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Xanthine oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442010/ganoderic-acid-a-potentiates-the-antioxidant-effect-and-protection-of-mitochondrial-membranes-and-reduces-the-apoptosis-rate-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons-in-magnesium-free-medium
#1
Z M Jiang, H B Qiu, S Q Wang, J Guo, Z W Yang, S B Zhou
Ganoderma lucidum extracts have shown antiepileptic effects in in vivo and in vitro studies. In this work, primary hippocampal neurons cultured in magnesium-free medium were used to study the neuroprotective effects of ganoderic acid A and B (GA-A and GA-B) on superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and mitochondrial membrane potential, to improve our understanding of their antiepileptic effect. The activity of SOD was determined by the xanthine oxidase assay, the variations of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell apoptosis were measured by JC-1 fluorescent staining and flow cytometry...
February 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438299/the-antioxidant-and-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity-of-plumeria-rubra-flowers
#2
Siti Sarwani Putri Mohamed Isa, Abdulwali Ablat, Jamaludin Mohamad
Plumeria rubra Linn of the family Apocynaceae is locally known in Malaysia as "Kemboja". It has been used by local traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of arthritis-related disease. The LCMS/MS analysis of the methanol extract of flowers (PR-ME) showed that it contains 3- O -caffeyolquinic acid, 5-caffeoquinic acid, 1,3-dicaffeoquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, citric acid, 3,3-di- O -methylellagic acid, kaempferol-3- O -glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside, kaempferol, quercetin 3- O -α-l-arabinopyranoside, quercetin, quinic acid and rutin...
February 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437822/elevated-serum-xanthine-oxidase-activity-is-associated-with-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Xue Li, Xing Meng, Xiangchun Gao, Xiuyu Pang, Yanjiao Wang, Xiaoyan Wu, Xinrui Deng, Qiao Zhang, Changhao Sun, Ying Li
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme in uric acid (UA) metabolism and a major source of reactive oxygen species, plays a causal and important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a large prospective cohort study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 4,412 diabetes-free adults (2,071 women and 2,341 men) aged 30-65 years at baseline in 2008 were involved. Participants were followed for incident change of glucose metabolism during an average of 4...
February 2, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433247/effect-of-different-buffer-systems-on-the-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity-of-tuna-katsuwonus-pelamis-protein-hydrolysate
#4
Guowan Su, Weiwei He, Mouming Zhao, Geoffrey I N Waterhouse, Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse
This study systematically explored the effect of HEPES, Tris and sodium phosphate (PB) buffers on the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of tuna protein hydrolysate (TPH, containing over 90% of constituents with molecular weight below 5kDa). The greatest XO inhibition by TPH was observed in HEPES buffer. The optimal HEPES concentration was 100mmol/L. Tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements revealed the comparable stability of XO and TPH in the three buffers. The buffers did not alter the majority of XO or TPH structure but induced slight modifications to specific domains (e...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432445/promising-effects-of-xanthine-oxidase-inhibition-by-allopurinol-on-autonomic-heart-regulation-estimated-by-heart-rate-variability-hrv-analysis-in-rats-exposed-to-hypoxia-and-hyperoxia
#5
Stanisław Zajączkowski, Wiesław Ziółkowski, Piotr Badtke, Miłosz A Zajączkowski, Damian J Flis, Adam Figarski, Maria Smolińska-Bylańska, Tomasz H Wierzba
BACKGROUND: It has long been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in oxygen sensing via peripheral chemoreceptors, which would imply their involvement in chemoreflex activation and autonomic regulation of heart rate. We hypothesize that antioxidant affect neurogenic cardiovascular regulation through activation of chemoreflex which results in increased control of sympathetic mechanism regulating heart rhythm. Activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), which is among the major endogenous sources of ROS in the rat has been shown to increase during hypoxia promote oxidative stress...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425137/structure-activity-relationship-of-xanthones-as-inhibitors-of-xanthine-oxidase
#6
Ling-Yun Zhou, Jia-Le Peng, Jun-Ming Wang, Yuan-Yuan Geng, Zhi-Li Zuo, Yan Hua
Polygala plants contain a large number of xanthones with good physiological activities. In our previous work, 18 xanthones were isolated from Polygala crotalarioides. Extented study of the chemical composition of the other species Polygala sibirica led to the separation of two new xanthones-3-hydroxy-1,2,6,7,8-pentamethoxy xanthone (A) and 6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1,7-dimethoxy xanthone (C)-together with 14 known xanthones. Among them, some xanthones have a certain xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity. Furthemore, 14 xanthones as XO inhibitors were selected to develop three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) models...
February 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415653/xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-for-prevention-of-cardiovascular-events-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
Markus Bredemeier, Lediane Moreira Lopes, Matheus Augusto Eisenreich, Sheila Hickmann, Guilherme Kopik Bongiorno, Rui d'Avila, André Luis Bittencourt Morsch, Fernando da Silva Stein, Guilherme Gomes Dias Campos
BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI), classified as purine-like (allopurinol and oxypurinol) and non-purine (febuxostat and topiroxostat) XOI, present antioxidant properties by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species derived from purine metabolism. Oxidative stress is an important factor related to endothelial dysfunction and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and may be implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. However, there is contradictory evidence regarding the possible cardiovascular (CV) protective effect exerted by XOI...
February 7, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411090/combined-analytical-approaches-to-define-biodistribution-and-biological-activity-of-semi-synthetic-berberrubine-the-active-metabolite-of-natural-berberine
#8
Emanuele Porru, Placido Franco, Donato Calabria, Silvia Spinozzi, Marinella Roberti, Cristiana Caliceti, Aldo Roda
Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid obtained from Berberis species plants, known for its protective effects against several diseases. Among the primary BBR metabolites, berberrubine (M1) showed the highest plasma concentration but few and conflicting data are available regarding its concentration in biological fluids related to its new potential activity on vascular cells. A combined analytical approach was applied to study biodistribution of M1 in comparison with BBR. The optimization of sample clean-up combined with a fully validated HPLC-ESI-MS/MS tailored for M1 allows sufficient detectability and accuracy to be reached in the different studied organs even when administered at low dose, comparable to that assumed by human...
February 7, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410028/mechanistic-insights-into-the-inhibition-of-quercetin-on-xanthine-oxidase
#9
Cen Zhang, Rui Wang, Guowen Zhang, Deming Gong
Quercetin, one of the most abundant flavonoid in the daily diet, was found to reversibly inhibit the generation of uric acid and superoxide radicals (O2-)catalyzed by xanthine oxidase (XOD) in a mixed-type manner with IC50 values of (2.74±0.04)×10-6 and (2.90±0.03)×10-6molL-1, respectively, and the inhibition of quercetin on O2- generation may be ascribed to the reduced form of XOD by a ping-pong mechanism. XOD had one high affinity binding site for quercetin with a binding constant of 4.28×104Lmol-1 at 298K, and the binding process was predominately driven by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds on account of the negative enthalpy and entropy changes...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407989/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-1-hydroxy-2-phenyl-4-pyridyl-1h-imidazole-derivatives-as-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors
#10
Tingjian Zhang, Yunying Lv, Yu Lei, Dan Liu, Yao Feng, Jiaxing Zhao, Shaolei Chen, Fanhao Meng, Shaojie Wang
In our previous study, we reported a series of 1-hydroxy-2-phenyl-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylic acid derivatives that presented excellent in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory potency. As a continuation study, a series of 1-hydroxy-2-phenyl-1H-imidazole derivatives containing a pyridine moiety (4a-g and 5a-g) at the 4-position was designed and synthesized. Evaluation of in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibition demonstrated that the 4a-g series was more potent than the 5a-g series. Compound 4f was the most promising derivative in the series with an IC50 value of 0...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399931/correlation-of-adipokines-and-markers-of-oxidative-stress-in-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-their-newborns
#11
Min Shang, Xu Dong, Lin Hou
AIM: We have shown that some markers of oxidative stress were higher in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study examines the relationship between adipokines and oxidative stress and their potential effects in pregnant women. METHODS: Three markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostane and xanthine oxidase) and three adipokines (leptin, adiponectin and resistin) were measured in maternal plasma, cord plasma and placenta of 208 pregnant women...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393097/uric-acid-the-lower-the-better
#12
Gianni Bellomo, Antonio Selvi
BACKGROUND: Uric acid (UA) is still considered a risk factor, or even a causative agent, for chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, a few, important, clinical questions remain unanswered; in particular: when and whether urate-lowering therapy should be commenced in subjects with asymptomatic hyperuricemia and/or monosodium urate crystals deposition? What is the most appropriate UA target to be achieved and how long does it need to be maintained? How does treatment need be adjusted in patients with chronic kidney disease? SUMMARY: The observational and intervention studies available do not fully answer such questions, and a treatment to target trial is required...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386212/effective-uric-acid-reduction-with-probenecid-and-febuxostat-in-a-patient-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#13
Robert Case, Brian Wentworth, Grant Jester
A 33-year-old male with poorly controlled chronic tophaceous gout and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 37 cc/min. His uric acid was 11 mg/dL despite maximal dosing of febuxostat. He had previously failed pegloticase infusions as well. This patient had a reduction in his uric acid level to less than 6 mg/dL following addition of probenecid to his febuxostat regimen. Most guidelines recommend against utilisation of probenecid therapy in patients with GFR <50, but there is no obvious contraindication to its use, provided renal calculi do not develop...
January 31, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382583/a-novel-igg1-monoclonal-antibody-against-xanthine-oxidase-alleviates-inflammation-induced-by-potassium-oxonate-in-mice
#14
Xiaoran Liu, Ya Li, Zhixin Li, Xiaomin Wei, Yanjie Ma, Peng Cheng, Rui Jiao, Jinzhi Fang, Yun Xing, Jiali Tang, Min Wang, Taiming Li
Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a key enzyme that catalyzes xanthine to uric acid. Most of the urate-lowering medicines targeting XOD have a limited effect on alleviating inflammation in spite of significant effects on decreasing serum uric acid level. In this study, we produced and characterized a novel monoclonal antibody (Anti-XOD mAb) using hybridoma technology based on a novel peptide OI5P-1(O-IA2(5)-P2-1),which containing a B-cell epitope of XOD and a novel Th2 built-in adjuvant I5P-1(IA2(5)-P2-1). Results of western blotting and cross-reactivity assay indicated that the mAb binds specifically to XOD and the affinity was 2...
January 27, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379665/the-oxidative-anti-oxidative-effects-of-sevoflurane-on-reproductive-system-of-females-an-experimental-study
#15
Hatice Yılmaz Doğru, İsmail Benli, Serkan Doğru
Objective: A permanent balance exists between the production and elimination of reactive oxygen species in all living organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sevoflurane possibly causing an imbalance in the equation of reactive oxygen species on the female rat reproductive system. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 adult female Wistar-albino rats were placed into an anesthesia chamber to administer sevoflurane. Rats were randomly divided into six groups, each group consisting of five rats: the control group received 2 L/min O2 18 min/day for seven days; the first group received 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane and 2 L/min O2 18 min/day for seven days; the second group received 1 MAC of sevoflurane and 2 L/min O2 18 min/day for seven days with no treatment for the next seven days; the third group received 1 MAC of sevoflurane and 2 L/min O2 18 min/day for 14 days; the fourth group received 1 MAC of sevoflurane and 2 L/min O2 18 min/day for 14 days with no treatment for the next seven days; and the fifth group received 1 MAC of sevoflurane and 2 L/min O2 18 min/day for 14 days with no treatment for the next 14 days...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372262/vascular-endothelium-dysfunction-a-conservative-target-in-metabolic-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Shalini Jamwal, Saurabh Sharma
AIM: Vascular endothelium plays a role in capillary transport of nutrients and drugs and regulates angiogenesis, homeostasis, as well as vascular tone and permeability as a major regulator of local vascular homeostasis. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of endothelium in metabolic disorders. METHODS: The endothelium maintains the balance between vasodilatation and vasoconstriction, procoagulant and anticoagulant, prothrombotic and antithrombotic mechanisms...
January 25, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350421/involvement-of-xanthine-oxidase-inhibition-with-the-antioxidant-property-of-nanoencapsulated-melaleuca-alternifolia-essential-oil-in-fish-experimentally-infected-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
M D Baldissera, C F Souza, P H Doleski, R C V Santos, R P Raffin, B Baldisserotto
Nanoencapsulated Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil, TTO) is a natural alternative treatment, with 100% therapeutic efficacy in fish experimentally infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and has also potent protective effects linked with antioxidant properties. However, the pathways responsible for the antioxidant capacity remain unknown. Thus, this study evaluated whether the inhibition of seric xanthine oxidase (XO) activity can be considered a pathway involved in the antioxidant capacity of nanoencapsulated TTO in fish experimentally infected with P...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342493/molecular-docking-studies-on-isocytosine-analogues-as-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors
#18
Subhajit Roy, Bawneet K Narang, Manish K Gupta, Vikrant Abbot, Virender Singh, Ravindra K Rawal
Flexible docking simulations were carried out on a series of isocytosine analogs as xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors. This was done by analysing the interaction of these compounds at the active site of XO. The binding free energies of the analogs were calculated using GoldScore. The binding modes of the best-fit conformation were studied, providing some handy important interactions. The results obtained henceforth provided an insight into the pharmacophoric structural requirements for XO inhibition for this class of molecules...
January 17, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341892/premature-aging-in-behavior-and-immune-functions-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-haploinsufficient-female-mice-a-longitudinal-study
#19
A Garrido, J Cruces, N Ceprián, C Hernández-Sánchez, M De la Fuente
Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ)...
January 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340054/febuxostat-attenuates-er-stress-mediated-kidney-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-hyperuricemic-nephropathy
#20
Li He, Ying Fan, Wenzhen Xiao, Teng Chen, Jiejun Wen, Yang Dong, Yiyun Wang, Shiqi Li, Rui Xue, Liyang Zheng, John Cijiang He, Niansong Wang
Hyperuricemia contributes to kidney tubular injury and kidney fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we examined the role of RTN1A, a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein and ER stress in hyperuricemic nephropathy. We first found the expression of RTN1A and ER stress markers was significantly increased in kidney biopsies of hyperuricemia patients with kidney injury. In a rat model of hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN) established by oral administration of a mixture of adenine and potassium oxonate, increased expression of RTN1A and ER stress was shown in tubular and interstitial compartment of rat kidneys...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
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