Read by QxMD icon Read

Xanthine oxidase

T Elsasser, K Miska, S Kahl, R Fetterer, A Martínez
Intracellular generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (SOA) can result in the formation of 3'-nitrotyrosine proteins (NTp). Nitrated proteins usually are associated with significant perturbation in protein function, apoptosis, autophagy and cell death. We undertook the present study to establish the temporal dynamics of NTp generation in cytokeratin-18-positive epithelial cells (ETCs) of broiler chickens in response to infection with Eimeria acervulina. Duodenal tissue was harvested from non-infected (NOI) and infected (INF) broilers on days (d) 1, 3, 6, 7 and 10 post-infection (PI) and fixed, embedded, and sectioned for quantitative image analysis, immunohistochemistry with antibodies specific to NTp and the SOA-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Samia M El-Gizawy, Noha N Atia, Noha M Hosny
A rapid, simple, selective and precise fluorimetric method was developed and validated for determination of a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor; febuxostat (FBX) in pharmaceutical formulations and in human plasma. The proposed method is based on quenching effect of FBX on the fluorescence intensity of terbium (Tb3+ ) through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from Tb3+ to FBX. The formed complex was measured at λex. 320 nm/λem. 490 nm against a reagent blank. Fluorescence intensity of Tb3+ was diminished when FBX was added...
April 24, 2018: Luminescence: the Journal of Biological and Chemical Luminescence
Hong-Jin Tang, Wei Li, Mei Zhou, Li-Ying Peng, Jin-Xin Wang, Jia-Huang Li, Jun Chen
Xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative reaction of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid, is a key enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, for the purpose of discovering novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, a series of 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives (3a-3d, 4a-4o and 6a-6d) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds were evaluated their xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by using in vitro enzymatic assay and cellular model. The results showed that a majority of the designed compounds exhibited potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities, and compound 4a emerged as the most potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor (IC50  = 4...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jin-Xiang Zeng, Juan Wang, Shou-Wen Zhang, Ji-Xiao Zhu, Min Li, Wei-Hua Huang, Jin-Yi Wan, Hai-Qiang Yao, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
The XOD inhibitory effects of Plantaginis Semen, that is, the seeds of P. asiatisca , and its representative four single compounds, acteoside, 1H-indolo-3-carbaldehyde, isoacteoside, and myristic acid, were evaluated by electron transfer signal blocking activities (ETSBA), which is based on the electron transfer signal of XOD enzymatic reaction. The blocking activities were detected using an electrochemical biosensing method. Compared with control, significant effects were observed after the addition of P. asiatica extract, acteoside, and 1H-indolo-3-carbaldehyde (all p < 0...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Najib Ben Messaoud, Mariana Emilia Ghica, Cherif Dridi, Mounir Ben Ali, Christopher M A Brett
A novel and simple biosensor for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) based on xanthine oxidase (XOD) enzymatic inhibition has been developed. The biosensor was prepared from xanthine oxidase immobilised by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde, with hypoxanthine as enzyme substrate, and was successfully applied to the determination of BPA using fixed potential amperometry. Biosensor performance was optimised with respect to the applied potential, influence of pH of the electrolyte solution, XOD loading and the substrate concentration...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Manal M Alem
AIM: Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are two inter-related conditions commonly seen in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. The enzyme, xanthine oxidase, is an important contributor to these phenomena but to a variable degree in different patient populations. This meta-analysis will summarize the effect of allopurinol, an established xanthine oxidase inhibitor, on endothelial function among patients with different co-morbidities. METHODS: Medline Complete, PubMed, ProQuest, ClinicalKey, Wiley Online Library and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched till 29th July, 2017...
April 19, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Fara Saez, Nancy J Hong, Jeffrey L Garvin
Luminal flow augments sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb more than can be explained by increased ion delivery. This segment reabsorbs 30% of the filtered load of sodium, playing a key role in its homeostasis. Whether flow elevations enhance Na/K/2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) activity and the second messenger involved are unknown. We hypothesized that raising luminal flow augments NKCC2 activity by enhancing O2 - production by NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4). NKCC2 activity was measured in thick ascending limbs perfused at either 5 or 20 nl/min with and without inhibitors of O2 - production...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Dhiraj Kumar Choudhary, Abha Mishra
Acetone extract of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) was found to be highest total phenol and flavonoid content among all extracts. Antioxidant activity for inhibition percentage (free radical scavenging activity) had 86.47% for acetone extract, and 97.36% for ascorbic acid respectively. IC50 value of ascorbic acid and acetone extact were found to be 9 μg/mL ± 0.20 and 30 μg/mL ± 0.21. Faba bean seeds had catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid and ellagic acid which on molecular docking study revealed that it binds effectively with xanthine oxidase by binding energy of -7...
April 19, 2018: Natural Product Research
Alexandra Jochmans-Lemoine, Susana Revollo, Gabriella Villalpando, Ibana Valverde, Marcelino Gonzales, Sofien Laouafa, Jorge Soliz, Vincent Joseph
Compared with mice, adult rats living at 3,600 m above sea level (SL-La Paz, Bolivia) have high hematocrit, signs of pulmonary hypertension, and low lung volume with reduced alveolar surface area. This phenotype is associated with chronic mountain sickness in humans living at high altitude (HA). We tested the hypothesis that this phenotype is associated with impaired gas exchange and oxidative stress in the lungs. We used rats and mice (3 months old) living at HA (La Paz) and SL (Quebec City, Canada) to measure arterial oxygen saturation under graded levels of hypoxia (by pulse oximetry), the alveolar surface area in lung slices and the activity of pro- (NADPH and xanthine oxidases-NOX and XO) and anti- (superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase-SOD and GPx) oxidant enzymes in cytosolic and mitochondrial lung protein extracts...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Carlos A Roncal-Jimenez, Yuka Sato, Tamara Milagres, Ana Andres-Hernando, Gabriela E Garcia, Petter Bjornstad, Jaime Butler-Dawson, Cecilia Sorensen, Lee Newman, Lyndsay Krisher, Magdalena Madero, Jason Glaser, Ramon Garcia-Trabannino, Emmanuel Jarquin-Romero, Zhilin Song, Thomas Jensen, Masanari Kuwabara, Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe, Laura-Gabriela Sanchez-Lozada, Miguel A Lanaspa, Richard J Johnson
BACKGROUND: An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been observed in Central America among workers in the sugarcane fields. One hypothesis is that the CKD may be caused by recurrent heat stress and dehydration, and potentially by hyperuricemia. Accordingly, we developed a murine model of kidney injury associated with recurrent heat stress. In the current experiment, we tested whether treatment with allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that reduces serum urate) provides renal protection against recurrent heat stress and dehydration...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Xiao-Di Fan, Lan-Lan Wan, Man Duan, Shan Lu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for abnormal heart development, but the molecular mechanism remains obscure. Histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), the most recently identified histone deacetylase, is the sole member of class IV HDACs. However, its role in diabetic cardiac injury is still poorly understood. In the present study, we attempted to explore the effects of HDAC11 on fructose (Fru)-induced cardiac injury using the wild type (HDAC11+/+ ) and knockout (HDAC11-/- ) mice. The results indicated that HDAC11 was significantly expressed in human and mouse diabetic heart failure (DHF) hearts...
April 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Mengze Zhou, Suning Li, Ling Song, Qinghua Hu, Wentao Liu
BACKGOUND: Gout is an inflammatory arthritis characterized by abrupt self-limiting attacks of inflammation caused by precipitation of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) in the joint. Both anti-hyperuricemia and anti-inflammation could be gout therapeutic strategies, whereas ideal drugs for gout treatment are deficient. PURPOSE: 4-(2-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-((4-chlorophenyl)amino)ethyl)benzene-1, 3-diol (CBED) was obtained from a cluster of deoxybenzoins derivatives synthesized by our research group with potent anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory activities, which was expected to be a dual inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Marie Stiborova
Covalent DNA adducts formed by chemicals or drugs with carcinogenic potency are judged as one of the most important factors in the initiation phase of carcinogenic processes. This covalent binding, which is considered the cause of tumorigenesis, is now evaluated as a central dogma of chemical carcinogenesis. Here, methods are described employing the reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 and additional biotransformation enzymes to investigate the potency of chemicals or drugs for their activation to metabolites forming these DNA adducts...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Fazleen I Abu Bakar, Mohd F Abu Bakar, Asmah Rahmat, Norazlin Abdullah, Siti F Sabran, Susi Endrini
Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in one or more joints. In gout, elevation of uric acid in the blood triggers the formation of crystals, causing joint pain. Malaysia is a mega-biodiversity country that is rich in medicinal plants species. Therefore, its flora might offer promising therapies for gout. This article aims to systematically review the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants. Articles on gout published from 2000 to 2017 were identified using PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar with the following keyword search terms: "gout," "medicinal plants," "Malaysia," "epidemiology," " in vitro," and " in vivo ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Usha Panchapakesan, Carol Pollock
Drug repurposing, is the re-tasking of known medications for new clinical indications. Advantages, compared to de novo drug development, include reduced cost and time to market plus the added benefit of a known pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Suitable drug candidates are identified through serendipitous observations, data mining, or increased understanding of disease mechanisms. This review highlights drugs suited for repurposing in kidney disease. The main cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease is cardiovascular disease...
April 6, 2018: Kidney International
Mariana Marin, Naim M Maalouf
Hyperuricemia has been associated in epidemiological studies with the development of obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether lowering of serum uric acid (UA) alters any of the features of the metabolic syndrome. In this prospective study ( identifier: NCT01654276), 24 patients with gouty arthritis and hyperuricemia were treated for 6 months with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat to lower serum UA to <6 mg/dL. Measurements of 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and serum and urine markers of the metabolic syndrome were measured at baseline and at the end of 6 months of febuxostat...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
Ling Zhang, Yuan-Cheng Zhu, Yan Yu Liang, Wei-Wei Zhao, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen
This work reports the synthesis, characterization and application of bifunctional semiconducting CuO nanotubes (NTs) elec-trode for innovative synergized cathodic photoelectrochemical (PEC) enzymatic bioanalysis. Specifically, CuO NTs electrode was fabricated by surface oxidation of the copper foil in an alkaline aqueous solution with (NH4)2S2O8 and then annealed in air at 200 ºC. After the subsequent coupling with the model enzyme of xanthine oxidase (XOD), the resulted photocathodic enzyme biosensor exhibited good analytical performance of rapid response, high stability, and good sensitivity...
April 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
S Timilsina, K Brittan, J R O'Dell, M Brophy, A Davis-Karim, A M Henrie, T Neogi, J Newcomb, P M Palevsky, M H Pillinger, D Pittman, T H Taylor, H Wu, T R Mikuls
BACKGROUND: Gout patients do not routinely achieve optimal outcomes related in part to suboptimal administration of urate lowering therapy (ULT) including first-line xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol or febuxostat. Studies leading to the approval of febuxostat compared this agent to allopurinol in inappropriately low, fixed doses. We will compare allopurinol with febuxostat in gout using appropriately titrated doses of both agents and a "treat-to-target" strategy congruent with specialty guidelines...
March 26, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Flavia Hosaki Silvino da Silva, Maisa Pavani Dos Santos, Mayara Peron Pereira, Samyra Lopes Buzelle, Edgar Wilibaldo Allebrandt Neto, Bibiana Mozzaquatro Gai, Francyele Dos Santos Correia, Cristina Helena Alves, Suelem Aparecida de França, Nair Honda Kawashita
The aim of this study was to evaluate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by xanthine oxidase (XO), the enzymatic antioxidant system and oxidative damage in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of growing rats fed a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC; 6% protein, 74% carbohydrate) diet for 15 days. The LPHC diet increased the total antioxidant capacity by 45% and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase and catalase in the soleus muscles. There was an increase in the carbonylated proteins with no increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), although the XO activity had increased 20%...
March 29, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Tianqiao Yong, Shaodan Chen, Yizhen Xie, Diling Chen, Jiyan Su, Ou Shuai, Huiping Hu, Dan Zuo, Danling Liang
Ethanol and water extracts of Armillaria mellea were prepared by directly soaking A. mellea in ethanol (AME) at 65[Formula: see text]C, followed by decocting the remains in water (AMW) at 85[Formula: see text]C. Significantly, AME and AMW at 30, 60 and 120[Formula: see text]mg/kg exhibited excellent hypouricemic actions, causing remarkable declines from hyperuricemic control (351[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]mol/L, [Formula: see text]) to 136, 130 and 115[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]mol/L and 250, 188 and 152[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]mol/L in serum uric acid, correspondingly...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"