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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434436/treatment-options-for-gout
#1
Bettina Engel, Johannes Just, Markus Bleckwenn, Klaus Weckbecker
BACKGROUND: 1-2% of adults in Germany suffer from gout. Gout is one of the few rheumatological diseases that can be cured. It arises through the deposition of uric acid crystals in joints as a result of hyperuricemia. Painful redness and swelling of the affected joints are typical findings. Multiple pertinent guidelines and treatment recommendations have been published, but there is reason to believe that patients with gout are not always treated accordingly. METHODS: This review is based on relevant publications from the years 2000-2016 that were retrieved by a selective search in the Cochrane and PubMed databases...
March 31, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430170/current-management-of-gout-practical-messages-from-eular-2016-guidelines
#2
George Nuki, Michael Doherty, Pascal Richette
The European League Against Rheumatism published updated recommendations for the management of gout in 2016, comprising 3 overarching principles and 11 key recommendations for clinical practice. Patient education about the pathophysiology of gout and its comorbidities, as well as the existence of effective treatments are important, and understanding the principles of managing acute attacks and eliminating urate crystals by lifelong lowering of the serum urate (SU) below a target level are essential. Advice about lifestyle, diet, weight, and other risk factors, as well as the need to screen for, and manage, comorbidities is emphasized...
April 21, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429353/roles-of-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway-in-the-anti-oxidative-stress-response-to-ischemia-reperfusion-brain-injury-in-rats
#3
L-J Jiang, S-M Zhang, C-W Li, J-Y Tang, F-Y Che, Y-C Lu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in the responses to the oxidative stress created by ischemia-reperfusion brain injury in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 54 healthy, adult, male SD rats were included in the study. Eighteen (18) rats were placed in the sham group. The ischemia-reperfusion model was created in the other 36 rats, among which 18 received injections of Nrf2 agonist before the surgery. The suture method was used to create artery occlusions in the right brain of the rats; and reperfusion was done after 90-minute ischemia (MCAO); while no suture was inserted in the sham group...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428691/relationship-between-xanthine-oxidase-ischemia-modified-albumin-nitric-oxide-with-antioxidants-in-non-pregnants-pre-and-post-delivery-of-normal-pregnants-and-preeclampsia
#4
Vanishree Bambrana, C D Dayanand, Pushpa Kotur
Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder involves altered homeostasis of oxidants-antioxidants, inflammatory process and endothelial dysfunction. The present study aim was to determine the levels of oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, ischemia modified albumin and xanthine oxidase), nutrient antioxidants (vitamin C and vitamin E), enzyme antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase glutathione reductase), total antioxidant status (TAS) and its association with nitric oxide...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425024/lesinurad-a-review-in-hyperuricaemia-of-gout
#5
Emma D Deeks
Lesinurad (Zurampic(®)) is an oral selective inhibitor of the URAT1 and OAT4 uric acid (UA) transporters of the kidney, via which it inhibits UA reabsorption and thus increases renal UA excretion and lowers serum UA (sUA) levels. Lesinurad 200 mg once daily is indicated for use in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI) to treat hyperuricaemia in adults with gout who have not achieved target sUA levels with an XOI alone. Approval was based on three 12-month phase 3 trials that evaluated lesinurad in combination with allopurinol in adults with gout inadequately responsive to allopurinol (CLEAR 1 and 2) and in combination with febuxostat in adults with tophaceous gout (CRYSTAL)...
April 19, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421120/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-on-quercus-acuta-thunb-fagaceae-extract-active-constituents-serum-uric-acid-suppression-and-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity
#6
In-Soo Yoon, Dae-Hun Park, Min-Suk Bae, Deuk-Sil Oh, Nan-Hui Kwon, Jung-Eun Kim, Chul-Yung Choi, Seung-Sik Cho
Quercus acuta Thunb. (Fagaceae) (QA) is cultivated as a dietary and ornamental plant in China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. It has been widely used as the main ingredient of acorn tofu, a traditional food in China and South Korea. The aim of this study was to determine in vitro and in vivo xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and antihyperuricemic activities of an ethyl acetate extract of QA leaf (QALE) and identify its active phytochemicals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC) systems...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420204/fructose-intake-serum-uric-acid-and-cardiometabolic-disorders-a-critical-review
#7
REVIEW
Cristiana Caliceti, Donato Calabria, Aldo Roda, Arrigo F G Cicero
There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5-6 mg/dL)...
April 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418590/control-of-biofouling-by-xanthine-oxidase-on-seawater-reverse-osmosis-membranes-from-a-desalination-plant-enzyme-production-and-screening-of-bacterial-isolates-from-the-full-scale-plant
#8
Veena Nagaraj, Lucy Skillman, Dan Li, Zhangwang Xie, Goen Ho
Control of biofouling on seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes is a major challenge as treatments can be expensive, damage the membrane material and often biocides do not remove the polymers in which bacteria are embedded. Biological control has been largely ignored for biofouling control. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of xanthine oxidase enzyme against complex fouling communities and then identify naturally occurring bacterial strains that produce the free radical generating enzyme...
April 18, 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413972/xanthine-oxidase-and-its-role-as-target-in-cardiovascular-disease-cardiovascular-protection-by-enzyme-inhibition
#9
Mirjam Schuchardt, Jaqueline Herrmann, Markus Tölle, Markus van der Giet
BACKGROUND: Formerly, hyperuricemia was mainly restricted to the rich population, but now-a-days it is a condition affecting wide parts of western civilization. Although only a minority of our population develops clinically relevant symptomatic hyperuricemia, there is growing evidence that elevated serum uric acid levels might be associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease progression. But it is not clear whether uric acid is just a biomarker or exerts detrimental effects itself...
April 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407238/quercetin-hyperin-and-chlorogenic-acid-improve-endothelial-function-by-antioxidant-antiinflammatory-and-ace-inhibitory-effects
#10
Wu-Yang Huang, Lin Fu, Chun-Yang Li, Li-Ping Xu, Li-Xia Zhang, Wei-Min Zhang
In recent years, the blueberry cultivation and processing industry developed quickly because blueberries are super-fruit with healthy function. Blueberry leaves are byproducts of the blueberry industry, which are rich in bioactive phenolics, such as quercetin (Q), hyperin (H), and chlorogenic acid (C). This study investigated protective effects of 3 phenolics (Q, H, and C) from leaves of rabbiteye blueberry Vaccinium ashei on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results showed that all these 3 phenolics could improve endothelial function by inhibiting oxidative damage and proinflammatory cytokines caused by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390973/neolignans-and-serratane-triterpenoids-with-inhibitory-effects-on-xanthine-oxidase-from-palhinhaea-cernua
#11
Jing Li, Ping-Sheng Xu, Lei-Hong Tan, Zhen-Xing Zou, Yi-Kun Wang, Hong-Ping Long, Gan Zhou, Guang Li, Kang-Ping Xu, Gui-Shan Tan
Three new neolignans, lycocernuasides B-D (1-3), three new serratane triterpenoids, lycernuic ketones D (8) and E (9), and lycernuic A (10), together with six known compounds, were isolated from the 75% aqueous EtOH extract of Palhinhaea cernua. Their structures and absolute configurations were established primarily by NMR, HRESIMS and circular dichroism (CD). All compounds were evaluated the inhibitory activities of xanthine oxidase. Compounds 1-3 displayed moderate inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase with IC50 values of 30...
April 5, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390941/effects-of-gnaphalium-affine-d-don-on-hyperuricemia-and-acute-gouty-arthritis
#12
Hong-Jian Zhang, Ling-Nan Li, Jie Zhou, Qin-Qin Yang, Pei-Gang Liu, Pan Xu, Wei-Qing Liang, Lin Cheng, Ying-Qi Zhang, Jin-Bao Pu, Yi-Juan Hu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Gnaphalium affine D. Don is used in China as a folk medicine to treat gout, anti-inflammatory, antitussive and expectorant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the extract of G. affine to treat hyperuricemia and acute gouty arthritis in animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: G. affine extract was evaluated in an experimental model with potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia in mice which was used to evaluate anti-hyperuricemia activity and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389481/relationship-between-uric-acid-and-technique-failure-in-patients-on-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-a-long-term-observational-cohort-study
#13
Yao-Peng Hsieh, Chia-Chu Chang, Chew-Teng Kor, Yu Yang, Yao-Ko Wen, Ping-Fang Chiu, Chi-Chen Lin
OBJECTIVES: Uric acid (UA) is the product of purine or nucleotide metabolism via the pathway of xanthine oxidase or xanthine dehydrogenase. Although epidemiological studies assessing the role of UA in cardiovascular disease or mortality have produced inconsistent results, the correlation between UA and technique failure in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) remains to be assessed. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Patients starting CAPD between 2001 and 2009 in a single centre in Taiwan...
April 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379215/effects-of-cornus-mas-l-and-morus-rubra-l-extracts-on-penicillin-induced-epileptiform-activity-an-electrophysiological-and-biochemical-study
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Filiz Tubaş, Sedat Per, Abdulkadir Taşdemir, Ayşe Kaçar Bayram, Mehmet Yıldırım, Aydın Uzun, Recep Saraymen, Hakan Gümüş, Ferhan Elmalı, Hüseyin Per
Traditionally, Morus rubra L. (Moraceae) (red mulberry) and Cornus mas L. (Cornacea) (cornelian cherry) fruits are eaten fresh and are also used in marmalades, juices, jam, natural dyes in Turkey and are believed to have beneficial effects in case of multiple health issues such as antipyretic, diarrhea and intestinal parasites. However, the effects of M. rubra and C. mas on epilepsy has not been known. This study evaluates the effects of M. rubra and C. mas extracts on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376775/anti-hyperuricemic-anti-inflammatory-and-analgesic-effects-of-siegesbeckia-orientalis-l-resulting-from-the-fraction-with-high-phenolic-content
#15
Thuy Duong Nguyen, Phuong Thien Thuong, In Hyun Hwang, Thi Kim Huyen Hoang, Minh Khoi Nguyen, Hoang Anh Nguyen, MinKyun Na
BACKGROUND: The medicinal plant Siegesbeckia orientalis L. has been commonly used for the treatment of acute arthritis, rheumatism, and gout in Vietnam. However, pharmacological research of this plant associated with gout has not been reported. Anti-hyperuricemic and anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated and observed for the crude ethanol extract (CEE) of S. orientalis. Retention of these biological properties was found in a n-butanol-soluble fraction (BuOH fr.) of the extract, and therefore further biological and chemical investigations were undertaken on the BuOH fr...
April 4, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376311/contribution-of-ppar-gamma-in-modulation-of-acrolein-induced-inflammatory-signaling-in-gp91phox-knock-out-mice
#16
Zivar Yousefipour, Kasturi Ranganna, Mathew Joseph, Katarzyna Marek, Neha Chung, Alicia Nesbary, Mohammad A Newaz
Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors in acrolein toxicity. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor gamma (PPARγ) has antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated contribution of PPARγ ligand, GW1929, in attenuation of oxidative stress in acrolein-induced insult. Male gp91phox knockout (KO) mice were treated with acrolein (0.5 mg/kg; i.p.7 days) with/without GW1929 (GW, 0.5 mg/kg/day; orally-10 days). Liver was processed for further analysis. Acrolein significantly increased 8-Isoprostane and reduced PPARγ activity (P<0...
April 4, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374671/gelatinases-a-and-b-and-antioxidant-enzyme-activity-in-the-early-phase-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#17
K Gopcevic, B Rovcanin, D Kekic, D Milasinovic, G Kocic, I Stojanovic
Oxidative stress plays important roles in the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of the oxidative stress status and matrix metalloproteinase activity in AMI patients in comparison to controls. This study included 136 subjects: 68 patients with AMI (42 males/26 females; mean age 58.5 ± 10.5 years) and 68 controls (37 males/29 females; mean age 60.2 ± 12.4 years). Gelatinases A and B were assayed using gelatin zymography, enzyme activities were obtained spectrophotometrically...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370547/real-time-monitoring-of-enzyme-catalysed-reactions-using-deep-uv-resonance-raman-spectroscopy
#18
Chloe Westley, Heidi Fisk, Yun Xu, Katherine Hollywood, Andrew Carnell, Jason Micklefield, Nicholas Turner, Royston Goodacre
For enzyme-catalysed biotransformations, continuous in situ detection methods minimise the need for sample manipulation, ultimately leading to more accurate real-time kinetic determinations of substrate(s) and product(s). We have established for the first time an on-line, real-time quantitative approach to monitor simultaneously multiple biotransformations based on UV resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy. In order to exemplify the generality and versatility of this approach, multiple substrates and enzyme systems were used involving nitrile hydratase and xanthine oxidase, both of which are of industrial and biological significance, and incorporating multi-step enzymatic conversions...
March 29, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361355/redox-status-alterations-during-the-competitive-season-in-%C3%A3-lite-soccer-players-focus-on-peripheral-leukocyte-derived-ros
#19
Matteo Becatti, Amanda Mannucci, Victoria Barygina, Gabriele Mascherini, Giacomo Emmi, Elena Silvestri, Daniel Wright, Niccolò Taddei, Giorgio Galanti, Claudia Fiorillo
It is well known that exercise training can deeply affect redox homeostasis by enhancing antioxidant defenses. However, exhaustive exercise can induce excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, leading to oxidative stress-related tissue injury and impaired muscle contractility. Hence, ROS represent important signaling molecules whose level has to be maintained to preserve normal cellular function, but which can also accumulate in response to repetitive muscle contraction. In fact, low levels of oxidants have been suggested to be essential for muscle contraction...
March 30, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355168/associations-of-plasma-uric-acid-and-purine-metabolites-with-blood-pressure-in-children-the-koala-birth-cohort-study
#20
Lieke E J M Scheepers, Annelies Boonen, Wieke Pijnenburg, Jörgen Bierau, Jan A Staessen, Coen D A Stehouwer, Carel Thijs, Ilja C W Arts
OBJECTIVE: Elevated serum uric acid concentration has been associated with high blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. A putative underlying mechanism is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species when uric acid is generated by an increased enzyme activity of xanthine oxidase (XO). The aims of the present study were to investigate the associations between plasma uric acid concentration, purine metabolite ratios, as proxies for increased XO activity, and SBP and DBP in school-age children...
May 2017: Journal of Hypertension
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