzyme Q10, contained in the dietary supplement Genadis® (Merck Serono), have protective effects on human and bull sperm motility, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation in vitro; furthermore, in bovine, treated spermatozoa had an improved ability to support embryo development...
March 7, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261954/screening-inhibitors-of-xanthine-oxidase-from-natural-products-using-enzyme-immobilized-magnetic-beads-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
Ting Wang, Dapeng Li, Boyang Yu, Jin Qi
In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess the results of bioactive compound screening from natural products using immobilized enzyme magnetic beads. We compared three commercial magnetic beads with modified amino, carboxy and N-hydroxysuccinimide groups, respectively. Amino magnetic beads performed best for immobilization and were selected for further experiments. Xanthine oxidase was immobilized on amino magnetic beads and applied to screen potential inhibitors in fresh Zingiber officinale Roscoe, extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and Pueraria lobata Ohwi...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260086/development-of-an-assay-to-assess-genotoxicity-by-particulate-matter-extract
#20
Alexandros Priftis, Konstantinos Papikinos, Marina Koukoulanaki, Efthalia Kerasioti, Dimitrios Stagos, Konstantinos Konstantinopoulos, Demetrios A Spandidos, Marianthi Kermenidou, Spyros Karakitsios, Dimosthenis Sarigiannis, Aristides M Tsatsakis, Demetrios Kouretas
The current study describes a method for assessing the oxidative potential of common environmental stressors (ambient air particulate matter), using a plasmid relaxation assay where the extract caused single-strand breaks, easily visualised through electrophoresis. This assay utilises a miniscule amount (11 µg) of particulate matter (PM) extract compared to other, cell‑based methods (~3,000 µg). The negative impact of air pollution on human health has been extensively recognised. Among the air pollutants, PM plays an eminent role, as reflected in the broad scientific interest...
February 6, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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