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Ppar gamma

Alireza Najafian, Salem I Noureldine, Faris Azar, Chady Atallah, Gina Trinh, Eric B Schneider, Ralph P Tufano, Martha A Zeiger
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers associated with thyroid malignancy are increasingly being used as differential diagnostic tools for thyroid nodules. However, little has been reported recently regarding the prevalence of these markers in benign lesions. We systematically reviewed the literature to examine studies that reported on the prevalence of these markers in benign thyroid lesions. METHODS: Appropriate papers published between January 01, 2000 and April 30, 2015 and cataloged on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science databases by combining different keywords for ''thyroid tumor'' with both general and specific keywords for ''molecular marker'' by using ''AND'' as the Boolean operator...
October 17, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Manmeet K Mamik, Eugene L Asahchop, Wing F Chan, Yu Zhu, William G Branton, Brienne A McKenzie, Eric A Cohen, Christopher Power
: HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Su-Xing Wang, Jin-Gang Wei, Lu-Lu Chen, Xiang Hu, Wen Kong
BACKGROUND: Catch up growth (CUG) motivated by under-nutrition can lead to insulin resistance (IR) and visceral fat over-accumulation. However, the precise mechanisms on IR induced by adipose tissue changes during CUG remain unresolved. METHODS: Experimental rats were divided into three groups: normal chow group, catch up growth group and resveratrol administrated group. The whole experiment was carried out in four stages: 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) expression level in epididymal adipose tissues (EAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) were detected along with other IR indicators...
October 4, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Hongbin Jia, Shuangshuang Xu, Qingzhen Liu, Jian Liu, Jianguo Xu, Weiyan Li, Yi Jin, Qing Ji
The molecular mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain have yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the modulation of neuroimmune activation in the spinal cord by the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, pioglitazone (Pio), in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI). Rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Sham surgery with vehicle, chronic constriction injury with vehicle or Pio (10 mg/kg), and chronic constriction injury with Pio and a PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (2 mg/kg)...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Abhishek Kumar Singh, Sonal Shree, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Sudhir Kumar, Anagha Gurjar, Sapana Kushwaha, Harish Kumar, Arun Kumar Trivedi, Naibedya Chattopadhyay, Rakesh Maurya, Ravishankar Ramachandran, Sabyasachi Sanyal
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a debilitating response to several major diseases, muscle disuse and chronic steroid treatment for which currently no therapy is available. Since adiponectin signaling plays key roles in muscle energetics, we assessed if globular adiponectin (gAd) or the small molecule adiponectin mimetic 6-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2S,3S)-(+)-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol (GTDF) could ameliorate muscle atrophy. Both GTDF and gAd induced C2C12 myoblast differentiation. GTDF and gAd effectively prevented reduction in myotube area and suppressed the expressions of atrophy markers; atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF1) in models of steroid, cytokine and starvation -induced muscle atrophy...
September 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Ying-Chun Liu, Xiao-Xiao Gao, Zhi-Guang Zhang, Zhao-Hua Lin, Qi-Lian Zou
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of metabolism, cell growth, and protein synthesis. Since decreased mTOR activity has been found to slow aging in many species, the aim of this study was to examine the activity of mTOR and its phosphorylated form in in vitro and in vivo models mimicking Alzheimer's disease (AD), and investigate the potential pathway of PGC-1β in regulating mTOR expression. Primary neurons and N2a cells were treated with Aβ25-35, while untreated cells served as controls...
September 15, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Jun Hee Lee, Sang Hun Lee, Hyang Seon Lee, Seung Taek Ji, Seok Yun Jung, Jae Ho Kim, Sun Sik Bae, Sang-Mo Kwon
Adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling during development. However, limited information is available on the pivotal modulators of adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Adaptor protein Lnk (Src homology 2B3 [SH2B3]), which belongs to a family of SH2-containing proteins, modulates the bioactivities of different stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells. In this study, we investigated whether an interaction between insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and Lnk regulated IGF-1-induced adipogenic differentiation of MSCs...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Bogna Grygiel-Gorniak, Maria Mosor, Justyna Marcinkowska, Juliusz Przyslawski, Jerzy Nowak
The relationship Pro12Ala (rs1801282) and C1431T (rs3856806) polymorphisms of PPAR gamma-2 with glucose and lipid metabolism is not clear after menopause. We investigated the impact of the Pro12Ala and C1431T silent substitution in the 6th exon in PPAR gamma-2 gene on nutritional and metabolic status in 271 postmenopausal women (122 lean and 149 obese). The general linear model (GLM) approach to the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to infer the interactions between the analysed genotypes. The frequency of the Pro-T haplotype was higher in obese than in lean women (p less than 0...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
Yi Peng, Yi Zeng, Jin Xu, Xing Lan Huang, Wei Zhang, Xiao Le Xu
2, 3, 4', 5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-0-β-D glucoside (TSG) could inhibit cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) has been recognized as a potent, endogenous antifibrotic factor and maintaining a proper expression level in myocardium is necessary for assuring that structure and function of heart adapt to pressure overload stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PPAR-γ is involved in the beneficial effect of TSG on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis...
August 26, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
J R Anderson, K Mortimer, L Pang, K M Smith, H Bailey, D B Hodgson, D E Shaw, A J Knox, T W Harrison
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear receptor that modulates inflammation in models of asthma. To determine whether pioglitazone improves measures of asthma control and airway inflammation, we performed a single-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. METHODS: Sixty-eight participants with mild asthma were randomized to 12 weeks pioglitazone (30 mg for 4 weeks, then 45 mg for 8 weeks) or placebo...
2016: PloS One
Cristina P Pineda-Belmontes, Raúl U Hernández-Ramírez, César Hernández-Alcaraz, Mariano E Cebrián, Lizbeth López-Carrillo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the presence of polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma PPARγ (Pro 1 2Ala) and PPARGC1B (Ala203Pro) modifies the association between the inorganic arsenic (iAs) methylation capacity and breast cancer (BC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mexican women were interviewed, and blood and urine samples were collected from them (cases/controls= 197/220). The concentration of urinary arsenic species and the polymorphisms of interest were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively...
April 2016: Salud Pública de México
B Yousefi, V Shafiei-Irannejad, A Azimi, N Samadi, N Zarghami
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) plays key roles in regulating cellular differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis pathways. As such, they are considered promising targets for anticancer drug development, especially for breast cancer, multiple myeloma and hematologic malignancies. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder arising from an oncogenic Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. Inhibitors of this oncogene by small molecules such as imatinib are effective only in 75% of the patient's population...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Eduardo Maria Normando, Benjamin Michael Davis, Lies De Groef, Shereen Nizari, Lisa A Turner, Nivedita Ravindran, Milena Pahlitzsch, Jonathan Brenton, Giulia Malaguarnera, Li Guo, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Maria Francesca Cordeiro
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, affecting 1 % of the population over 65 years of age. Dopaminergic cell death in the substantia nigra and accumulation of Lewy bodies are the defining neuropathological hallmarks of the disease. Neuronal death and dysfunction have been reported in other central nervous system regions, including the retina. Symptoms of PD typically manifest only when more than 70 % of dopaminergic cells are lost, and the definitive diagnosis of PD can only be made histologically at post-mortem, with few biomarkers available...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Ming Tong, Cesar Dominguez, John Didsbury, Suzanne M de la Monte
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be regarded as a brain form of diabetes since insulin resistance and deficiency develop early and progress with severity of neurodegeneration. Preserving insulin's actions in the brain restores function and reduces neurodegeneration. T3D-959 is a dual nuclear receptor agonist currently in a Phase 2a trial in mild-to-moderate AD patients ( identifier NCT02560753). Herein, we show that T3D-959 improves motor function and reverses neurodegeneration in a sporadic model of AD...
June 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
Yufeng Qian, Peiwei Li, Jinjie Zhang, Yu Shi, Kun Chen, Jun Yang, Yihua Wu, Xianhua Ye
OBJECTIVES: Risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been suggested to be associated with polymorphisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), while the results were controversial. We aimed to systematically assess the association between PPAR polymorphisms and CHD risk. METHODS: A case-control study with 446 subjects was conducted to evaluate the association between CHD risk and C161T polymorphism, which was of our special interest as this polymorphism showed different effects on risks of CHD and acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yanhan Wang, Lingjuan Zhang, Jinghua Yu, Stephen Huang, Zhenping Wang, Kimberly Ann Chun, Tammy Ling Lee, Ying-Tung Chen, Richard L Gallo, Chun-Ming Huang
Here we demonstrate that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by glycerol fermentation that can induce adipogenesis. Although the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of SCFAs have been previously well characterized, little is known about the contribution of SCFAs to the adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We show that ADSCs differentiated into adipocytes and accumulated lipids in the cytoplasm when cultured with butyric acid, a principal SCFA in the fermentation metabolites of S...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Bernhard Scharinger, Barbara Messner, Adrian Türkcan, Daniela Schuster, Anna Vuorinen, Florian Pitterl, Katharina Heinz, Kathrin Arnhard, Günther Laufer, Michael Grimm, Hermann Stuppner, Herbert Oberacher, Philipp Eller, Andreas Ritsch, David Bernhard
The health benefit through the control of lipid levels in hyperlipidaemic individuals is evident from a large number of studies. The pharmacological options to achieve this goal shall be as specific and personalized as the reasons for and co-factors of hyperlipidaemia. It was the goal of this study to reveal the impact of leoligin on cholesterol levels and to define its mechanism of action. Oral application of leoligin in ApoE -/- mice led to significantly reduced total serum cholesterol levels and a reduction in postprandial blood glucose peak levels...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Nicole E Scharping, Ashley V Menk, Rebecca S Moreci, Ryan D Whetstone, Rebekah E Dadey, Simon C Watkins, Robert L Ferris, Greg M Delgoffe
Although tumor-specific T cells recognize cancer cells, they are often rendered dysfunctional due to an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Here we showed that T cells demonstrated persistent loss of mitochondrial function and mass when infiltrating murine and human tumors, an effect specific to the tumor microenvironment and not merely caused by activation. Tumor-infiltrating T cells showed a progressive loss of PPAR-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α), which programs mitochondrial biogenesis, induced by chronic Akt signaling in tumor-specific T cells...
August 16, 2016: Immunity
Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Da Hye Kim, Srisesharam Srigopalram, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Kyung Dong Lee, Jeong Chae Lee, Jong Suk Lee, Senthil Renganathan, Ki Choon Choi
Coumaric acid (CA) is a phenolic acid of the hydroxycinnamic acid family, and it has many biological functions such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-ulcer, anti-platelet, anti-cancer activities, etc. In the present study, we planned to analyse the potential molecular function of CA on skeletal muscle and preadipocytes differentiation using PCR and Western blot techniques. First, we analysed the impact of CA on C2C12 skeletal muscle differentiation. It revealed that CA treatment inhibited horse serum-induced skeletal muscle differentiation as evidenced by the decreased expression of early myogenic differentiation markers such as Myogenin and myoD via the AMP activated protein kinase- alpha AMPK-α mediated pathway...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
David Mizael Ortíz-Martinez, Catalina Rivas-Morales, Myriam Angelica de la Garza-Ramos, Maria Julia Verde-Star, Maria Adriana Nuñez-Gonzalez, Catalina Leos-Rivas
Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem worldwide. For this reason, ethanolic extract of Miconia sp. from Oaxaca, Mexico, was selected in search of an alternative against this disease. The effect of Miconia sp. on mRNA expression of PPARγ on cell line 3T3-L1, its effect on alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase, lipid accumulation during adipogenesis, and cell viability on VERO cells were evaluated. The mRNA levels of PPARγ increased on 1.393 ± 0.008 folds, lipid accumulation was increased by 29.55% with Miconia sp...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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