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Xanthine oxidase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236548/budesonide-instillation-immediately-after-reperfusion-ameliorates-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-injury-in-the-transplanted-lung-of-rat
#1
Wei Gao, Qiu-Ming Meng, Xiao-Guang Cui
PURPOSE: Lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) after lung transplantation can lead to primary graft dysfunction. Budesonide can improve endothelial function to reduce lung injury. This study was aimed to examine the effects of budesonide on LIRI and potential mechanisms. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomized and transplanted with syngeneic left lung or received the sham surgery. The recipients were instilled with saline or budesonide immediately after reperfusion...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235282/-research-progress-of-puerarin-and-its-derivatives-on-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-gout-activities
#2
REVIEW
Zhi-Hua Xing, Yu-Chang Ma, Xin-Ping Li, Bing Zhang, Meng-di Zhang
The research progress of puerarin and its derivatives in anti-inflammatory and anti-gout activities was reviewed in this paper. Puerarin possesses anti-inflammatory activity by affecting immunocyte, inflammation cytokines and signaling pathway. Puerarin also has anti-gout activity through inhibition of xanthine oxidase, promoting the excretion of uric acid to reduce serum uric acid level. Although its ability in reducing uric acid level was lower than that of allopurinol in clinical application, puerarin can also enhance the total antioxidant and free radical scavenging with stronger anti-inflammatory effect, so it will be a promising research direction to find new drugs with better anti-gout activity and less side effects by modifying the chemical structure of puerarin...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233026/evaluation-of-4-methyl-2-2-methylbenzyl-amino-1-3-thiazole-5-carboxylic-acid-against-hyperglycemia-insulin-sensitivity-and-oxidative-stress-induced-inflammatory-responses-and-%C3%AE-cell-damage-in-the-pancreas-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#3
Y N Paudel, M R Ali, S Bawa, S Shah, M Adil, A Siddiqui, A S Basheer, M Q Hassan, M Sharma
4-Methyl-2-[(2-methylbenzyl) amino]-1,3-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid (bioactive compound (BAC)), a novel thiazole derivative, is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and free radical scavenging agent. Effects of BAC on hyperglycemia, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators were evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced neonatal models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats where NIDDM was induced in neonatal pups with single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (100 mg/kg). The effect of BAC (10 and 20 mg/kg, p...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232282/selected-food-herb-drug-interactions-mechanisms-and-clinical-relevance
#4
Cecilia N Amadi, Amaka A Mgbahurike
BACKGROUND: Food/Herb-drug interactions have become a major problem in health care. These interactions can lead to loss of therapeutic efficacy or toxic effects of drugs. AREAS OF UNCERTAINTY: To probe the clinical relevance of such interactions, the impact of food/herb intake on the clinical effects of drug administration has to be evaluated. Failure to identify and efficiently manage food-drug interactions can lead to serious consequences. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms that underpin variability in disposition will help optimize therapy...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227568/the-effect-of-small-dose-of-topiroxostat-on-serum-uric-acid-in-patients-receiving-hemodialysis
#5
Yume Nagaoka, Yoshiko Tanaka, Hiroshi Yoshimoto, Rie Suzuki, Kakei Ryu, Mio Ueda, Minako Akiyama, Miho Nagai, Yoshitaka Miyaoka, Eiichiro Kanda, Shinnichi Iwai, Michio Nagaoka, Yoshihiko Kanno
INTRODUCTION: Topiroxostat, a recently developed xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is expected to have fewer adverse effects than allopurinol because it has different mechanism of action from alloprinol. However, its dosage, usage and safety have not been established in patients with impaired renal function or those undergoing dialysis at the development since no studies was conducted in these patients. METHODS: Cross over clinical trial using 3 months of allopurinol and topiroxostat on 27 maintain Japanese HD patients were carried out...
December 11, 2017: Hemodialysis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223502/hydroxyl-radical-production-via-nadph-oxidase-in-rat-striatum-due-to-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#6
Shuichi Hara, Masamune Kobayashi, Fumi Kuriiwa, Kazuya Ikematsu, Hajime Mizukami
Severe poisoning induced by carbon monoxide (CO) at 3000ppm, but not 1000ppm, enhances hydroxyl radical (OH) production in rat striatum, which is greatly susceptible to inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (NOX), including diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), but not xanthine oxidase. The quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the previous microarray finding that CO at 3000ppm, but not 1000ppm, enhanced mRNA expression of dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2), but not DUOX1, in rat striatum, both of which are NOX family members producing reactive oxygen species...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223098/trisubstituted-barbiturates-and-thiobarbiturates-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-as-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-antioxidants-antibacterial-and-anti-proliferative-agents
#7
Joana Figueiredo, João L Serrano, Eunice Cavalheiro, Leena Keurulainen, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Vânia M Moreira, Susana Ferreira, Fernanda C Domingues, Samuel Silvestre, Paulo Almeida
Barbituric and thiobarbituric acid derivatives have become progressively attractive to medicinal chemists due to their wide range of biological activities. Herein, different series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates and thiobarbiturates were prepared in moderate to excellent yields and their activity as xanthine oxidase inhibitors, antioxidants, antibacterial agents and as anti-proliferative compounds was evaluated in vitro. Interesting bioactive barbiturates were found namely, 1,3-dimethyl-5-[1-(2-phenylhydrazinyl)ethylidene]pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (6c) and 1,3-dimethyl-5-[1-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)hydrazinyl]ethylidene]pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (6e), which showed concomitant xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect (IC50 values of 24...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216590/improved-bioautographic-assay-on-tlc-layers-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-estimation-of-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-and-superoxide-scavengers
#8
Yao Kong, Xiangkun Li, Na Zhang, Yu Miao, Haiyan Feng, Tao Wu, Zhihong Cheng
A new agar-free bioautographic assay for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors and superoxide scavengers on TLC layers was developed and validated. Compared to the first version of TLC bioautographic agar overlay method, our bioautographic assay greatly improved the sensitivity and quantification ability. The limit of detection (LOD) of this assay was 0.017ng for allopurinol. Quantitative estimation of XO inhibitors and superoxide scavengers was achieved by densitometry scanning, expressed as allopurinol equivalents in millimoles on a per sample weight basis...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214511/managing-gout-flares-in-the-elderly-practical-considerations
#9
Abhishek Abhishek
Gout is common in the elderly, affecting an estimated 4.7 million people aged > 60 years in the USA alone. The incidence and prevalence of gout increases, and male predisposition to gout reduces, with increasing age. The elderly have more comorbidities, and gout manifests differently, with more frequent involvement of knees, ankles, and wrists at disease onset, systemic upset, and tophi. Comorbidities and polypharmacy make the management of gout flares challenging in this population. Intra-articular corticosteroid injection remains the treatment of choice for accessible joints, oral prednisolone is preferred over low-dose colchicine, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are best avoided...
December 6, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214397/xanthine-oxidase-and-uric-acid-as-independent-predictors-of-albuminuria-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-type-2
#10
Aleksandra Klisic, Gordana Kocic, Nebojsa Kavaric, Milovan Jovanovic, Verica Stanisic, Ana Ninic
Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an important enzyme responsible for conversion of purine bases to uric acid and represents the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in circulation. Since pathophysiological mechanism of the relationship between XO activity and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate is not well elucidated, we aimed to investigate this association in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). In addition, we wanted to examine whether uric acid itself plays an independent role in albuminuria onset and progression, or it is only mediated through XO activity...
December 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208425/serum-uric-acid-as-a-potential-marker-for-heart-failure-risk-in-men-on-antihypertensive-treatment-the-british-regional-heart-study
#11
S Goya Wannamethee, Olia Papacosta, Lucy Lennon, Peter H Whincup
The role of serum uric acid (SUA) as a prognostic marker for incident heart failure (HF) in hypertensive subjects is uncertain. We have prospectively examined the relationship between SUA and incident HF in 3440 men aged 60-79years separately in those on and not on antihypertensive treatment who were followed up for a mean period of 15years. Men on SUA lowering drugs and those with history of HF or myocardial infarction were excluded. There were 260 incident HF cases. The men were divided into three groups of SUA concentrations/levels (<350, 350-410 and >410μmol/L)...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208178/bioactive-flavones-isolated-from-tunisian-artemisia-campestris-l-leaves
#12
Rafika Metoui, Jalloul Bouajila, Mansour Znati, Sylvie Cazaux, Mohamed Neffati, Ahmed Akrout
Four flavones were isolated from dried leaves of Artemisia campestris L. 2',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-5',6-dimethoxyflavone, eupatilin and dimethoxycentaureidin were reported for the first time in this species whereas cirsiliol was previously identified but it was isolated for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, all isolated flavones were evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-superoxide dismutase, anti-xanthine oxidase and cytotoxic activities...
November 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207340/xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-activity-of-natural-and-hemisynthetic-flavonoids-from-gardenia-oudiepe-rubiaceae-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-molecular-docking-studies
#13
M D Santi, M Paulino Zunini, B Vera, C Bouzidi, V Dumontet, A Abin-Carriquiry, R Grougnet, M G Ortega
Xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme widely distributed among mammalian tissues, is associated with the oxidation of xanthine and hypoxanthine to form uric acid. Reactive oxygen species are also released during this process, leading to oxidative damages and to the pathology called gout. Available treatments mainly based on allopurinol cause serious side effects. Natural products such as flavonoids may represent an alternative. Thus, a series of polymethoxyflavones isolated and hemisynthesized from the bud exudates of Gardenia oudiepe has been evaluated for in vitro XO inhibitory activity...
December 2, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204266/pegloticase-in-gout-treatment-safety-issues-latest-evidence-and-clinical-considerations
#14
REVIEW
Allison Guttmann, Svetlana Krasnokutsky, Michael H Pillinger, Adey Berhanu
Gout is a common rheumatic condition, with increasing prevalence in recent decades. The mainstay of treatment for gout is oral urate-lowering therapy (ULT), typically with xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs). Unfortunately, a proportion of patients have persistent gout that is refractory to ULT. Pegloticase, a recombinant pegylated uricase, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of refractory gout. However, concern has been raised regarding the risk of infusion reactions, which are now understood to be largely due to the development of antipegloticase antibodies...
December 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203960/monascus-purpureus-induced-apoptosis-on-gastric-cancer-cell-by-scavenging-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species
#15
Hiromi Kurokawa, Hiromu Ito, Hirofumi Matsui
Monascus purpureus is a red dye derived from yeast rice and has been used as color additives for food in East Asia. Monascus purpureus consists of several bioactive components. Some of these components work as a radical scavenger, thus monascus purpureus would also eliminate reactive oxygen species. Cancer cells maintain the high level of reactive oxygen species than normal cell and are death by imbalance in pro-oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis. In this study, we investigated whether monascus purpureus induced cancer specific cell death by scavenging reactive oxygen species...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197158/design-synthesis-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-n-9-10-anthraquinone-2-carbonyl-amino-acid-derivatives-as-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors
#16
Ting-Jian Zhang, Song-Ye Li, Wei-Yan Yuan, Yi Zhang, Fan-Hao Meng
A series of N-(9,10-anthraquinone-2-carbonyl)amino acid derivatives (1a-j) was designed and synthesized as novel XO inhibitors. Among them, the L/D-phenylalanine derivatives (1d and 1i) and the L/D-tryptophan derivatives (1e and 1j) were effective with micromolar level potency. In particular, the L-phenylalanine derivative 1d (IC50 = 3.0 μM) and the D-phenylalanine derivative 1i (IC50 = 2.9 μM) presented the highest potency, and were both more potent than the positive control allopurinol (IC50 = 8.1 μM)...
December 1, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189174/xanthine-oxidase-inhibitory-and-molecular-docking-studies-on-pyrimidones
#17
Humaira Zafar, Sarosh Iqbal, Sumaira Javaid, Khalid M Khan, Muhammad I Choudhary
BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidase is an important enzyme which catalyzes the production of uric acid and superoxide anion from xanthine. The over-production of these products lead to different disease conditions. For instance, uric acid is responsible of hyperuricemia, gout, and arthritis, while superoxide anion contributes to the oxidative stress, and related diseases. Hence XO is an important pharmacological target for the treatment of a range of diseases. METHODS: Based on the structural resemblance of pyrimidines with xanthine, a series of previously synthesized ethyl 6- methyl-2-oxo-1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydro-5-pyrimidinecarboxylate derivatives were evaluated for XO inhibitory activity...
November 29, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184564/the-molybdenum-cofactor-biosynthesis-network-in-vivo-protein-protein-interactions-of-an-actin-associated-multi-protein-complex
#18
REVIEW
David Kaufholdt, Christin-Kirsty Baillie, Rieke Meinen, Ralf R Mendel, Robert Hänsch
Survival of plants and nearly all organisms depends on the pterin based molybdenum cofactor (Moco) as well as its effective biosynthesis and insertion into apo-enzymes. To this end, both the central Moco biosynthesis enzymes are characterized and the conserved four-step reaction pathway for Moco biosynthesis is well-understood. However, protection mechanisms to prevent degradation during biosynthesis as well as transfer of the highly oxygen sensitive Moco and its intermediates are not fully enlightened. The formation of protein complexes involving transient protein-protein interactions is an efficient strategy for protected metabolic channelling of sensitive molecules...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183043/benzo-e-pyrene-inhibits-endothelium-dependent-no-mediated-dilation-of-retinal-arterioles-via-superoxide-production-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#19
Takayuki Kamiya, Taiji Nagaoka, Tsuneaki Omae, Shinji Ono, Shinichi Otani, Akitoshi Yoshida
Purpose: To investigate whether benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P), a toxicant in cigarette smoke, affects the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-induced vasodilation of the retinal arterioles, and whether oxidative stress, distinct protein kinase signaling pathways, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are associated with the B(e)P-induced effect on the retinal arterioles. Methods: In this in vitro study, porcine retinal arterioles were isolated, cannulated, and pressurized without flow...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181594/determination-of-lesinurad-in-rat-plasma-by-a-uhplc-ms-ms-assay
#20
Xiao-Yang Zhou, Ling-Jing Yuan, Zhe Chen, Peng-Fei Tang, Xiang-Yu Li, Guo-Xin Hu, Jian-Ping Cai
Lesinurad is an oral inhibitor of urate-anion exchanger transporter 1 and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for combination therapy with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor for the treatment of hyperuricemia associated with refractory gout. In the present study, a sensitive and specific ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry assay was established and verified for the determination of lesinurad in rat plasma and was described in details for the first time. Chromatographic separation of lesinurad and diazepam (internal standard, IS) was performed on a Rapid Resolution HT C18 column (3...
November 28, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
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