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Xanthine oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819143/immunomodulatory-and-antioxidant-effects-of-total-flavonoids-of-spatholobus-suberectus-dunn-on-pcv2-infected-mice
#1
Yuan-Fang Fu, Li-He Jiang, Wei-Dan Zhao, Meng Xi-Nan, Shi-Qi Huang, Jian Yang, Ting-Jun Hu, Hai-Lan Chen
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of virus infection and antioxidants are becoming promising candidates as therapeutic agents. This study is designed to investigate the effect of total flavonoids of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn (TFSD) on oxidative stress in mice induced by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection. The PCV2 infection leads to significant decrease in thymus and spleen indices, elevation of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, reduction in GSH level and GSH to GSSG ratio and decline of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, indicating the formation of immunosuppression and oxidative stress...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818778/potential-effect-of-compounds-isolated-from-coffea-arabica-against-uv-b-induced-skin-damage-by-protecting-fibroblast-cells
#2
Yong-Hun Cho, Ashutosh Bahuguna, Han-Hyuk Kim, Dong-In Kim, Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Jae-Myo Yu, Hyun-Gug Jung, Jae-Yoon Jang, Jae-Hoon Kwak, Geun-Hye Park, O-Jun Kwon, Young Je Cho, Jeong Yeon An, Cheorun Jo, Sun Chul Kang, Bong-Jeun An
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation has adverse effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, leading to formation of wrinkles a hallmark of premature skin aging. The adverse effects of UV radiation are associated with induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and degradation of collagen and elastin. The present study investigated anti-wrinkle effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA), pyrocatechol (PC) and 3,4,5-tricaffeoyl quinic acid (TCQ), isolated from beans of Coffea arabica, against UV-B stimulated mouse fibroblast cells (CCRF) by measuring expression levels of MMP-1, 3, 9, and type-I procollagen...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804681/luminol-amplified-chemiluminescence-detects-mainly-superoxide-anion-produced-by-human-neutrophils
#3
Samia Bedouhène, Farida Moulti-Mati, Margarita Hurtado-Nedelec, Pham My-Chan Dang, Jamel El-Benna
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by numerous biological systems and by several phagocytes such as neutrophils and macrophages. ROS include mostly superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical, which are involved in a variety of biological processes such as immunity, inflammation, apoptosis and cell signaling. Thus, there is a need for a sensitive and reliable method to measure ROS. The luminol-amplified chemiluminescence technique is widely used to measure ROS production by neutrophils; however, it is unclear which ROS species are detected by this technique...
2017: American Journal of Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804017/involvement-of-xanthine-oxidase-activity-with-oxidative-and-inflammatory-renal-damage-in-silver-catfish-experimentally-infected-with-streptococcus-agalactiae-interplay-with-reactive-oxygen-species-and-nitric-oxide
#4
Carine F Souza, Matheus D Baldissera, Karen L S Moreira, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Marcelo L da Veiga, Roberto C V Santos, Bernardo Baldisserotto
Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a final enzyme of purine metabolism linked with initiation and progression of infectious diseases, since is considered an important source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), developing a pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory profile in some infectious diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of XO activity in the renal oxidative and inflammatory damage, as well as the interplay with ROS and metabolites of nitric oxide (NOx) levels in silver catfish experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae...
August 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801728/arctium-minus-crude-extract-presents-antinociceptive-effect-in-a-mice-acute-gout-attack-model
#5
Susana Paula Moreira Fischer, Indiara Brusco, Camila Camponogara, Mariana Piana, Henrique Faccin, Luciana Assis Gobo, Leandro Machado de Carvalho, Sara Marchesan Oliveira
Gout is a disorder that triggers a severe inflammatory reaction which generates episodes of intense pain and discomfort to the patient. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. (Asteraceae) is known as "burdock" and displays anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, against rheumatic pain and radical-scavenging activities. Species of the genus Arctium have been used in assistant therapy of gout and other inflammatory processes. We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-edematogenic effects of the crude extract of A. minus seeds in an acute gout attack model induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in adult male Swiss mice (25-30 g)...
August 11, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800542/digitoflavone-dg-attenuates-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-response-dependent-on-the-suppression-of-txnip-nlrp3-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb
#6
Min Meng
Acute lung injury is a severe disease with a high rate of mortality. Digitoflavone (DG) was suggested to possess bioactivities to reduce oxidative stress, inflammation and to regulate apoptosis. In our study, the normal saline, a low dose of DG (12.5mg/kg), a medium dose of DG (25mg/kg) and a high dose of DG (50mg/kg) were administered to male C57BL/6 mice by gavage. And then, the mice were intratracheally injected with either normal saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that DG ameliorated LPS-induced lung injury and platelets activation, accompanied with reduced CD41 expression and neutrophil platelet aggregates (NPAs)...
August 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800275/polyphenol-rich-fraction-of-parquetina-nigrescens-mitigates-dichlorvos-induced-cardiorenal-dysfunction-through-reduction-in-cardiac-nitrotyrosine-and-renal-p38-expressions-in-wistar-rats
#7
Ademola A Oyagbemi, Temidayo O Omobowale, Grace O Ochigbo, Ebunoluwa R Asenuga, Olufunke Eunice Ola-Davies, Temitayo O Ajibade, Adebowale B Saba, Adeolu A Adedapo
Parquetina nigrescens is commonly used to treat diseases in humans and animals in developing countries, including Nigeria. This study evaluates the effects of its polyphenol-rich fraction (prf) on dichlorvos-induced cardio- and renal toxicity. There were several factors assessed during this study, including cardiac and renal markers, serum myeloperoxidase and xanthine oxidase, and electrocardiograph (ECG) changes. The changes in electrocardiograph (ECG) were recorded. Immunohistochemistry of cardiac and renal p38 and nitrotyrosine was determined...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800072/phosphate-linked-silibinin-dimers-plsd-new-promising-modified-metabolites
#8
Valeria Romanucci, Raffaele Gravante, Martina Cimafonte, Cinzia Di Marino, Gilles Mailhot, Marcello Brigante, Armando Zarrelli, Giovanni Di Fabio
By exploiting the regioselective protection of the hydroxyl groups of silibinin along with the well-known phosphoramidite chemistry, we have developed an efficient strategy for the synthesis of new silibinin-modified species, which we have named Phosphate-Linked Silibinin Dimers (PLSd), in which the monomer units are linked by phosphodiester bonds. The antioxidant abilities of the new PLSd were estimated on HepG2 cells using DPPH free radical scavenging and xanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. The new phosphate-metabolites showed a higher anti-oxidant activity than the silibinin, as well as very low toxicity...
August 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797123/relationship-between-plasma-xanthine-oxidoreductase-activity-and-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-and-hypertrophy-among-cardiac-patients
#9
Yuki Fujimura, Yohei Yamauchi, Takayo Murase, Takashi Nakamura, Shu-Ichi Fujita, Tomohiro Fujisaka, Takahide Ito, Koichi Sohmiya, Masaaki Hoshiga, Nobukazu Ishizaka
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), which catalyzes purine catabolism, has two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, the latter of which produces superoxide during uric acid (UA) synthesis. An association between plasma XOR activity and cardiovascular and renal outcomes has been previously suggested. We investigated the potential association between cardiac parameters and plasma XOR activity among cardiology patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma XOR activity was measured by [13C2,15N2]xanthine coupled with liquid chromatography/triplequadrupole mass spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778045/bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-toxicopathological-changes-in-rats-and-its-prevention-by-walnut-extract
#10
Saba Beigh, Hina Rashid, Shikha Sharma, Suhel Parvez, Sheikh Raisuddin
Oxidative stress-related inflammation and apoptosis are important pathogenic consequences, which result in acute pulmonary toxicity. Bleomycin (BLM) is used to treat various forms of cancers. However, its prolonged administration is associated with major toxicity to respiratory system. We studied the effect of walnut (Juglans regia) extract in a rat model of BLM-induced pulmonary toxicopathy. We also studied parameters of inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress in various groups of animals. Prophylactic treatment of total methanolic extract of walnut at the dose of 150mg/kg b...
August 1, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774949/renoprotective-effect-of-topiroxostat-via-antioxidant-activity-in-puromycin-aminonucleoside-nephrosis-rats
#11
Yosuke Kawamorita, Takeshi Shiraishi, Yoshifuru Tamura, Takanori Kumagai, Shigeru Shibata, Yoshihide Fujigaki, Makoto Hosoyamada, Takahiko Nakagawa, Shunya Uchida
Topiroxostat is a novel inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, and is postulated to exert a renoprotective effect. Puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN) is a rat model of minimal change nephrotic syndrome. In this study, we examined whether topiroxostat ameliorates the kidney injury in PAN rats that was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of PA (100 mg/kg body weight). Rats were divided into four groups: control rats, PAN rats, control rats treated with topiroxostat (1.0 mg/kg/day), and PAN rats treated with topiroxostat...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769989/synergistic-uric-acid-lowering-effects-of-the-combination-of-chrysanthemum-indicum-linne-flower-and-cinnamomum-cassia-l-j-persl-bark-extracts
#12
Young-Sil Lee, Eunjung Son, Seung-Hyung Kim, Yun Mi Lee, Ohn Soon Kim, Dong-Seon Kim
Chrysanthemum indicum Linne flower (CF) and Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Persl bark (CB) extracts have served as the main ingredients in several prescriptions designed to treat hyperuricemia and gout in traditional Chinese and Korean medicine. However, little is known about the combination effects of a CF and CB (CC) mixture on hyperuricemia. In our study, we investigated the antihyperuricemic effects of CC mixture and the mechanisms underlying these effects in normal and potassium oxonate- (PO-) induced hyperuricemic rats...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764846/uric-acid-promotes-vascular-stiffness-maladaptive-inflammatory-responses-and-proteinuria-in-western-diet-fed-mice
#13
Annayya R Aroor, Guanghong Jia, Javad Habibi, Zhe Sun, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Barron Brady, Dongqing Chen, Luis A Martinez-Lemus, Camila Manrique, Ravi Nistala, Adam T Whaley-Connell, Vincent G Demarco, Gerald A Meininger, James R Sowers
OBJECTIVE: Aortic vascular stiffness has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in obese individuals. However, the mechanism promoting these adverse effects are unclear. In this context, promotion of obesity through consumption of a western diet (WD) high in fat and fructose leads to excess circulating uric acid. There is accumulating data implicating elevated uric acid in the promotion of CVD and CKD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that xanthine oxidase(XO) inhibition with allopurinol would prevent a rise in vascular stiffness and proteinuria in a translationally relevant model of WD-induced obesity...
September 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759879/structure-activity-relations-of-rosmarinic-acid-derivatives-for-the-amyloid-%C3%AE-aggregation-inhibition-and-antioxidant-properties
#14
Riho Taguchi, Koki Hatayama, Tomohito Takahashi, Takafumi Hayashi, Yuki Sato, Daisuke Sato, Kiminori Ohta, Hiroto Nakano, Chigusa Seki, Yasuyuki Endo, Kiyotaka Tokuraku, Koji Uwai
Amyloid-β aggregation inhibitors are expected to be therapeutic or prophylactic agents for Alzheimer's disease. Rosmarinic acid, which is one of the main aggregation inhibitors derived from Lamiaceae, was employed as a lead compound and its 25 derivatives were synthesized. In this study, the structure-activity relations of rosmarinic acid derivatives for the amyloid-β aggregation inhibitory effect (MSHTS assay), antioxidant properties, and xanthine oxidase inhibition were evaluated. Among the tested compounds, compounds 16d and 19 were found to the most potent amyloid aggregation inhibitors...
July 18, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759751/rac2-deficiency-attenuates-ccl4-induced-liver-injury-through-suppressing-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#15
Yan Zou, Ji-Bin Xiong, Ke Ma, Ai-Zhong Wang, Ke-Jian Qian
Oxidative stress is a leading cause to liver injury. Rac2 is a Ras-associated guanosine triphosphatase, an important molecule modulating a large number of cells and involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). For the study described here, we supposed that Rac2 knockout protects mice against CCl4-induced acute liver injury. We found that Rac2 expressed highly in CCl4-induced liver tissues. CCl4-treated Rac2 knockout (Rac2-/-) mice had reduced CD24 levels and steatosis. In addition, CCl4-induced high expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were reversed by Rac2 deficiency compared to CCl4-treated wild type (WT) mice...
July 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756918/xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-from-archidendron-clypearia-jack-i-c-nielsen-results-from-systematic-screening-of-vietnamese-medicinal-plants
#16
Nguyen Thuy Duong, Pham Duc Vinh, Phuong Thien Thuong, Nguyen Thi Hoai, Le Nguyen Thanh, Tran The Bach, Nguyen Hai Nam, Nguyen Hoang Anh
OBJECTIVE: To screen Vietnamese medicinal plants for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and to isolate XO inhibitor(s) from the most active plant. METHODS: The plants materials were extracted by methanol. The active plant materials were fractionated using different organic solvents, including n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Bioassay-guided fractionation and column chromatography were used to isolate compounds. The compounds structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR...
June 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755406/effect-of-apple-polyphenols-on-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-endothelium-function-a-translational-study
#17
Arrigo F G Cicero, Cristiana Caliceti, Federica Fogacci, Marina Giovannini, Donato Calabria, Alessandro Colletti, Maddalena Veronesi, Aldo Roda, Claudio Borghi
SCOPE: We aimed examining apple polyphenols' effect on uricemia and endothelial function in a sample of overweight subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a two-phases study. In vitro experiment aimed to evaluate apple polyphenols' ability to lower uric acid in comparison with allopurinol. In vivo study consisted in a randomized, double-blind, parallel placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 62 overweight volunteers with suboptimal values of fasting plasma glucose (100mg/dL≤FPG≤125mg/dL), randomized to 300mg apple polyphenols or placebo for 8 weeks...
July 29, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752287/effects-of-topiroxostat-in-hyperuricemic-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Taro Horino, Yutaka Hatakeyama, Osamu Ichii, Tatsuki Matsumoto, Yoshiko Shimamura, Kosuke Inoue, Yoshio Terada, Yoshiyasu Okuhara
BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although topiroxostat, a novel, non-purine, selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, has a strong effect against hyperuricemia, limited data are available on its renoprotective effect against CKD. METHODS: This study was conducted between October 2014 and May 2016. Thirty patients (20 male, 10 female) were administered 40 mg/day of topiroxostat twice daily. All patients were followed for a year...
July 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748426/quality-of-care-in-gout-a-clinical-audit-on-treating-to-the-target-with-urate-lowering-therapy-in-real-world-gout-patients
#19
Carly A Janssen, Tim L Th A Jansen, Martijn A H Oude Voshaar, Harald E Vonkeman, Mart A F J van de Laar
The current paper aimed to describe the quality of care for gout patients by showing the clinical outcomes achieved in two patient cohorts in which differing targeted urate lowering therapy (ULT) treatment approaches were employed, both aiming to reach the European League Against Rheumatism recommended serum urate (sUA) targets. A retrospective medical chart review study was conducted. Data from the medical records of gout patients from two clinical centers in The Netherlands, both applying targeted ULT treatments (albeit using different approaches), were reviewed...
July 26, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748114/uric-acid-in-plants-and-microorganisms-biological-applications-and-genetics-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Rehab M Hafez, Tahany M Abdel-Rahman, Rasha M Naguib
Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism...
September 2017: Journal of Advanced Research
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