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Ppar gamma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895698/combinations-of-bio-active-dietary-constituents-affect-human-white-adipocyte-function-in-vitro
#1
Ines Warnke, Johan W E Jocken, Rotraut Schoop, Christine Toepfer, Regina Goralczyk, Joseph Schwager
BACKGROUND: Specific bio-active dietary compounds modulate numerous metabolic processes in adipose tissue (AT), including pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. AT dysfunction, rather than an increased fat mass per se, is strongly associated with the development of insulin resistance and is characterized by impaired adipogenesis, hypertrophic adipocytes, inflammation, and impairments in substrate metabolism. A better understanding of mechanisms underlying AT dysfunction may provide new strategies for the treatment of obesity-associated metabolic diseases...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893688/identification-of-genes-and-signaling-pathways-associated-with-diabetic-neuropathy-using-a-weighted-correlation-network-analysis-a-consort-study
#2
Ya Li, Weiguo Ma, Chuanqing Xie, Min Zhang, Xiaohong Yin, Fenfen Wang, Jie Xu, Bingyin Shi
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms behind diabetic neuropathy remains to be investigated. METHODS: This is a secondary study on microarray dataset (GSE24290) downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which included 18 nerve tissue samples of progressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≥500 fibers/mm) and 17 nerve tissue samples of nonprogressing diabetic neuropathy (fibers loss ≤100 fibers/mm)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879033/regulation-of-the-placental-bcrp-transporter-by-ppar-gamma
#3
Yixin Lin, Kristin M Bircsak, Ludwik Gorczyca, Xia Wen, Lauren M Aleksunes
Identifying regulators of placental breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) expression is critical as downregulation of this transporter may increase exposure of the fetus to xenobiotics. Here, we sought to test whether the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) regulates BCRP expression in the placenta. To test this, human BeWo placental choriocarcinoma cells were cultured with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone or the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 for 24 h. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of syncytialization markers, GCM1 and hCGβ, as well as BCRP increased with PPARγ agonist treatment...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876017/increased-wnt5a-in-squamous-cell-lung-carcinoma-inhibits-endothelial-cell-motility
#4
J Rapp, E Kiss, M Meggyes, E Szabo-Meleg, D Feller, G Smuk, T Laszlo, V Sarosi, T F Molnar, K Kvell, J E Pongracz
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is important both in normal tissue function and disease and represents a key target in lung cancer (LC) therapy. Unfortunately, the two main subtypes of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) namely, adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) respond differently to anti-angiogenic e.g. anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A treatment with life-threatening side effects, often pulmonary hemorrhage in SCC. The mechanisms behind such adverse reactions are still largely unknown, although peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR) gamma as well as Wnt-s have been named as molecular regulators of the process...
November 23, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867498/bone-muscle-crosstalk-targets-muscle-regeneration-pathway-regulated-by-core-circadian-transcriptional-repressors-dec1-and-dec2
#5
REVIEW
Jeffrey P Gorski, Jeffrey L Price
Deletion of proprotein convertase Mbtps1 in bone osteocytes leads to a significant postnatal increase in skeletal muscle size and contractile function, while causing only a 25% increase in stiffness in long bones. Concerns about leakiness in skeletal muscle were discounted since Cre recombinase expression does not account for our findings, and, Mbtps1 protein and mRNA is not deleted. Interestingly, the response of normal skeletal muscle to exercise and the regenerative response of skeletal muscle to the deletion of Mbtps1 in bone share some key regulatory features including a preference for slow twitch muscle fibers...
2016: BoneKEy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866976/protective-effect-of-rosiglitazone-against-acetaminophen-induced-acute-liver-injury-is-associated-with-down-regulation-of-hepatic-nadph-oxidases
#6
Jun-Xian Wang, Cheng Zhang, Lin Fu, Da-Gang Zhang, Bi-Wei Wang, Zhi-Hui Zhang, Yuan-Hua Chen, Yan Lu, Xi Chen, De-Xiang Xu
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone (RSG), a synthetic PPAR-γ agonist, on acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute liver injury. Male CD-1 mice were injected with APAP (300mg/kg). Some mice were pretreated with RSG (20mg/kg) 48, 24 and 1h before APAP injection. As expected, RSG pretreatment alleviated APAP-induced acute liver injury...
November 17, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865894/activation-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-in-mammary-epithelial-cells-upregulates-the-expression-of-tumor-suppressor-cyld-to-mediate-growth-inhibition-and-anti-inflammatory-effects
#7
Athanasios Pseftogas, Christos Gonidas, George Mosialos
Several studies have implicated the downregulation of the tumor suppressor Cyld expression in breast cancer development. However, the mechanisms that regulate Cyld expression in mammary epithelial cells are largely unknown. In order to investigate them, a bioinformatic analysis of the promoter region of Cyld was performed and identified putative nuclear hormone receptor response elements that included peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ)-responsive elements. In the present study, we showed that upon activation of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-γ by the agonist troglitazone (TZD), there was a significant increase in Cyld mRNA in human mammary epithelial cell lines...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855608/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-ppar-gamma-agonists-as-therapeutic-agents-for-cardiovascular-disorders-focus-on-atherosclerosis
#8
Ekaterina A Ivanova, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that mainly regulate genes responsible for fatty acid (FA) and energy metabolism. There are three members of the PPAR family, PPAR-α, PPAR- β/δ and PPAR-γ. All three isoforms have therapeutic potential for treatment of cardiovascular disorders, and PPAR agonists are currently being actively studied in pre-clinical and clinical trials. PPAR γ agonists, main tissue expressing isoform, have potential to influence on inflammation processes, reduce oxidative stress, improve endothelial function and plays an important role in lipid metabolism...
November 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834124/gymnema-sylvestre-for-diabetes-from-traditional-herb-to-future-s-therapeutic
#9
Pragya Tiwari, Khurshid Ahmad, Mohammad Hassan Baig
Diabetes has increased at an unprecedented rate and is fast emerging as a global threat worldwide. The focus on pharmacological studies pertaining to diabetes has seen a remarkable shift from conventional medicines to therapeutics employing bioactive phytomolecules from natural sources. The prospective effectiveness of natural products together with their low cost and minimal side effects has revolutionized the entire concept of drug discovery and management programs. One such beneficial herb is Gymnema sylvestre, possessing remarkable hypoglycemic properties and forms the platform of diabetes therapeutics in the traditional system of medication...
November 8, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818323/als-causing-mutations-differentially-affect-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-and-function-in-the-brain-vs-peripheral-tissues
#10
Hanna Bayer, Kerstin Lang, Eva Buck, Julia Higelin, Lara Barteczko, Noemi Pasquarelli, Jasmin Sprissler, Tanja Lucas, Karlheinz Holzmann, Maria Demestre, Katrin S Lindenberg, Karin M Danzer, Tobias Boeckers, Albert C Ludolph, Luc Dupuis, Patrick Weydt, Anke Witting
BACKGROUND: Monogenetic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) offer an opportunity for unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. In order to identify a link between ALS-related metabolic changes and neurodegeneration, we investigated whether ALS-causing mutations interfere with the peripheral and brain-specific expression and signaling of the metabolic master regulator PGC (PPAR gamma coactivator)-1α (PGC-1α). METHODS: We analyzed the expression of PGC-1α isoforms and target genes in two mouse models of familial ALS and validated the stimulated PGC-1α signaling in primary adipocytes and neurons of these animal models and in iPS derived motoneurons of two ALS patients harboring two different frame-shift FUS/TLS mutations...
November 3, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818126/anti-inflammatory-protection-afforded-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-and-resveratrol-in-human-intestinal-cells-via-nrf2-and-ppar-%C3%AE-comparison-with-5-aminosalicylic-acid
#11
Diana Serra, Leonor M Almeida, Teresa C P Dinis
This study investigated the involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) pathways in the protection afforded by two polyphenols abundant in diet, cyanidin-3-glucoside and resveratrol, against cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative insult in HT-29 intestinal cells, in comparison with the drug 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). Our data show for the first time that in cytokine-challenged cells, cyanidin-3-glucoside and resveratrol induced Nrf2 activation, increased hemoxygenase-1 and glutamate cysteine ligase mRNA expression, enhanced reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio and inhibited reactive species production, at much lower concentrations than 5-ASA...
November 3, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807401/alzheimer-disease-crosstalk-between-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-and-ppars-alpha-and-gamma
#12
REVIEW
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier
The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still not fully understood. In AD, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been shown to be downregulated while the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (mARN and protein) is upregulated. Certain neurodegenerative diseases share the same Wnt/beta-catenin/PPAR gamma profile, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Conversely, other NDs share an opposite profile, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Friedreich's ataxia...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802237/improved-brain-insulin-igf-signaling-and%C3%A2-reduced-neuroinflammation-with%C3%A2-t3d-959-in-an-experimental-model%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Suzanne M de la Monte, Ming Tong, Irio Schiano, John Didsbury
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with progressive impairments in brain insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and insulin receptor substrate (IRS) signaling through Akt pathways that regulate neuronal growth, survival, metabolism, and plasticity. The intracerebral streptozotocin (i.c. STZ) model replicates the full range of abnormalities in sporadic AD. T3D-959, an orally active PPAR-delta/gamma agonist remediates neurocognitive deficits and AD neuropathology in the i...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799938/ppar-gamma-in-neuroblastoma-the-translational-perspectives-of-hypoglycemic-drugs
#14
REVIEW
Serena Vella, Pier Giulio Conaldi, Tullio Florio, Aldo Pagano
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common and aggressive pediatric cancer, characterized by a remarkable phenotypic diversity and high malignancy. The heterogeneous clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to fatal metastatic disease, is attributable to NB biology and genetics. Despite major advances in therapies, NB is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Thus, novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches are required, mainly to improve treatment outcomes of high-risk NB patients...
2016: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792919/ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-pioglitazone-regulates-dendritic-cells-immunogenicity-mediated-by-dc-sign-via-the-mapk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#15
Weiguo Zhu, Hui Yan, Shan Li, Wencheng Nie, Fangyan Fan, Jianhua Zhu
Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is a dendritic cell-specific lectin which participates in dendritic cell (DC) trafficking, antigen uptake and DC-T cell interactions at the initiation of immune responses. This study investigated whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) activation in human DCs regulates the immunogenicity of DCs mediated by DC-SIGN and exploited the possible molecular mechanisms, especially focused on the signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)...
October 25, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777604/comparison-of-maternal-isocaloric-high-carbohydrate-and-high-fat-diets-on-osteogenic-and-adipogenic-genes-expression-in-adolescent-mice-offspring
#16
Seyedeh Neda Mousavi, Fariba Koohdani, Farzad Shidfar, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad
BACKGROUND: Maternal high fat/high calorie diet leads to adiposity and bone fracture in offspring. However, the effects of macronutrient distribution in maternal isocaloric diet have not been studied. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate diet will increase osteoblastic and decrease osteoclastic and adipogenic gene expression compared with high-fat diet in adolescent mice offspring. METHODS: Virgin female C57BL/6 mice were impregnated and fed either the AIN 93G isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate (LF-HCD) or a high fat (HF-LCD) diet from the time of vaginal plug confirmation until the offspring was weaned...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777595/soshiho-tang-aqueous-extract-exerts-antiobesity-effects-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#17
Sae-Rom Yoo, Mee-Young Lee, Byoung-Kab Kang, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Soo-Jin Jeong
Soshiho-tang (SST; sho-saiko-to in Japanese; xiaochaihu-tang in Chinese) has generally been used to improve liver fibrosis- and cirrhosis-related symptoms in traditional Korean medicine. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of SST, its antiobesity effect has not been elucidated. Thus, our present study was carried out to evaluate the antiobesity effect of SST using a high fat diet- (HFD) induced obese mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipose cells. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/group), normal diet (ND), HFD-fed group, and HFD- and SST-fed groups (S200: 200 mg/kg of SST; S600: 600 mg/kg of SST) and given HFD with or without SST extract for 8 weeks...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750019/ras-mutations-and-ret-ptc-and-pax8-ppar-gamma-chromosomal-rearrangements-are-also-prevalent-in-benign-thyroid-lesions-implications-thereof-and-a-systematic-review
#18
Alireza Najafian, Salem Noureldine, Faris Azar, Chady Atallah, Gina Trinh, Eric B Schneider, Ralph P Tufano, Martha A Zeiger
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers associated with thyroid malignancy are increasingly being used as differential diagnostic tools for thyroid nodules. However, little has been reported recently regarding the prevalence of these markers in benign lesions. The literature was systematically reviewed to examine studies that reported on the prevalence of these markers in benign thyroid lesions. METHODS: Appropriate studies published between January 1, 2000, and April 30, 2015, and cataloged in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched for by combining different keywords for "thyroid tumor" with both general and specific keywords for "molecular marker" by using "AND" as the Boolean operator...
November 16, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733618/insulin-treatment-prevents-neuroinflammation-and-neuronal-injury-with-restored-neurobehavioral-function-in-models-of-hiv-aids-neurodegeneration
#19
Manmeet K Mamik, Eugene L Asahchop, Wing F Chan, Yu Zhu, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
: HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716232/the-role-of-expression-imbalance-between-adipose-synthesis-and-storage-mediated-by-ppar-%C3%AE-fsp27-in-the-formation-of-insulin-resistance-in-catch-up-growth
#20
Su-Xing Wang, Jin-Gang Wei, Lu-Lu Chen, Xiang Hu, Wen Kong
BACKGROUND: Catch up growth (CUG) motivated by under-nutrition can lead to insulin resistance (IR) and visceral fat over-accumulation. However, the precise mechanisms on IR induced by adipose tissue changes during CUG remain unresolved. METHODS: Experimental rats were divided into three groups: normal chow group, catch up growth group and resveratrol administrated group. The whole experiment was carried out in four stages: 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) expression level in epididymal adipose tissues (EAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) were detected along with other IR indicators...
October 4, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
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