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Ppar gamma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346772/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-controls-mature-brown-adipocyte-inducibility-through-glycerol-kinase
#1
David Lasar, Matthias Rosenwald, Elke Kiehlmann, Miroslav Balaz, Bettina Tall, Lennart Opitz, Martin E Lidell, Nicola Zamboni, Petra Krznar, Wenfei Sun, Lukas Varga, Patrik Stefanicka, Jozef Ukropec, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi Virtanen, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Sven Enerbäck, Walter Wahli, Christian Wolfrum
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been suggested as the master regulators of adipose tissue formation. However, their role in regulating brown fat functionality has not been resolved. To address this question, we generated mice with inducible brown fat-specific deletions of PPARα, β/δ, and γ, respectively. We found that both PPARα and β/δδ are dispensable for brown fat function. In contrast, we could show that ablation of PPARγ in vitro and in vivo led to a reduced thermogenic capacity accompanied by a loss of inducibility by β-adrenergic signaling, as well as a shift from oxidative fatty acid metabolism to glucose utilization...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315078/associations-between-the-components-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-the-polymorphisms-in-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-ppar-%C3%AE-the-fat-mass-and-obesity-associated-fto-and-the-melanocortin-4-receptor-mc4r-genes
#2
Małgorzata Szkup, Aleksander Jerzy Owczarek, Daria Schneider-Matyka, Jacek Brodowski, Beata Łój, Elżbieta Grochans
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is regarded as a set of abnormalities, increasing the risk of serious functioning disorders. It can develop as a result of genetic predisposition. AIM: The aim of this study was to establish associations between MetS-related abnormalities and the PPAR-γ rs1801282, FTO rs9939609, and MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 425 women aged 45-60 years. The participants were surveyed and subjected to anthropometric, biochemical and genetic analysis...
January 9, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306057/the-effects-of-omega-3-and-vitamin-e-co-supplementation-on-parameters-of-mental-health-and-gene-expression-related-to-insulin-and-inflammation-in-subjects-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Mehri Jamilian, Azadeh Shojaei, Mansooreh Samimi, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Esmat Aghadavod, Maryam Karamali, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Hamidreza Jamilian, Somayeh Alaeinasab, Sadegh Jafarnejad, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Forty PCOS women were allocated into two groups and treated with 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 12 weeks. Parameters of mental health were recorded at baseline and after the 12-week intervention...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290188/the-potential-therapeutic-role-of-peroxisome-proliferatoractivated-receptors-agonist-in-preeclamptic-pregnant-rats
#4
Hayam Ibrahim Gad Allam, Abeer AbdulMoati Al Masri
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist on renal functions and blood levels of vasoregulatory peptides by administering rosiglitazone-a PPAR-γ agonist- to nitric oxide (NO) synthase lacking pregnant rats as a creature model of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Medical College at King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from July 2016 to May 2017...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244961/time-dependent-therapeutic-roles-of-nitazoxanide-on-high-fat-diet-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-in-rats-effects-on-hepatic-ppar-%C3%AE-receptors
#5
Samah Mohamed Elaidy, Mona A Hussain, Mohamed K El-Kherbetawy
Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is an approved strategy in facing insulin resistance (IR) for the diabetes mellitus (DM)-type 2. The PPAR-γ modulators display improvements in the insulin sensitizing and adverse effects of the traditional thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is proposed as a PPAR-γ receptor ligand, with agonistic post-transcriptional effects. Currently, NTZ-antidiabetic activities versus pioglitazone (PIO) in a high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) rat model of type-2 diabetes was explored...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230425/neuroprotective-potential-of-gentongping-in-rat-model-of-cervical-spondylotic-radiculopathy-targeting-ppar-%C3%AE-pathway
#6
Wen Sun, Kang Zheng, Bin Liu, Danping Fan, Hui Luo, Xiaoyuan Qu, Li Li, Xiaojuan He, Jianfeng Yi, Cheng Lu
Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) is the most general form of spinal degenerative disease and is characterized by pain and numbness of the neck and arm. Gentongping (GTP) granule, as a classical Chinese patent medicine, has been widely used in curing CSR, whereas the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the pharmacological mechanisms of GTP on CSR. The rat model of CSR was induced by spinal cord injury (SCI). Our results showed that GTP could significantly alleviate spontaneous pain as well as ameliorate gait...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202521/-effects-of-astragalus-polysaccharides-on-adipogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-low-oxygen-environment
#7
Zhiwei Wu, Dan Liu, Yongqi Liu, Na Xue, Chunlu Yan, Yun Su
To study the effect of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in hypoxic environment. The optimal APS concentration, which could promote the proliferation of BMSCs, was screened by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method. The concentration was used to intervene in BMSCs-induced by adipogenic differentiation fluid growing in different oxygen concentrations (3%, 6%, 10% and 20%). The formation of lipid droplets in the BMSCs-intervened was observed by oil red O staining under the optical microscope...
November 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197071/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-agonists-for-preventing-recurrent-stroke-and-other-vascular-events-in-people-with-stroke-or-transient-ischaemic-attack
#8
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists are insulin-sensitising drugs used for the treatment of insulin resistance. In addition to lowering glucose in diabetes, these drugs may also protect against hyperlipidaemia and arteriosclerosis, which are risk factors for stroke. This is an update of a review first published in January 2014 and subsequently updated in October 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular events for people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)...
December 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188895/supplementation-of-mussel-peptides-reduces-aging-phenotype-lipid-deposition-and-oxidative-stress-in-d-galactose-induce-aging-mice
#9
Y Zhou, Q Xu, Y Dong, S Zhu, S Song, S Sun
OBJECTIVES: Aging is associated with glucose and lipid metabolism disorder. We aimed to examine the effects of mussel peptides on protecting against aging by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: For the aging model, d-galactose (200 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to 8-month-old mice for 8 weeks. Mussel peptides (1,000 mg/kg) were simultaneously administered by intragastric gavage. The glucose and lipid metabolism profiles, aging phenotype and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) expression in the liver and adipose tissue of ICR mice were measured...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187823/voluntary-exercise-improves-cardiac-function-and-prevents-cardiac-remodeling-in-a-mouse-model-of-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#10
Robin Deloux, Damien Vitiello, Nathalie Mougenot, Philippe Noirez, Zhenlin Li, Mathias Mericskay, Arnaud Ferry, Onnik Agbulut
Objective: Despite the indubitable beneficial effect of exercise to prevent of cardiovascular diseases, there is still a lack of studies investigating the impact of exercise in non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Here, we investigated the impact of voluntary exercise on cardiac function in a mouse model of non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (αMHC-MerCreMer:Sf/Sf), induced by cardiac-specific inactivation of the Serum Response Factor. Materials and Methods: Seven days after tamoxifen injection, 20 αMHC-MerCreMer:Sf/Sf mice were assigned to sedentary (n = 8) and exercise (n = 12) groups...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181019/crosstalk-between-the-androgen-receptor-and-ppar-gamma-signaling-pathways-in-the-prostate
#11
REVIEW
Emuejevoke Olokpa, Patrice E Moss, LaMonica V Stewart
Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that play critical roles in the regulation of normal biological processes and several disease states. Of the nuclear receptors expressed within the prostate, the androgen receptor (AR) promotes the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and stimulates production of enzymes needed for liquefaction of semen. Multiple forms of AR also promote the growth of both early and late stage prostate cancers. As a result, drugs that target the AR signaling pathway are routinely used to treat patients with advanced forms of prostate cancer...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163854/interactions-between-tgf-%C3%AE-1-canonical-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-ppar-%C3%AE-in-radiation-induced-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
Radiation therapy induces DNA damage and inflammation leading to fibrosis. Fibrosis can occur 4 to 12 months after radiation therapy. This process worsens with time and years. Radiation-induced fibrosis is characterized by fibroblasts proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation, and synthesis of collagen, proteoglycans and extracellular matrix. Myofibroblasts are non-muscle cells that can contract and relax. Myofibroblasts evolve towards irreversible retraction during fibrosis process. In this review, we discussed the interplays between transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) in regulating the molecular mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced fibrosis, and the potential role of PPAR γ agonists...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143738/bladder-cancer-associated-mutations-in-rxra-activate-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-to-drive-urothelial-proliferation
#13
Angela M Halstead, Chiraag D Kapadia, Jennifer Bolzenius, Clarence E Chu, Andrew Schriefer, Lukas D Wartman, Gregory R Bowman, Vivek K Arora
RXRA regulates transcription as part of a heterodimer with 14 other nuclear receptors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Analysis from the TCGA raised the possibility that hyperactive PPAR signaling, either due to PPAR gamma gene amplification or RXRA hot-spot mutation (S427F/Y) drives 20-25% of human bladder cancers. Here we characterize mutant RXRA, demonstrating it induces enhancer/promoter activity in the context of RXRA/PPAR heterodimers in human bladder cancer cells. Structure-function studies indicate that the RXRA substitution allosterically regulates the PPAR AF2 domain via an aromatic interaction with the terminal tyrosine found in PPARs...
November 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113135/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-is-exacerbated-in-high-fat-diet-fed-gnotobiotic-mice-by-colonization-with-the-gut-microbiota-from-patients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
Chien-Chao Chiu, Yung-Hao Ching, Yen-Peng Li, Ju-Yun Liu, Yen-Te Huang, Yi-Wen Huang, Sien-Sing Yang, Wen-Ching Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious liver disorder associated with the accumulation of fat and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the gut microbiota composition that might influence the progression of NAFLD. Germ-free mice were inoculated with feces from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or from healthy persons (HL) and then fed a standard diet (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD). We found that the epididymal fat weight, hepatic steatosis, multifocal necrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration significantly increased in the NASH-HFD group...
November 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100332/the-farnesoid-x-receptor-negatively-regulates-osteoclastogenesis-in-bone-remodeling-and-pathological-bone-loss
#15
Ting Zheng, Ju-Hee Kang, Jung-Sun Sim, Jung-Woo Kim, Jeong-Tae Koh, Chan Soo Shin, Hyungsik Lim, Mijung Yim
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Since the role of FXR in osteoclast differentiation remains ill-defined, we investigated the biological function of FXR on osteoclastogenesis, using FXR-deficient mice. We demonstrated that FXR deficiency increases osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo. First, FXR deficiency was found to accelerate osteoclast formation via down-regulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 expression...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098441/communicative-reprogramming-non-curative-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-low-dose-metronomic-chemotherapy-cox-2-inhibitor-and-ppar-gamma-agonist-a-phase-ii-trial
#16
I Walter, U Schulz, M Vogelhuber, K Wiedmann, E Endlicher, F Klebl, R Andreesen, W Herr, L Ghibelli, C Hackl, R Wiest, A Reichle
Systemic therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still challenging. A biomodulatory therapy approach targeting the communicative infrastructure of HCC, including metronomic low-dose chemotherapy with capecitabine, pioglitazone and rofecoxib, has been evaluated in patients with non-curative HCC. Altogether 38 patients were evaluable in this one-arm, multicenter phase II trial. The primary endpoint, median progression-free survival was 2.7 months (95% CI: 1.6-3.79) for all evaluable patients and 8...
November 2, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083445/the-gene-diet-associations-in-postmenopausal-women-with-newly-diagnosed-dyslipidemia
#17
B Grygiel-Górniak, E Kaczmarek, M Mosor, J Przysławski, J Nowak
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor - PPAR gamma-2 (Pro12Ala, C1431T) and beta 3-adrenergic receptor - ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) and dietary habits in a group of postmenopausal women who were not under hypolipidemic treatment. DESIGN: Genetic, nutritional and anthropometric parameters were measured in 213 dyslipidemic (LDL ≥115 mg/dL) and 58 normolipidemic (LDL<115) postmenopausal women...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075989/uric-acid-and-obesity-related-phenotypes-in-postmenopausal-women
#18
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Mosor, J Marcinkowska, J Przysławski, J Nowak
The aim of this study was to find the genetic, metabolic, and nutritional risk factors, which can be associated with uric acid (UA) level. The risk factors related to uricemia were assessed among 271 postmenopausal women without cardiometabolic disorders and hypolipidemic/hypoglycemic treatment selected from a cohort of 1423 obese postmenopausal women. The bioimpedance analysis and biochemical and genetic analyses were performed in two groups characterized by serum UA ≥ 4 mg/dL (238 μmol/L) and < 4 mg/dL...
October 26, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049722/a-ppar-gamma-agonist-rosiglitazone-suppresses-fibrotic-response-in-human-pterygium-fibroblasts-by-modulating-the-p38-mapk-pathway
#19
Selikem Abla Nuwormegbe, Joon Hyung Sohn, Sun Woong Kim
Purpose: Fibroblast activation may play an important role in pterygium progression. Synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) ligands have been shown to be effective antifibrotic agents against transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced fibrosis in several tissues. We aimed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of the PPAR-γ ligand rosiglitazone in pterygium fibroblasts and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Profibrotic activation was induced by TGF-β1 in primary cultured human pterygium fibroblasts and the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and extra cellular matrix proteins synthesis was detected by western blotting, real-time PCR, immunostaining, and flow cytometry...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042402/ginsenoside-rg3-ameliorated-hfd-induced-hepatic-steatosis-through-downregulation-of-stat5-ppar%C3%AE
#20
Jin-Bong Lee, Sung-Jin Yoon, Sang-Hyun Lee, Moo-Seung Lee, Haiyoung Jung, Tae-Don Kim, Suk Ran Yoon, Inpyo Choi, Ik-Soo Kim, Su Wol Chung, Hee Gu Lee, Jeong-Ki Min, Young-Jun Park
Healthy expansion of adipose tissue maintains metabolic homeostasis by storing excess chemical energy in increased fat mass. The STAT5-PPAR gamma pathway reportedly regulates adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. Ginsenoside Rg3 is one of the diverse groups of steroidal saponins, the major active components of ginseng, which have demonstrated pharmacological properties. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of ginsenoside Rg3 under pathological conditions in vitro and in vivo We examined the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on glucose level, insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice...
December 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
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