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Xanthine oxidase

Ilaria Peluso, Mauro Serafini
Consumption of Tea (Camellia Sinensis) has been correlated with low incidence of chronic pathologies, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in which oxidative stress is deeply involved. Tea catechins and theaflavins are, respectively, the bioactive phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity of Green Tea (GT) and Black Tea (BT). Apart from the redox properties, tea catechins and theaflavins could have also pharmacological activities, such as lowering effects on glucose, lipid and uric acid (UA)...
October 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Noriyoshi Masuoka, Kulwadee Tamsampaoloet, Warinthorn Chavasiri, Isao Kubo
Anacardic acid C15:3 and cardol C15:3 sigmoidally suppressed superoxide anion (O2-) generation using xanthine oxidase. To study this suppression activity, anacardic acids, cardanols and cardols having different numbers of double bonds in alk(en)yl chains were prepared. The O2- scavenging activity and H2O2 formation from O2- using PMS-NADH were examined. Anacardic acids and cardols indicated sigmoidal O2- scavenging activity but cardanols did not. The O2- scavenging activity of anacardic acid C15:3 was weaker than the suppression activity using xanthine oxidase, but the scavenging activity of cardol C15:3 was quite similar to the suppression using xanthine oxidase...
September 2016: Heliyon
Christa Zollbrecht, A Erik G Persson, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg, Mattias Carlström
BACKGROUND: Inorganic nitrite has shown beneficial effects in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases partly via attenuation of NADPH-oxidase (NOX)-mediated oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanisms are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of S-nitrosation or altered expression of NOX subunits, and the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in nitrite-derived nitric oxide (NO) production. METHODS: Mouse macrophages were activated with LPS in the presence or absence of nitrite...
September 28, 2016: Redox Biology
Mohamed Mousslim, Alessandra Pagano, Nicolas Andreotti, Françoise Garrouste, Sylvie Thuault, Vincent Peyrot, Fabrice Parat, José Luis, Marcel Culcasi, Sophie Thétiot-Laurent, Sylvia Pietri, Jean-Marc Sabatier, Hervé Kovacic
The NADPH oxidase proteins catalyse the formation of superoxide anion which act as signalling molecules in physiological and pathological processes. Nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase is expressed in heart, lung, colon, blood vessels and brain. Different strategies involving Nox1 inhibition based on diphenylene iodonium derivatives are currently tested for colorectal cancer therapy. Here, after peptides screening on Nox1-dependent NADPH oxidase assay in HT-29 cells, we identify a peptide (referred to as NF02), cell-active, that potently block Nox1-dependent reactive oxygen species generation...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Magdalena Wiecek, Marcin Maciejczyk, Jadwiga Szymura, Malgorzata Kantorowicz, Zbigniew Szygula
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in the blood of men and women during the first hour following a single anaerobic exercise (AN-EX), and after 24 hours of recovery, and to determine whether the changes in XO activity in the blood after AN-EX are dependent on anaerobic performance. METHODS: Ten men and ten women performed a single AN-EX. Blood was collected before and five times after completion of the AN-EX. The activity of XO was determined...
October 7, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Jhih-Jia Jhang, Jia-Wei Ong, Chi-Cheng Lu, Chin-Lin Hsu, Jia-Hong Lin, Jiunn-Wang Liao, Gow-Chin Yen
Uric acid is a metabolite obtained from purine by xanthine oxidase activity (XO) and high levels of serum uric acid leads to hyperuricemia and gout. Mesona procumbens Hemsl. has been used as a healthy beverage and a traditional remedy. In this study, the hypouricemic effects of M. procumbens extracts were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The 50% ethanol extract of M. procumbens (EE50) showed the strongest inhibitory effect on monosodium urate (MSU)-induced XO activity in THP-1 cells. However, the phenolics and flavonoids in EE50 may not serve as inhibitors of XO...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Ying Qian Zhang, Feng Tian, Jin Song Chen, Yun Dai Chen, Ying Zhou, Bo Li, Qiang Ma, Ying Zhang
Rapamycin is an immunosuppressive agent that is added to drug eluting stents. It prevents restenosis, but it also impairs reendothelialization. Nicorandil is a hybrid agent with adenosine triphosphated (ATP)-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel opener and nitrate properties. It prevents oxidative stress and cell apoptosis induced by rapamycin in endothelial cells in vitro. However, whether nicorandil promotes reendothelialization after angioplasty delayed by rapamycin remains to be determined. Balloon injury model was established in SD rats...
October 4, 2016: Oncotarget
Mihnea Zdrenghea, Adela Sitar-Tăut, Gabriel Cismaru, Dumitru Zdrenghea, Dana Pop
Increased uric acid levels are correlated with cardiovascular disease, particularly with ischaemic heart disease. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors, especially allopurinol, lower the risk of ischaemic heart disease due to their effects on reactive oxygen species and endothelial function. In chronic stable angina pectoris, allopurinol increases the median time to ST depression, time to chest pain, and total exercise time. On the other hand, it has been reported that allopurinol has a beneficial effect on ischaemic patients referred for angioplasty, but there are insufficient data regarding its effect on acute myocardial infarction patients...
September 9, 2016: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
Hyun Seon Kim, Sun Woo Lim, Long Jin, Jian Jin, Byung Ha Chung, Chul Woo Yang
BACKGROUND: The use of calcineurin inhibitors is a well-known risk factor for hyperuricemia in kidney transplant recipients. We evaluated the effect of febuxostat (Fx), a new uric acid-lowering drug, on hyperuricemia and renal injury in an experimental model of chronic tacrolimus (Tac)-induced nephropathy. METHODS: Chronic Tac nephropathy was induced by administering Tac (1.5 mg/kg/day) to rats on a low-salt diet (0.05%) with oxonic acid (OA, 2%, 0.2 g/kg/day) for 28 days...
October 5, 2016: Nephron
Reham Z Hamza, Hayat A A Ismail, Nahla S El-Shenawy
BACKGROUND: Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) is a waste product of several industrial processes. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a vitamin-like chemical also called as an antioxidant. Therefore, the study was designed to investigate the potential benefits of ALA in reducing the nephropathy of DMN in male mice. METHODS: Animals were divided into 6 groups (n=8) and received their treatment for 4 weeks as follows: groups 1-4 served as control, ALA-treatment (16.12 mg/kg), DMN low dose treatment and DMN high dose treatment, respectively...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
In-Soo Yoon, Dae-Hun Park, Sung-Hwan Ki, Seung-Sik Cho
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and antihyperuricemic effects of Corylopsis coreana Uyeki flos extracts and the phytochemicals contained therein. METHODS: Ethanolic extracts of the plant were prepared, and the extraction process was optimized with respect to flavonoid content and XO inhibitory activity. The optimized ethanolic extract was tested for its XO inhibitory activity and antihyperuricemic effects in potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Jun Wang, Gizem Keceli, Rui Cao, Jiangtao Su, Zhiyuan Mi
OBJECTIVES: This review summarizes the spectroscopic results, which will provide useful suggestions for future research. In addition, the fields that urgently need more information are also advised. BACKGROUND: Nitrite-NO-cGMP has been considered as an important signaling pathway of NO in human cells. To date, all the four known human molybdenum-containing enzymes, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase, and mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component, have been shown to function as nitrite reductases under hypoxia by biochemical, cellular, or animal studies...
August 9, 2016: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
Stephanie A Houston, Azizah Ugusman, Sukanya Gnanadesikan, Simon Kennedy
Succinobucol is a phenolic antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects. Given the importance of oxidant stress in modulating platelet-platelet and platelet-vessel wall interactions, the aim of this study was to establish if antioxidant activity was responsible for the antiplatelet activity of succinobucol. Platelet aggregation in response to collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was studied in rabbit whole blood and platelet-rich plasma using impedance aggregometry. The effect of oxidant stress on aggregation, platelet lipid peroxides, and vascular tone was studied by incubating platelets, washed platelets or preconstricted rabbit iliac artery rings respectively with a combination of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X/XO)...
September 29, 2016: Platelets
Sari Honda, Toshiya Masuda
In this study, ethyl acetate-soluble parts of hot-water extracts from roasted coffee beans were found to demonstrate potent xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition. The XO inhibitory activities and chlorogenic lactone contents (chlorogenic lactones have previously been identified as XO inhibitors in roast coffee) were measured for ethyl acetate-soluble parts prepared from coffee beans roasted to three different degrees. Although chlorogenic lactone contents decreased with higher degrees of roasting, the XO inhibitory activity did not decrease...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Naila Raziq, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Shaiq Ali, Salman Zafar, Muhammad Shahid, Mehreen Lateef
Phytochemical investigation of Ranunculus muricatus L. (Ranunculaceae) led to the isolation of a new metabolite named as ranuncoside from the ethyl acetate fraction of the plant. Structure of the novel compound was elucidated through detailed spectroscopic analyses, using UV, IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR and 2D NMR in combination with EIMS and HR EI-MS techniques. The compound was evaluated for antioxidant activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Its inhibitory potential was tested against lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase enzymes...
September 27, 2016: Natural Product Research
Fereshte Bagheri, Vahid Khori, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Solmaz Khalighfard, Saeed Khodayari, Hamid Khodayari
Reperfusion injury is an inherent response to the restoration of blood flow after ischemia. It is a complex process involving numerous mechanisms occurring in the intracellular and extracellular environments, and it is mediated in part by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The imbalance between the cellular formation of free radicals and cells' capacity to defend against them can cause cardiac tissue injuries. In this context, ROS play an essential role in both the organ injury and repair processes. After reperfusion, infiltration into the myocardium of inflammatory leucocytes, such as macrophages and neutrophils, causes further ROS production beyond the initiation of the inflammatory cascade...
September 22, 2016: Life Sciences
Hong-Jian Zhang, Yi-Juan Hu, Pan Xu, Wei-Qing Liang, Jie Zhou, Pei-Gang Liu, Lin Cheng, Jin-Bao Pu
In this study, a new method based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) combined with ultrafiltration-ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UF-UPLC-MS) was developed for discovering ligands for xanthine oxidase (XO) in Gnaphalium hypoleucum DC., a folk medicine used in China for the treatment of gout. By IMAC, the high flavonoid content of G. hypoleucum could be determined rapidly and efficiently. UF-UPLC-MS was used to select the bound xanthine oxidase ligands in the mixture and identify them...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Thuy Lan Nguyen, Anders Rusten, Mona Skogsrud Bugge, Karl Egil Malterud, Drissa Diallo, Berit Smestad Paulsen, Helle Wangensteen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Syzygium guineense has been traditionally used in Mali in West Africa for the treatment of different diseases such as stomach problems, wounds, inflammations and various female disorders. AIMS OF THE STUDY: (1) To perform an ethnopharmacological survey on the traditional use of S. guineense among Malian healers. (2) To isolate and identify chemical constituents from S. guineense leaves and to study their radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory effects...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Márcia A S Correia, Ana Rita Otrelo-Cardoso, Viola Schwuchow, Kajsa G V Sigfridsson Clauss, Michael Haumann, Maria João Romão, Silke Leimkühler, Teresa Santos-Silva
The xanthine oxidase (XO) family comprises molybdenum-dependent enzymes that usually form homodimers (or dimers of heterodimers/trimers) organized in three domains that harbor two [2Fe-2S] clusters, one FAD, and a Mo cofactor. In this work, we crystallized an unusual member of the family, the periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli. This is the first example of an E. coli protein containing a molybdopterin-cytosine-dinucleotide cofactor and is the only heterotrimer of the XO family so far structurally characterized...
September 13, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
U Sener, R Uygur, O Kurt, V Caglar, I Gelincik, A Gurel, H Erdogan
Objectives: To explore the protective effects of curcumin against renal injury induced by formaldehyde in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats were included. The animals were divided into three groups. The control group, received 10 mL/kg of physiological saline intragastrically and intraperitoneally on a daily basis. The formaldehyde group were given 10 mL/kg of physiological saline intragastrically plus 10 mg/kg of formaldehyde intraperitoneally...
October 15, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
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