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Xanthine oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905507/discovery-of-piperonal-converting-oxidase-involved-in-the-metabolism-of-a-botanical-aromatic-aldehyde
#1
Shiori Doi, Yoshiteru Hashimoto, Chiaki Tomita, Takuto Kumano, Michihiko Kobayashi
Piperonal-catabolizing microorganisms were isolated from soil, the one (strain CT39-3) exhibiting the highest activity being identified as Burkholderia sp. The piperonal-converting enzyme involved in the initial step of piperonal metabolism was purified from strain CT39-3. Gene cloning of the enzyme and a homology search revealed that the enzyme belongs to the xanthine oxidase family, which comprises molybdoenzymes containing a molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor. We found that the piperonal-converting enzyme acts on piperonal in the presence of O2, leading to formation of piperonylic acid and H2O2...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900485/serum-glutathione-peroxidase-xanthine-oxidase-and-superoxide-dismutase-activities-and-malondialdehyde-levels-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Burcu Gökçe Çokal, Mustafa Yurtdaş, Selda Keskin Güler, Hafize Nalan Güneş, Ceyla Ataç Uçar, Bilal Aytaç, Zahide Esra Durak, Tahir Kurtuluş Yoldaş, İlker Durak, Hikmet Can Çubukçu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Oxidative stress has been hypothesized to play a major role in the development of PD in various studies. This study assessed to investigate oxidative and anti-oxidative status in PD patients. We evaluated oxidant/antioxidant status by measuring serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, xanthine oxidase (XO) activities, and activities of antioxidant enzymes, namely, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
November 30, 2016: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899009/concise-xanthine-synthesis-via-a-double-amidination-reaction-of-a-6-chlorouracil-with-amidines-using-base-metal-catalysis
#3
Bénédicte Morel, Philippe Franck, Johan Bidange, Sergey Sergeyev, Dan Smith, Jonathan Moseley, Bert Uw Maes
A novel and concise route towards xanthines via a double amidination reaction is described; consecutive intermolecular C-Cl and intramolecular oxidative C-H amidination. N-uracil amidines are obtained via SNAE on a 6-chlorouracil with amidines. Direct Cu-catalyzed oxidative C-H amidination on these N-uracil amidines yields polysubstituted xanthines. Sustainable oxidants, di-tert-butyl peroxide or oxygen, can be used in this oxidase type reaction. The protocol allows for the introduction of N1, N3, N7 and C8 substituents during the xanthine scaffold construction, thus avoiding post-functionalization steps...
November 29, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894590/preconditioning-with-azadirachta-indica-ameliorates-cardiorenal-dysfunction-through-reduction-in-oxidative-stress-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-protein-kinase-signalling
#4
Temidayo Olutayo Omóbòwálé, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Olumuyiwa Abiola Adejumobi, Eguonor Vivian Orherhe, Adetayo Sadudeen Amid, Adeolu Alex Adedapo, Helen Olubukola Nottidge, Momoh Audu Yakubu
BACKGROUND: Azadirachta indica is widely distributed in Africa, Asia and other tropical parts of the world. A.indica (AI) is traditionally used for the treatment of several conditions including cancer, hypertension, heart diseases and skin disorders. Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion is a common pathway for many diseases and may lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and death. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the ameliorative effects of AI on intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury-induced cardiorenal dysfunction...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892899/endogenous-mechanisms-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-generation
#5
Agata Sarniak, Joanna Lipińska, Karol Tytman, Stanisława Lipińska
The main cellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is mitochondrial respiratory chain and active NADPH responsible for "respiratory burst" of phagocytes. Whatsmore ROS are produced in endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, with the participation of xanthine and endothelial oxidase and during autoxidation process of small molecules. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is the main cellular source of ROS. It is considered that in aerobic organisms ROS are mainly formed during normal oxygen metabolism, as byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation, during the synthesis of ATP...
November 14, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888108/hypoxanthine-causes-endothelial-dysfunction-through-oxidative-stress-induced-apoptosis
#6
You-Jin Kim, Hye-Myung Ryu, Ji-Young Choi, Jang-Hee Cho, Chan-Duck Kim, Sun-Hee Park, Yong-Lim Kim
Endothelial cell injury and dysfunction caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. ROS are generated and hypoxanthine is degraded by xanthine oxidase. Smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with an increased level of hypoxanthine. We aimed to study the direct role of hypoxanthine in endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Hypoxanthine induced cell death and production of ROS. Furthermore, hypoxanthine induced apoptosis through regulation of protein expression related to apoptosis...
November 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881692/monitoring-of-urate-lowering-therapy-among-us-veterans-following-the-2012-american-college-of-rheumatology-guidelines-for-management-of-gout
#7
Jonathan C Hughes, Jessica L Wallace, Candace L Bryant, Brent E Salvig, T Neal Fourakre, William J Stone
BACKGROUND: With the prevalence of and hospitalizations for gout increasing, optimizing care for patients with gout is imperative. The 2012 American College of Rheumatology gout guidelines emphasize that timely monitoring is key to achieving serum urate (SUA) goals. Few studies have examined this metric following the 2012 update, and to our knowledge, none have examined a veteran population. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT) monitoring guidelines in a veteran population...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872595/redox-mechanism-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-exercise
#8
REVIEW
Feng He, Juan Li, Zewen Liu, Chia-Chen Chuang, Wenge Yang, Li Zuo
It is well known that regular exercise can benefit health by enhancing antioxidant defenses in the body. However, unaccustomed and/or exhaustive exercise can generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress-related tissue damages and impaired muscle contractility. ROS are produced in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Mitochondria, NADPH oxidases and xanthine oxidases have all been identified as potential contributors to ROS production, yet the exact redox mechanisms underlying exercise-induced oxidative stress remain elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865966/febuxostat-attenuates-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-induced-regional-endothelial-dysfunction
#9
YanGuang Li, FuKun Chen, Long Deng, Kun Lin, Xiangmin Shi, Shan Zhaoliang, YuTang Wang
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) can increase thrombogenesis risk, especially in the left atrium (LA). The exact mechanism is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of PAF on endothelial function, and investigated if febuxostat (FX) can attenuate endothelial dysfunction by inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into sham-operated (S), PAF (P) or FX+pacing (FP) groups...
November 11, 2016: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864663/mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-enhance-neuroprotective-effects-in-retinal-ganglion-cells
#10
Yi Cui, Nuo Xu, Wei Xu, Guoxing Xu
The apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells leads to visual impairment and blindness in ocular neurodegenerative diseases, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Mounting evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of DR. In the present study, we investigated whether bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have protective ability to relieve hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury on retinal ganglion cells in vitro. An immortalized retinal ganglion cells, RGC-5 cells, were exposed to an indicated concentration of H2O2 for 24 h...
November 18, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863030/integration-of-multiple-analytical-and-computational-tools-for-the-discovery-of-high-potency-enzyme-inhibitors-from-herbal-medicines
#11
Hui-Peng Song, Hong Wang, Jin-Xiu Liang, Cheng Qian, Si-Qi Wu, Wen-Jun Xu, Bin Wu, Xin-Guang Liu, Ping Li, Hua Yang
Herbal medicines (HMs) are an important source of drugs. In this study, an efficient strategy integrating ultrafiltration LC-MS, microplate bioassays, and molecular docking was proposed to screen high-potency enzyme inhibitors from HMs. Using this strategy, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) including binding-affinity-based SAR, enzymatic-activity-based SAR, and structural-complementarity-based SAR of compounds in an HM can be analyzed to provide abundant information for drug discovery. A prominent advantage of the approach is that it offers a multidimensional perspective to understand enzyme-ligand interactions, which could help to avoid false-positive screening results brought by a single method...
November 9, 2016: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861548/targeting-mitochondrial-dysfunction-with-l-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine
#12
Gerda Strifler, Eszter Tuboly, Anikó Görbe, Mihály Boros, Daniella Pécz, Petra Hartmann
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC), a deacylatedphosphatidylcholine derivative, can influence the mitochondrial respiratory activity and in this way, may exert tissue protective effects. METHODS: Rat liver mitochondria were examined with high-resolution respirometry to analyze the effects of GPC on the electron transport chain in normoxic and anoxic conditions. Besides, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to sham operation or standardized liver ischemia-reperfusion (IR), with or without GPC administration...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856348/a-novel-quinone-derived-from-5-hydroxyindoleacetic-acid-reacts-with-protein-possible-participation-of-oxidation-of-serotonin-and-its-metabolite-in-the-development-of-atherosclerosis
#13
Yoji Kato, Kota Oki, Naoko Suga, Shigeki Ono, Akari Ishisaka, Yoko Miura, Satoshi Kanazawa, Michitaka Naito, Noritoshi Kitamoto, Anthony J Kettle
The modification of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) by myeloperoxidase with a xanthine oxidase system was investigated by chromatographic analyses. Two major products were identified as a dimer and quinone (indoleacetate dione) of 5HIAA. The formation of a quinone moiety was also confirmed by chemical trapping with o-phenylenediamine. In the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a quinone-NAC adduct was formed. When glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was exposed to the myeloperoxidase system with 5HIAA, quinone adducts were formed on the protein molecule...
November 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852432/febuxostat-hypersensitivity-another-cause-of-dress-syndrome-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
E Paschou, E Gavriilaki, G Papaioannou, A Tsompanakou, A Kalaitzoglou, N Sabanis
Febuxostat is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that during the last years has successfully replaced allopurinol treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperuricemia. Several adverse events have been observed during therapy with febuxostat. DRESS (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) syndrome induced by febuxostat has been poorly described, mainly in patient with CKD who previously developed allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome. DRESS syndrome is characterized by manifold cutaneous reactions and systemic disorders with potential devastating consequences...
November 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843869/skin-rash-eosinophilia-and-renal-impairment-in-a-patient-recently-started-on-allopurinol
#15
Ashraf Jmeian, Amer Hawatmeh, Razan Shamoon, Fayez Shamoon, Michael Guma
Allopurinol is a hypoxanthine analog which inhibits xanthine oxidase, it is a widely used medication for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. Allopurinol-induced drug-induced rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome is an infrequent, life-threatening adverse reaction of allopurinol therapy that is remarkable for the higher mortality rate with the use of allopurinol than with the use of another agent. We present a case of a 62-year-old male with a history of chronic kidney disease stage 3, hypertension and gout who developed skin rash, eosinophilia, and renal impairment 2 weeks after he was started on allopurinol therapy for gout...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843295/effects-of-renal-function-on-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-lesinurad-in-adult-volunteers
#16
Michael Gillen, Shakti Valdez, Dongmei Zhou, Bradley Kerr, Caroline A Lee, Zancong Shen
INTRODUCTION: Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor approved for the treatment of gout in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI) in patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid (sUA) levels with an XOI alone. Most people with gout have chronic kidney disease. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of lesinurad were assessed in subjects with impaired renal function. METHODS: Two Phase I, multicenter, open-label, single-dose studies enrolled subjects with normal renal function (estimated creatinine clearance [eCrCl] >90 mL/min; N=12) or mild (eCrCl 60-89 mL/min; N=8), moderate (eCrCl 30-59 mL/min; N=16), or severe (eCrCl <30 mL/min; N=6) renal impairment...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834112/restorative-role-of-persimmon-leaf-diospyros-kaki-to-gamma-irradiation-induced-oxidative-stress-and-tissue-injury-in-rats
#17
Omaima M Ashry, Elham M Hussein, Afrag Sh Abd El-Azime
PURPOSE: This study tends to evaluate the efficacy of persimmon leaf extract) PL (as a rich plant source in modulation of radiation induced liver injury and some metabolic variations in gamma irradiated rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PL at the dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight (P1000) was administered to male albino rats via gastric intubation for 15 days after whole body γ- irradiation (6Gy). RESULTS: Irradiated rats showed significant decreases in hepatic glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activities with significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity designating oxidative stress...
November 11, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829805/effect-of-amlodipine-lisinopril-and-allopurinol-on-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats
#18
Nesreen E M Mohammed, Basim A S Messiha, Ali A Abo-Saif
BACKGROUND: Exposure to chemotherapeutic agents such as acetaminophen may lead to serious liver injury. Calcium deregulation, angiotensin II production and xanthine oxidase activity are suggested to play mechanistic roles in such injury. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the possible protective effects of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, and the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol against experimental acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity, aiming to understand its underlying hepatotoxic mechanisms...
November 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826183/supratherapeutic-dose-evaluation-and-effect-of-lesinurad-on-cardiac-repolarization-a-thorough-qt-qtc-study
#19
Zancong Shen, Michael Gillen, Kathy Tieu, Mai Nguyen, Erin Harmon, David M Wilson, Bradley Kerr, Caroline A Lee
INTRODUCTION: Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor approved in the United States and Europe for treatment of gout in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. A maximum tolerated dose study was conducted to determine the lesinurad supratherapeutic dose, followed by a thorough QTc study to characterize the effect of lesinurad on cardiac repolarization. METHODS: The maximum tolerated dose study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-ascending dose study that enrolled 35 healthy men and women...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818485/can-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-improve-cardiac-function-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#20
Shinobu Sugihara, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Ichiro Hisatome
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: International Heart Journal
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