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Xanthine oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101741/anti-hyperuricemic-effect-of-taxifolin-in-cultured-hepatocytes-and-model-mice
#1
Shin-Ichi Adachi, Ken-Ichi Nihei, Yoshiyuki Ishihara, Fumiaki Yoshizawa, Kazumi Yagasaki
Hyperuricemia is recognized as an important risk factor for gout. High dietary intake of purine-rich foods such as meats and sea foods increases uric acid (UA) levels in the blood. Taxifolin present in Siberian larch and strawberries has been reported to possess health promoting activities including anti-oxidant effect. In this study, we examined anti-hyperuricemic effect of taxifolin in both cultured hepatocytes and hyperuricemic model mice. In cultured AML12 hepatocytes, taxifolin significantly suppressed UA production dose- and time-dependently...
January 18, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101461/acute-and-subchronic-toxicity-study-of-the-median-septum-of-juglans-regia-in-wistar-rats
#2
Asma Ravanbakhsh, Majid Mahdavi, Ghader Jalilzade-Amin, Shahram Javadi, Masoud Maham, Daryosh Mohammadnejad, Mohammad Reza Rashidi
Purpose: Median septum of Juglans regia L. (Juglandaceae) with anti-diabetic effects has been used in Iranian traditional medicine. The present study estimates both oral acute and subchronic toxicities. Methods: In the oral acute toxicity study, female Wistar rats were treated with doses of 10, 100, 1000, 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg/ kg of the Juglans regia septum of methanol extract (JRSME), and were monitored for 14 days. In subchronic study, JRSME was administered by gavage at dose of 1000 mg/kg daily in Wistar rats for 28 days...
December 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097900/structure-activity-relationships-of-fraxamoside-as-an-unusual-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitor
#3
Rosa Maria Vitale, Lina Antenucci, Margherita Gavagnin, Gennaro Raimo, Pietro Amodeo
Fraxamoside, a macrocyclic secoiridoid glucoside featuring a hydroxytyrosol group, was recently identified as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI) comparable in potency in vitro to the standard antigout drug allopurinol. However, this activity and its considerably higher value than its derivatives oleuropein, oleoside 11-methyl ester, and hydroxytyrosol are not explained by structure-activity relationships (SARs) of known XOIs. To exclude allosteric mechanisms, we first determined the inhibition kinetic of fraxamoside...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089947/hepatic-xanthine-oxidase-activity-and-purine-nucleosides-levels-as-physiological-mediators-to-analyze-a-subcutaneous-treatment-with-phse-2-in-mice-infected-by-toxoplasma-gondii
#4
Pedro H Doleski, Daniela B R Leal, Vanessa Machado, Nathieli B Bottari, Emerson A Casali, Cesar E J Moritz, Giovana Camillo, Fernanda F Vogel, Lenita M Stefani, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of purine nucleosides and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in the liver of mice chronically infected by Toxoplasma gondii and treated with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2. For this experiment, forty Swiss mice were used. Twenty animals were orally infected by approximately 50 bradizoites of a cystogenic ME-49 strain of T. gondii, and the same number of uninfected mice was used as a control group. Ten infected and ten uninfected mice were subcutaneously treated twice (days 1 and 20 post-infection (PI)) with 5 μmol kg(-1) of (PhSe)2...
January 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089739/the-influence-of-seasonality-on-the-content-of-goyazensolide-and-on-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-hyperuricemic-effects-of-the-ethanolic-extract-of-lychnophora-passerina-brazilian-arnica
#5
Bruno César de Albuquerque Ugoline, Jacqueline de Souza, Fernanda Cristina Ferrari, Zilma Schimith Ferraz Filha, Grazielle Brandão Coelho, Dênia Antunes Saúde-Guimarães
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lychnophora passerina (Mart ex DC) Gardn (Asteraceae), popularly known as Brazilian arnica, is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat pain, rheumatism, bruises, inflammatory diseases and insect bites. AIM OF THE STUDY: Investigate the influence of the seasons on the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperuricemic activities of ethanolic extract of L. passerina and the ratio of the goyazensolide content, main chemical constituent of the ethanolic extract, with these activities...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087178/acupuncture-for-serum-uric-acid-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-hyperuricemia-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Yingjuan Huang, Jun Meng, Baoguo Sun, Ting Xiang, Xin Zhou, Biyu Xu, Yingzi Wu, Zexiong Chen, Shijun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hyperuricemia (HUA) is the most common disease associated with cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and kidney disease. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy, mechanism, and safety of acupuncture on serum uric acid in patients with asymptomatic HUA. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial among 123 patients with asymptomatic HUA was conducted. The acupoints used in the acupuncture group were bilateral Five Shu in Spleen Meridian...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079821/febuxostat-induced-agranulocytosis-in-an-end-stage-renal-disease-patient-a-case-report
#7
Xue Er Poh, Chien-Te Lee, Sung-Nan Pei
INTRODUCTION: Febuxostat, a nonpurine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is approved as the first-line urate-lowering therapy in gout patients with normal renal function or mild to moderate renal impairment. The most common adverse effects of febuxostat are liver function test abnormalities, diarrhea, and skin rash. However, there is insufficient data in patients with severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We report the first case, to our knowledge, in which agranulocytosis developed after febuxostat treatment in an ESRD patient...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077046/rational-use-of-rasburicase-for-the-treatment-and-management-of-tumor-lysis-syndrome
#8
Suhail A Shaikh, Bernard L Marini, Shannon M Hough, Anthony J Perissinotti
Purpose There is a lack of high-level evidence identifying meaningful outcomes and the optimal place in therapy of rasburicase in patients with, or at high risk for tumor lysis syndrome. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate and characterize outcomes resulting from an institution-specific guideline emphasizing supportive care, xanthine oxidase inhibitors, and lower doses of rasburicase. Methods In this retrospective chart review, we compared conservative rasburicase dosing, in accordance with newly developed UMHS tumor lysis syndrome guidelines, with aggressive rasburicase in adult patients (≥ 18 years of age) with hematological or solid tumor malignancies, and a uric acid level between 8 and 15 mg/dL...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074640/evaluation-of-pharmacokinetic-interactions-between-lesinurad-a-new-selective-urate-reabsorption-inhibitor-and-commonly-used-drugs-for-gout-treatment
#9
Zancong Shen, Kathy Tieu, David Wilson, Gail Bucci, Michael Gillen, Caroline Lee, Bradley Kerr
Lesinurad is a novel selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor approved for treatment of hyperuricemia associated with gout in combination with xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs). Open-label pharmacokinetic studies were performed in volunteers or subjects with hyperuricemia (serum uric acid ≥ 8 mg/dL) to investigate interactions of lesinurad (with and without concurrent XOIs) with colchicine and 2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: naproxen and indomethacin. Colchicine studies included consecutive 7-day treatment periods of (1) allopurinol 300 mg, allopurinol 300 mg plus lesinurad 400 or 600 mg, and continued lesinurad 400 or 600 mg; or (2) febuxostat 40 or 80 mg, febuxostat 40 or 80 mg plus lesinurad 400 mg, and continued febuxostat 40 or 80 mg plus lesinurad 600 mg...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074335/clinical-effects-of-topiroxostat-on-renal-and-endothelial-function-in-a-patient-with-chronic-kidney-disease-and-hyperuricemic-arteriolopathy-a-case-report
#10
Atsushi Tanaka, Tsukasa Nakamura, Eiichi Sato, Koichi Node
Hyperuricemia is associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases. Topiroxostat, a selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, effectively reduces serum uric acid (UA) levels and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in CKD patients. A 50-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital due to albuminuria and hyperuricemia, and renal biopsy showed a typical hyperuricemic arteriolopathy. Treatment with topiroxostat decreased serum UA levels (9.2 mg/dL at baseline to 6.4 mg/dL after 6 months), UAE (388 to 88 mg/g...
January 10, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068639/effects-of-argan-oil-on-the-mitochondrial-function-antioxidant-system-and-the-activity-of-nadph-generating-enzymes-in-acrylamide-treated-rat-brain
#11
Birsen Aydın
Argan oil (AO) is rich in minor compounds such as polyphenols and tocopherols which are powerful antioxidants. Acrylamide (ACR) has been classified as a neurotoxic agent in animals and humans. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunction is one of the most probable molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ACR (50mg/kg i.p. three times a week), AO (6ml/kg,o.p, per day) or together for 30days. The activities of cytosolic enzymes such as xanthine oxidase (XO), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), mitochondrial oxidative stress, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) enzymes, mitochondrial metabolic function, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were assessed in rat brain...
January 6, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067999/evaluation-of-pharmacokinetic-interactions-between-lesinurad-a-new-selective-urate-reabsorption-inhibitor-and-cyp-enzyme-substrates-sildenafil-amlodipine-tolbutamide-and-repaglinide
#12
Michael Gillen, Chun Yang, David Wilson, Shakti Valdez, Caroline Lee, Bradley Kerr, Zancong Shen
Lesinurad is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor approved for the treatment of hyperuricemia associated with gout in combination with xanthine oxidase inhibitors. In vitro assays indicate that lesinurad is an inducer of CYPs in the order CYP3A > CYP2C8 > CYP2C9 > CYP2C19 > CYP2B6 and an inhibitor of CYP2C8 and CYP2C9. To investigate the drug interaction potential of lesinurad, clinical drug interaction studies were conducted. Open-label studies in volunteers investigated the effects of single-/multiple-dose lesinurad on the pharmacokinetics of sildenafil and amlodipine (CYP3A4 induction), tolbutamide (CYP2C9 inhibition/induction), and repaglinide (CYP2C8 inhibition/induction)...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040583/ros-via-btk-p300-stat1-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-activation-mediates-cholesterol-crystals-induced-cd36-expression-and-foam-cell-formation
#13
Sivareddy Kotla, Nikhlesh K Singh, Gadiparthi N Rao
In understanding the mechanisms of cholesterol in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, previous studies from other laboratories have demonstrated that cholesterol crystals (CC) induce scavenger receptor CD36 expression and NLRP3-mediated inflammasome formation. In elucidating the mechanisms by which CC could enhance CD36 expression and foam cell formation, here we report that CC via NADPH and xanthine oxidases-mediated ROS production activates BTK, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase. In addition, CC induce p300 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in a BTK-dependent manner, which in turn, leads to STAT1 acetylation and its interaction with PPARγ in CD36 expression, oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation...
December 7, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031169/the-hypoxanthine-xanthine-oxidase-axis-is-not-involved-in-the-initial-phase-of-clinical-transplantation-related-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Leonie G M Wijermars, Jaap A Bakker, Dorottya K de Vries, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Jorgen Bierau, Sarantos Kostidis, Oleg A Mayboroda, Dimitrios Tsikas, Alexander F Schaapherder, Jan H N Lindeman
The hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (XO) axis is considered to be a key driver of transplantation related ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Whereas interference with this axis effectively quenches I/R injury in preclinical models, there is limited efficacy of XO inhibitors in clinical trials. In this context, we considered clinical evaluation of a role for the hypoxanthine-XO axis in human I/R to be relevant. Patients undergoing renal allograft transplantation were included (n=40) and classified based on duration of ischemia (short; intermediate; prolonged)...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029031/inkjet-printing-enzyme-inhibitory-assay-based-on-determination-of-ejection-volume
#15
Jungmi Lee, Annie Agnes Suganya Samson, Joon Myong Song
An accurate, rapid, and cost-effective methodology for enzyme inhibitor assays is highly needed for large-scale screening to evaluate the efficacy of drugs at the molecular level. For the first time, we have developed an inkjet printing-based enzyme inhibition assay for the assessment of drug activity using a conventional inkjet printer composed of four cartridges. The methodology is based on the determination of the number of mole of the drug on the printed surface. The number of mole was quantified through the volume of substance ejected onto the printed surface...
December 27, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025796/ifn-%C3%AE-regulates-xanthine-oxidase-mediated-inos-independent-oxidative-stress-in-maneb-and-paraquat-treated-rat-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes
#16
Deepali Singh, Vinod Kumar, Chetna Singh
Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) provoke oxidative stress-mediated cell damage. Role of xanthine oxidase (XO) in oxidative stress and its association with nitric oxide (NO)/NO synthase (NOS) have been widely reported. While inducible NOS (iNOS) is implicated in MB+PQ-induced toxicity in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), role of XO and its alliance with iNOS have not yet been established. The study investigated the role of XO in MB+PQ-induced oxidative stress in rat PMNs and its regulation by iNOS and inflammatory cytokines...
December 26, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024289/protective-abilities-of-pyridoxine-in-experimental-oxidative-stress-settings-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
K E Danielyan, A A Simonyan
BACKGROUND: Pyridoxine (Pr, B6) or its active form pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, B6) deficiency promotes oxidative lipid peroxidation and exacerbates the oxidative stress. From the other hand, by our previous experiments we proved that B6 is able strongly inhibit Xanthine Oxidase (XO) activity, which is an enzyme responsible for the formation of uric acid and hydrogen peroxide. METHODS: Cells were cultured by Mattson M. method and treated with 3%% hydrogen peroxide...
December 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017897/assay-of-superoxide-dismutase-activity-in-a-plate-assay-using-wst-1
#18
REVIEW
Alexander V Peskin, Christine C Winterbourn
One of the most convenient methods for measuring superoxide dismutase activity is a plate assay using xanthine oxidase and the water soluble tetrazolium WST-1. For reliable results with WST-1, certain aspects of the procedure need to be adhered to. This article describes an appropriate protocol that minimizes sources of variability.
December 23, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011360/effects-of-peppermint-tea-consumption-on-the-activities-of-cyp1a2-cyp2a6-xanthine-oxidase-n-acetyltranferase-2-and-udp-glucuronosyltransferases-1a1-1a6-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
Elias Begas, Athanasia Tsioutsiouliti, Evangelos Kouvaras, Serkos A Haroutounian, Konstantinos M Kasiotis, Dimitrios Kouretas, Eftihia Asprodini
Peppermint leaves are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders. Previous studies have shown significant effects of its natural products on human enzyme activity; however, there is no study available concerning the effects of peppermint tea on metabolizing enzymes in humans. Aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peppermint tea on CYP1A2, CYP2A6, Xanthine Oxidase (XO), N-acetyltranferase-2 (NAT2) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases-1A1/1A6 (UGT1A1/1A6) activities in healthy subjects...
February 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991400/isolation-of-chemical-constituents-of-centaurea-virgata-lam-and-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity-of-the-plant-extract-and-compounds
#20
Burcu S Tuzun, Zsuzsanna Hajdu, Orsolya Orban-Gyapai, Zoltan P Zomborszki, Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Peter Forgo, Bijen Kıvcak, Judit Hohmann
BACKGROUND: Centaurea virgata Lam. is a species widely used in the traditional medicine in Turkey for the treatment of diabetes, allergy and gastric ulcers. The rationale of its use in the therapy has not been studied previously, therefore the present work aimed at the chemical-pharmacological evaluation of the plant. OBJECTIVE: The xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of the MeOH extract and its subextracts (n-hexane, CHCl3 and remaining MeOH-H2O) prepared from C...
December 19, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
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