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Ppar gamma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641522/advances-on-ppar%C3%AE-research-in-the-emerging-era-of-precision-medicine
#1
Pinyi Lu, Zhongming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor. It regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, immunity, and cellular growth and differentiation. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are potent insulin sensitizers that function by activating PPARs, with a high specificity for PPARγ. Due to their ability to preserve pancreatic beta cell function and reduce insulin resistance, TZDs have become one of the most prescribed classes of medications for type 2 diabetes (T2D) since their approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and initial use in 1997...
June 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623919/effects-of-karela-bitter-melon-momordica-charantia-on-genes-of-lipids-and-carbohydrates-metabolism-in-experimental-hypercholesterolemia-biochemical-molecular-and-histopathological-study
#2
Dalia Yossri Saad, Mohamed Mohamed Soliman, Ahmed A Baiomy, Magdy Hassan Yassin, Hanan Basiouni El-Sawy
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a serious diseases associated with type-2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disorders and liver diseases. Humans seek for safe herbal medication such as karela (Momordica charantia/bitter melon) to treat such disorders to avoid side effect of pharmacotherapies widely used. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups; control group with free access to food and water, cholesterol administered group (40 mg/kg BW orally); karela administered group (5 g /kg BW orally) and mixture of cholesterol and karela...
June 17, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620312/thermodynamics-in-gliomas-interactions-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-gamma
#3
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Gliomas cells are the site of numerous metabolic and thermodynamics abnormalities with an increasing entropy rate which is characteristic of irreversible processes driven by changes in Gibbs energy, heat production, intracellular acidity, membrane potential gradient, and ionic conductance. We focus our review on the opposing interactions observed in glioma between the canonical WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma and their metabolic and thermodynamic implications. In gliomas, WNT/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated while PPAR gamma is downregulated...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614912/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-facilitates-osteogenic-differentiation-in-mc3t3-e1-cells-via-the-sirtuin-1-dependent-signaling-pathway
#4
Kai Gong, Bo Qu, Cairu Wang, Jingsong Zhou, Dongfa Liao, Wei Zheng, Xianming Pan
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, metabolic disease characterized by a lack of insulin and high glucose levels. T2DM can cause bone loss and fracture, thus leading to diabetic osteoporosis. Promoting osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts may effectively treat diabetic osteoporosis. We previously reported that Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, promotes osteogenic differentiation through downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. We also found that miR-132 regulates osteogenic differentiation by downregulating Sirt1 in a PPARbeta/δ- dependent manner...
June 14, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609844/an-overview-on-immunoregulatory-and-anti-inflammatory-properties-of-chrysin-and-flavonoids-substances
#5
REVIEW
Majid Zeinali, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Inflammation and the pro-inflammatory cytokines are associated with numerous chronic diseases. Studies suggest that flavonoids, plant polyphenolic compound derivatives from natural origin, have a wide range of putative biological activities. Similar to other flavonoids, chrysin (CH) by its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects is a potential prophylactic agent in immunopathological and physicochemical injuries. This is an overview on putative immunomodulatory activities of flavonoids and beneficial health effects of these substances particularly, CH in the immune system...
June 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598969/cucurbitacin-e-reduces-obesity-and-related-metabolic-dysfunction-in-mice-by-targeting-jak-stat5-signaling-pathway
#6
Munazza Murtaza, Gulnaz Khan, Meha Fatima Aftab, Shabbir Khan Afridi, Safina Ghaffar, Ayaz Ahmed, Rahman M Hafizur, Rizwana Sanaullah Waraich
Several members of cucurbitaceae family have been reported to regulate growth of cancer by interfering with STAT3 signaling. In the present study, we investigated the unique role and molecular mechanism of cucurbitacins (Cucs) in reducing symptoms of metabolic syndrome in mice. Cucurbitacin E (CuE) was found to reduce adipogenesis in murine adipocytes. CuE treatment diminished hypertrophy of adipocytes, visceral obesity and lipogenesis gene expression in diet induced mice model of metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595081/pioglitazone-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depression-like-behaviors-modulates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-il-6-stat3-creb-bdnf-pathways-and-central-serotonergic-neurotransmission-in-mice
#7
L Liao, X D Zhang, J Li, Z W Zhang, C C Yang, C L Rao, C J Zhou, L Zeng, L B Zhao, L Fang, D Y Yang, P Xie
Immune activation and inflammation are closely associated with the development of depression. Pioglitazone (PIO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, has exhibited antidepressant-like effects in a couple of studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are far from being fully elucidated. The study aimed to investigate the effects of PIO on depression-like behaviors induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. The results showed that PIO pretreatment attenuated the depression-like behaviors in mice challenged with intracerebroventricular (i...
June 5, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566016/a-computational-study-to-identify-the-key-residues-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-in-the-interactions-with-its-antagonists
#8
Tayebeh Sharifi, Yousef Ghayeb
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) compose a family of nuclear receptors, PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ, which mediate the effects of lipidic ligands at the transcriptional level. Among these, the PPARγ has been known to regulate adipocyte differentiation, fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism, and is a target of antidiabetic drugs. In this work, the interactions between PPARγ and its six known antagonists were investigated using computational methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and the hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539091/in-silico-identification-of-potential-drug-compound-against-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-by-virtual-screening-and-toxicity-studies-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#9
Smrita Singh, Aparajita Mohanty
Diabetic Nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Current therapeutic strategies of Diabetic Nephropathy are based on control of modifiable risks like hypertension, glucose levels, and dyslipidemia. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is implicated in several metabolic syndromes including Diabetic Nephropathy, besides obesity, insulin insensitivity, dislipidemia, inflammation, and hypertension. In the present study, virtual screening of 617 compounds from two different public databases was done against PPAR-γ with an objective to find a possible lead compound...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534168/father-s-obesity-programs-the-adipose-tissue-in-the-offspring-via-the-local-renin-angiotensin-system-and-mapks-pathways-especially-in-adult-male-mice
#10
Fernanda Ornellas, Isabele Bringhenti, Brenda Akemi N F Mattos, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
PURPOSE: Studies demonstrated the influence of mother's obesity on offspring. However, the father is also related to programming the future generation. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of father's obesity upon white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling, resulting in activation of signaling pathways and inflammation in male and female offspring. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received control diet (lean father group; 17% energy from lipids) or high-fat diet (obese father group; 49% energy from lipids) for 8 weeks before mating...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534088/the-ppar-gamma-binding-sequence-pal3-is-necessary-for-basal-but-dispensable-for-high-fat-diet-regulated-human-renin-expression-in-the-kidney
#11
Peter Lachmann, Jenny Selbmann, Linda Hickmann, Bernd Hohenstein, Christian Hugo, Vladimir T Todorov
We reported earlier that PPAR-gamma regulates renin transcription through a human-specific atypical binding sequence termed hRen-Pal3. Here we developed a mouse model to investigate the functional relevance of the hRen-Pal3 sequence in vivo since it might be responsible for the increased renin production in obesity and thus for the development of accompanying arterial hypertension. We used bacterial artificial chromosome construct and co-placement strategy to generate two transgenic mouse lines expressing the human renin gene from identical genomic locus without affecting the intrinsic mouse renin expression...
May 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529818/high-protein-fish-oil-diet-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-in-noncnzo10-mice-association-with-diet-genetics-regulated-micro-rnas
#12
Nikhil Adi, Jennipher Adi, Roberta Marques Lassance-Soares, Paul Kurlansky, Hong Yu, Keith A Webster
OBJECTIVE: NONcNZO10 (NZ10) mice are predisposed to obesity and develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hepatic steatosis even when maintained on a control diet (CD) of 6% fat. Studies were designed to determine whether this extreme susceptibility phenotype could be alleviated by diet and if so the molecular targets of diet. METHODS: NZ10 and SWR/J (SWR) control mice were fed a CD or a test diet of high protein and fish oil (HPO) for 19 weeks and then analyzed for steatosis, blood chemistry, hepatic gene and micro-RNA expression...
June 2016: Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514832/anti-obesity-effects-of-tea-from-mangifera-indica-l-leaves-of-the-ub%C3%A3-variety-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-rats
#13
Natalia Medina Ramírez, Renata C Lopes Toledo, Maria E Castro Moreira, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino, Laércio Dos Anjos Benjamin, José H de Queiroz, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha Ribeiro
Due to the high content of bioactive compounds, herbal teas are being investigated as adjuvant in chronic disease management. Studies have shown that mango leaf tea contain mangiferin, total phenolics and antioxidants, compounds with many functional properties. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves, Ubá variety (TML), in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). For this, adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=8): the control group (fed AIN-93 diet), obese group (fed a HFD) and treated group (fed a HFD and supplemented with TML for 8 weeks)...
July 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503816/xanthophylls-increased-hdlc-level-and-nuclear-factor-ppar%C3%AE-rxr%C3%AE-and-rar%C3%AE-expression-in-hens-and-chicks
#14
Y-Y Gao, L Jin, H Peng, L-H Xu, Q-X Wang, J Ji, C-K Wang, Y-Z Bi
This study was designed to investigate effects of xanthophylls on serum lipid profile (triglyceride, TG; cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDLC; and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLC) and nuclear factor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPARγ; PPAR gamma coactivator 1 alpha, PGC1α; retinoid X receptor gamma, RXRγ; and retinoic acid receptor alpha, RARα) gene expression of breeding hens and chicks. In experiment 1, 432 hens were divided into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (as control group), 20 or 40 mg/kg xanthophylls...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499821/x-ray-crystal-structure-of-rivoglitazone-bound-to-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar-subtype-selectivity-of-tzds
#15
Harinda Rajapaksha, Harpreet Bhatia, Kate Wegener, Nikolai Petrovsky, John B Bruning
Thiazolidinedione (TZD) compounds targeting the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) demonstrate unique benefits for the treatment of insulin resistance and type II diabetes. TZDs include rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and rivoglitazone, with the latter being the most potent. The TZDs are only marginally selective for the therapeutic target PPARγ as they also activate PPARα and PPARδ homologues to varying degrees, causing off-target effects. While crystal structures for TZD compounds in complex with PPARγ are available, minimal structural information is available for TZDs bound to PPARα and PPARδ...
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498501/ppar-gamma-agonist-pioglitazone-modifies-craving-intensity-and-brain-white-matter-integrity-in-patients-with-primary-cocaine-use-disorder-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#16
Joy M Schmitz, Charles E Green, Khader M Hasan, Jessica Vincent, Robert Suchting, Michael F Weaver, F Gerard Moeller, Ponnada A Narayana, Kathryn A Cunningham, Kelly T Dineley, Scott D Lane
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pioglitazone (PIO), a potent agonist of PPAR-gamma, is a promising candidate treatment for cocaine use disorder (CUD). We tested the effects of PIO on targeted mechanisms relevant to CUD: cocaine craving and brain white matter (WM) integrity. Feasibility, medication compliance, and tolerability were evaluated. DESIGN: Two-arm double-blind randomized controlled proof-of-concept pilot trial of PIO or placebo (PLC). SETTING: Single-site outpatient treatment research clinic in Houston, Texas, USA...
May 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483651/unlike-ppargamma-neither-other-ppars-nor-pgc-1alpha-is-elevated-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Levente Szalardy, Denes Zadori, Krisztina Bencsik, Laszlo Vecsei, Peter Klivenyi
Corroborating with prior experimental findings, we recently reported the pronounced elevation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) protein concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), in association with neuroinflammatory markers and clinical severity. Based on subsequent reports on the possible involvement of other PPARs and PPARγ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α) in neuroinflammation in MS, we analyzed the protein levels of PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PGC-1α in a subset of CSF samples from the same cohort of relapsing-remitting MS patients...
May 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449155/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-with-ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-or-exendin-4
#18
Mohamed Abd Elaziz Wassef, Ola M Tork, Laila A Rashed, Walaa Ibrahim, Heba Morsi, Dina Mohamed Mekawy Rabie
Therapy targeting mitochondria may provide novel ways to treat diabetes and its complications. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists and exendin-4; an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 have shown cardioprotective properties in many cardiac injury models. So, we evaluated their effects in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. This work included seven groups of adult male albino rats: the control group, the non-treated diabetic group, and the treated diabetic groups: one group was treated with MSCs only, the second with pioglitazone only, the third with MSCs and pioglitazone, the forth with exendin-4 only and the fifth with MSCs and exendin-4...
April 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427149/interaction-between-ppar-%C3%AE-and-sorl1-gene-with-late-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-in-chinese-han-population
#19
Hui Zhang, Wei Zheng, Linlin Hua, Yutong Wang, Jinfeng Li, Hongying Bai, Shanshan Wang, Mingyao Du, Xuelian Ma, Chunyang Xu, Xiaodong Li, Bin Gong, Yunliang Wang
AIMS: To investigate the impact of sortilin-related receptor 1 gene 1 (SORL1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR G) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene- gene and gene- environment interactions and haplotype on late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk. METHODS: Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), haplotype analysis and pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis were investigated by using SNPStats (available online at http://bioinfo...
February 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423012/15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase-15-pgdh-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-lps-induced-acute-liver-injury
#20
Lu Yao, Weina Chen, Kyoungsub Song, Chang Han, Chandrashekhar R Gandhi, Kyu Lim, Tong Wu
The NAD+-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) catalyzes the oxidation of the 15(S)-hydroxyl group of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), converting the pro-inflammatory PGE2 to the anti-inflammatory 15-keto-PGE2 (an endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma [PPAR-γ]). To evaluate the significance of 15-PGDH/15-keto-PGE2 cascade in liver inflammation and tissue injury, we generated transgenic mice with targeted expression of 15-PGDH in the liver (15-PGDH Tg) and the animals were subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Galactosamine (GalN)-induced acute liver inflammation and injury...
2017: PloS One
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