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Xanthine oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539355/xanthine-oxidase-inhibition-protects-against-western-diet-induced-aortic-stiffness-and-impaired-vasorelaxation-in-female-mice
#1
Guido Lastra, Camila Manrique, Guanghong Jia, Annayya R Aroor, Melvin R Hayden, Brady J Barron, Brett Niles, Jaume Padilla, James R Sowers
Consumption of a high-fat high-fructose diet (western diet, [WD]) promotes vascular stiffness, a critical factor in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obese and diabetic women exhibit greater arterial stiffness than men, which contributes to the increased incidence of CVD in women. Further, high-fructose diets result in elevated plasma concentrations of uric acid via xanthine oxidase (XO) activation, and are also associated with vascular stiffness. In turn, uric acid levels lead to vascular stiffness and CVD in women...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529735/rosehip-inhibits-xanthine-oxidase-activity-and-reduces-serum-urate-levels-in-a-mouse-model-of-hyperuricemia
#2
Hidetomo Kikuchi, Satomi Kogure, Rie Arai, Kouki Saino, Atsuko Ohkubo, Tadashi Tsuda, Katsuyoshi Sunaga
Rosehip, the fruit of Rosa canina L., has traditionally been used to treat urate metabolism disorders; however, its effects on such disorders have not been characterized in detail. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of hot water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of rosehip on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in vitro. In addition, the serum urate lowering effects of the rosehip hot water extract in a mouse model of hyperuricemia (male ddY mice, which were intraperitoneally injected with potassium oxonate) were investigated...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527616/catalase-increases-ethanol-oxidation-through-the-purine-catabolism-in-rat-liver
#3
Daniel Villalobos-García, Rolando Hernández-Muñoz
Hepatic ethanoloxidationincreases according to its concentration and is raised to near-saturation levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); therefore, re-oxidation of NADH becomes rate limiting in ethanol metabolism by the liver. Adenosine is able to increase liver ethanol oxidation in both in vivo and in vitro conditions; the enhancement being related with the capacity of the nucleoside to accelerate the transport of cytoplasmic reducing equivalents to mitochondria, by modifying the subcellular distribution of the malate-aspartate shuttle components...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521370/salvia-plebeia-extract-inhibits-xanthine-oxidase-activity-in-vitro-and-reduces-serum-uric-acid-in-an-animal-model-of-hyperuricemia
#4
Jin Kyu Kim, Woo Jung Kim, Jung Mi Hyun, Jong Suk Lee, Jin Gwan Kwon, Changon Seo, Myung-Jin Song, Chun Whan Choi, Seong Su Hong, Kyuhee Park, Pansoo Kim, Hachang Sung, Jin Koo Lee, Yongmun Choi
Hyperuricemia is a clinical condition characterized by an elevated level of serum uric acid and is a key risk factor for the development of gout and metabolic disorders. The existing urate-lowering therapies are often impractical for certain patient populations, providing a rationale to explore new agents with improved safety and efficacy. Here, we discovered that Salvia plebeia extract inhibited the enzyme activity of xanthine oxidase, which is a key enzyme generating uric acid in the liver. In an animal model of hyperuricemia, S...
May 18, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515876/population-genomics-reveals-a-candidate-gene-involved-in-bumble-bee-pigmentation
#5
Meaghan L Pimsler, Jason M Jackson, Jeffrey D Lozier
Variation in bumble bee color patterns is well-documented within and between species. Identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying such variation may be useful in revealing evolutionary forces shaping rapid phenotypic diversification. The widespread North American species Bombus bifarius exhibits regional variation in abdominal color forms, ranging from red-banded to black-banded phenotypes and including geographically and phenotypically intermediate forms. Identifying genomic regions linked to this variation has been complicated by strong, near species level, genome-wide differentiation between red- and black-banded forms...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511908/potential-anti-gout-constituents-as-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitor-from-the-fruits-of-stauntonia-brachyanthera
#6
Dan Liu, Dandan Wang, Wei Yang, Dali Meng
With the aim of finding a better xanthine oxidase inhibitor with potential anti-gout properties, the studies on the fruit of Stauntonia brachyanthera were carried out, which led to the isolation of 12 glycosides, including 4 new nor-oleanane triterpenoids. Their structures were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic (NMR and HR MS) analysis. Two compounds (4 and 11) exhibited significant inhibitory activities on xanthine oxidase with IC50 values of 5.22 and 1.60µM, respectively. Another five compounds (1, 2, 3, 8 and 10) showed qualified activities...
May 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511026/hdac2-is-required-by-the-physiological-concentration-of-glucocorticoid-to-inhibit-inflammation-in-cardiac-fibroblasts
#7
Haining Zhang, Yanhua He, Guiping Zhang, Xiaobin Li, Suikai Yan, Ning Hou, Qing Xiao, Yue Huang, Miaoshan Luo, Genshui Zhang, Quan Yi, Minsheng Chen, Jiandong Luo
We previously suggested that endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) may inhibit myocardial inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) <i>in vivo</i>. However, the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms were poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of physiological concentration of GCs in inflammation induced by LPS in cardiac fibroblasts and explored the possible mechanisms. The results showed that hydrocortisone at the dose of 127ng/ml (equivalent to endogenous basal level of glucocorticoids) inhibited LPS (100ng/ml)-induced productions of TNF-α and IL-1β in cardiac fibroblasts...
May 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508967/a-case-of-xanthinuria-type-i-with-a-novel-mutation-in-xanthine-dehydrogenase
#8
Akira Iguchi, Takaaki Sato, Mihoko Yamazaki, Kazuyuki Tasaki, Yasushi Suzuki, Noriaki Iino, Hiroshi Hasegawa, Kimiyoshi Ichida, Ichiei Narita
Hereditary hypouricemia is generally caused by renal hypouricemia, an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by impaired renal tubular uric acid transport, or by xanthinuria, a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH; xanthinuria type I) or by a deficiency of both XDH and aldehyde oxidase (xanthinuria type II). In contrast to renal hypouricemia, which sometimes leads to exercise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI), xanthinuria has not been associated with this disorder...
November 2016: CEN Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508188/trace-element-determination-and-cardioprotection-of-terminalia-pallida-fruit-ethanolic-extract-in-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-infarcted-rats-by-icp-ms
#9
Shaik Althaf Hussain, Mohammed Abdul Kareem, Shaik Nayab Rasool, Suliman Yousef Al Omar, Alwasel Saleh, Manal Abdulrahman Al-Fwuaires, Jayasimha Rayalu Daddam, Kodidhela Lakshmi Devi
The trace elements and minerals in Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE) were determined by the instrument inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the cardioprotection of TpFE against isoproterenol (ISO)-administered rats was studied. Rats were pretreated with TpFE (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg bw) for 30 days, with concurrent administration of ISO (85 mg/kg bw) for two consecutive days. The levels of trace elements and minerals in TpFE were below the permitted limits of World Health Organization standards...
May 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503330/febuxostat-attenuates-renal-damage-besides-exerting-hypouricemic-effect-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#10
Jianmin Ran, Gang Xu, Huixuan Ma, Hailing Xu, Yan Liu, Rongshao Tan, Ping Zhu, Jun Song, Gancheng Lao
Aim. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of febuxostat, a novel inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO), on renal damage in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of STZ in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Sham-injected rats served as controls. The control and diabetic rats were treated with and without febuxostat for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected every 4 weeks. Rat livers were extracted for detecting gene expression, content, and bioactivity of XO...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497908/the-molybdenum-cofactor-enzyme-marc-moonlighting-or-promiscuous-enzyme
#11
REVIEW
Angel Llamas, Alejandro Chamizo-Ampudia, Manuel Tejada-Jimenez, Aurora Galvan, Emilio Fernandez
Molybdenum (Mo) is present in the active center of eukaryotic enzymes as a tricyclic pyranopterin chelate compound forming the Mo Cofactor (Moco). Four Moco containing enzymes are known in eukaryotes, nitrate reductase (NR), sulfite oxidase (SO), xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), and aldehyde oxidase (AO). A fifth Moco enzyme has been recently identified. Because of the ability of this enzyme to convert by reduction several amidoximes prodrugs into their active amino forms, it was named mARC (mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component)...
May 12, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490066/the-physico-chemical-alteration-of-lovastatin-and-enhanced-antioxidant-effect-of-bacillus-subtilis-fermented-red-yeast-rice-product
#12
Sang Il Gum, Phuc Anh Nguyen, Jong Rok Lee, Yeong Hwan Han, Min Kyung Cho
Red yeast rice product (RYP) has been used as a food supplement because of its lipid lowering, and in food additives as a natural colorant. Lovastatin of RYP is a hypolipidemic commercial drug. To enhance the beneficial effects of RYP, we performed a bioconversion with Bacillus subtilis. This B. subtilis-fermentation process of RYP increased the ratio of the active open-hydroxyl acid form and the prodrug lactone form of lovastatin, which is a potent cholesterol synthesis inhibitor. 3(2H)-benzofuranone was newly produced in the fermented red yeast rice product (FRYP) as analyzed by GC-MS...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489400/antirotaviral-activity-of-bovine-and-ovine-dairy-byproducts
#13
José Antonio Parrón, Daniel Ripollés, María Dolores Pérez, Miguel Calvo, Jan Trige Rasmussen, Lourdes Sánchez
Rotaviral gastroenteritis is associated with significant morbidity in developed countries and a high rate of infant mortality in developing countries. Diverse studies have demonstrated that a wide range of milk-derived fractions exhibit antirotaviral activity. The present study shows the antirotaviral activity of some bovine and ovine dairy byproducts, buttermilk, butter serum, and milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), and evaluates the effect of cream washing and heat treatment on that activity. Furthermore, the rotavirus-neutralizing activity was evaluated for some MFGM proteins, such as xanthine oxidase and lactophorin...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487949/identification-of-the-biologically-active-constituents-of-camellia-japonica-leaf-and-anti-hyperuricemic-effect-in%C3%A2-vitro-and%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-vivo
#14
In-Soo Yoon, Dae-Hun Park, Jung-Eun Kim, Jin-Cheol Yoo, Min-Suk Bae, Deuk-Sil Oh, Jung-Hyun Shim, Chul-Yung Choi, Ki-Wan An, Eun-Il Kim, Gye-Yeop Kim, Seung-Sik Cho
Camellia japonica L. is a plant of which the seeds are used as a folk medicine, and it is native to South Korea, Japan and China. In previous study, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and fatty acids which have antiviral, antioxidant and anti inflammatory activity were reported from C. japonica leaf and flower. In Korea, the seed from this plant is used as a traditional medicine and in folk remedies for the treatment of bleeding and inflammation. However, the major issue associated with the use of the seed as a medicinal and/or functional food ingredient is its application to the pharmaceutical and food industry...
June 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487228/characterization-of-s-adenosylhomocysteine-methylthioadenosine-nucleosidase-on-secretion-of-ai-2-and-biofilm-formation-of-escherichia-coli
#15
Tian Han, Yanhua Li, Qiuli Shan, Wenjing Liang, Weiwei Hao, Yumei Li, Xiaojun Tan, Jinsong Gu
S-adenosylhomocysteine/Methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (SAHN E.C.3.2.2.9) does not exist in mammalian cells but is essential for methyl recycling in numerous bacterial and protozoan species. Inhibition of this enzyme could limit synthesis of autoinducers of bacterial quorum sensing (QS), and hence, causes reduction in biofilm formation and may attenuate virulence. In this study, sahn deletion mutant of E. coli MG1655, sahn-complemented strain, and SANH-overexpressing strain were established and used to identify the secretion of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and biofilm formation...
May 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480832/synthesis-of-new-arylidene-2-5-diketopiperazines-and-evaluation-of-their-anti-acetylcholinesterase-anti-xanthine-oxidase-anti-diabetic-and-cytotoxic-activities
#16
Mohamed Amine Belkacem, Hichem Ben Jannet, Hicham Ferhout, Laila Mzali, Jalloul Bouajila
BACKGROUND: 2,5-diketopiperazine derivatives are considered to be important classes of cyclic peptides due to their wide range of biological activities. OBJECTIVES: Synthesis a new series of protected 2,5-diketopiperazine derivatives and evaluate their biological activities. METHODS: A series of new soluble mono-protected arylidene 2,5-diketopiperazine derivatives 3a-p has been prepared by application of Claisen-Schmidt condensation of the N,N-diacetyl-diketopiperazine 1 with a series of arylaldehydes...
April 25, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472095/oxidative-profiling-of-the-failing-right-heart-in-rats-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
Xinhong Wang, Nataliia V Shults, Yuichiro J Suzuki
Right heart failure is the major cause of death among patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Understanding the biology of the right ventricle (RV) should help developing new therapeutic strategies. Rats subjected to the injection of Sugen5416 (an inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor) plus the ovalbumin immunization had increased pulmonary arterial pressure and severe vascular remodeling. RVs of these rats were hypertrophied and had severe cardiac fibrosis. No apoptosis was, however, detected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465478/chronic-obstructive-sleep-apnea-promotes-aortic-remodeling-in-canines-through-mir-145-smad3-signaling-pathway
#18
Chengyuan Yu, Yang Liu, Li Sun, Dingyu Wang, Yike Wang, Shiqi Zhao, Hui Dai, Jing Zhao, Song Zhang, Minghui Li, Yu Han, Shuang Lu, Xinwen Dong, Guangzhong Liu, Shengzhu Yu, Yue Li
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a causal pathogenetic factor of many cardiovascular diseases, however, its role in aortic diseases remains unknown. Therefore, this study was performed to explore the potential effects and pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic OSA on aortic remodeling in a canine model. After chronic OSA, the morphological changes of ascending aorta were characterized by thinner cells with pycnotic nuclei and swollen mitochondria, and obvious hyperplasia of collagenous fiber in the matrix...
April 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463849/effect-of-febuxostat-on-the-endothelial-dysfunction-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blinded-study
#19
Mona Alshahawey, Sara Mahmoud Shahin, Tamer Wahid Elsaid, Nagwa Ali Sabri
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases to occur in end-stage renal disease patients. Febuxostat, being a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is apparently having a beneficial role in improving the endothelial dysfunction; however, data among hemodialysis patients are still limited. METHODS: A prospective, placebo-controlled, block-randomized, double-blinded study was carried out to evaluate the effect of oral febuxostat on the endothelial dysfunction in hemodialysis patients...
2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463799/qi-zhu-xie-zhuo-fang-reduces-serum-uric-acid-levels-and-ameliorates-renal-fibrosis-in-hyperuricemic-nephropathy-rats
#20
Wang Huijuan, Chen Xiaoxu, Song Rui, Li Xinghui, Tao Beibei, Mao Jianchun
Hyperuricemia is associated with the development of chronic kidney disease. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by hyperuricemia is blamed for initiation of renal fibrosis, which is one of the main characters of hyperuricemic nephropathy. Qi-Zhu-Xie-Zhuo-Fang (QZXZF) has been employed clinically for many years to treat patients with hyperuricemic nephropathy, but the mechanism underlying the therapeutic potential remains unclear. In the present study, QZXZF was applied to rats treated with adenine (100mg/kg) and potassium oxonate (300mg/kg) and biochemical estimations, morphology and immunohistochemistry were performed to investigate whether QZXZF can improve hyperuricemia induced renal fibrosis and to explore the possible mechanisms...
April 29, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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