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Ppar gamma

Sabrina L Roberti, Romina Higa, Verónica White, Theresa L Powell, Thomas Jansson, Alicia Jawerbaum
STUDY QUESTION: What are the consequences of inhibiting mTOR, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and PPARδ pathways in the early post-implantation period on decidual function, embryo viability and feto-placental growth in the rat? SUMMARY ANSWER: mTOR inhibition from day 7 to day 9 of pregnancy in rats caused decidual PPARγ and PPARδ upregulation on day 9 of pregnancy and resulted in embryo resorption by day 14 of pregnancy...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
A A Szczepańska, M Łupicka, B M Socha, A J Korzekwa
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the superfamily of nuclear receptors. Three isoforms have been described: alpha (PPARα), delta (PPARδ), and gamma (PPARγ). PPARs heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors (RXRs: RXRα, RXRβ and RXRγ). PPAR activity can be modulated by several ligands, including arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. The aims of the study were to determine the effect of AA metabolites (prostaglandin [PG]E2 , PGF2α , leukotriene [LT]B4 , and LTC4 ) on mRNA (real-time PCR) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PPARα, PPARδ, and PPARγ, and on mRNA expression of RXRα, RXRβ, and RXRγ, in bovine epithelial, stromal, and myometrial primary uterine cells and in bovine stromal cells with silenced PPAR genes (N=10)...
March 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Tomoya Sakabe, Keiko Sakai, Toru Maeda, Ataru Sunaga, Nao Furuta, Ronen Schweitzer, Takako Sasaki, Takao Sakai
Tendon is a dense connective tissue that transmits high mechanical forces from skeletal muscle to bone. The transcription factor scleraxis (Scx) is a highly specific marker of both precursor and mature tendon cells (tenocytes). Mice lacking scx exhibit a specific and virtually complete loss of tendons during development. However, the functional contribution of Scx to wound healing in adult tendon has not yet been fully characterized. Here, using ScxGFP-tracking and loss-of-function systems, we show in an adult mouse model of Achilles tendon injury that paratenon cells, representing a stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1)-positive and Scx-negative progenitor subpopulation, display Scx induction, migrate to the wound site, and produce extracellular matrix (ECM) to bridge the defect, whereas resident tenocytes exhibit a delayed response...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Andrew A Nierenberg, Sharmin A Ghaznavi, Isadora Sande Mathias, Kristen K Ellard, Jessica A Janos, Louisa G Sylvia
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) is a protein that regulates metabolism and inflammation by activating nuclear receptors, especially the family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PGC-1 alpha and PPARs also regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, cellular energy production, thermogenesis, and lipid metabolism. Brain energy metabolism may also be regulated in part by the interaction between PGC-1 alpha and PPARs. Because neurodegenerative diseases (Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and bipolar disorder have been associated with dysregulated mitochondrial and brain energy metabolism, PGC-1 alpha may represent a potential drug target for these conditions...
January 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Kang-Seo Park, Sang Hyun Ahn, Kang Pa Lee, Sun-Young Park, Jin Hong Cheon, Jun-Yong Choi, Kibong Kim
Background: Atherosclerosis-induced vascular disorders are major causes of death in most western countries. During the development of atherosclerotic lesions, foam cell formation is essential and formed through the expression of CD36 and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). Objective: To investigate whether dansameum extract (DSE) could show anti-atherosclerotic effect through down-regulating cellular redox state including CD36 and PARP-γ expression in oxidative low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-treated RAW264...
January 2018: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Yu-Jin Zhu, Dan Mao, Wei Gao, Hong Hu
Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays roles in many diseases including asthma. Several lncRNAs function in the early differentiation of T-helper cells. lncRNA controls gene transcription, protein expression, and epigenetic regulation. Of the 4 asthma phenotypes, eosinophilic asthma (EA) is the most common. However, the lncRNAs associated with eosinophilic asthma have yet to be identified.We designed a study to identify the circulating lncRNA signature in EA samples. We tested whether significant differences in lncRNA expression were observed between blood samples from patients with EA and healthy individuals (control)...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Helder Veras Ribeiro Filho, Natália Bernardi Videira, Aline Villanova Bridi, Thais Helena Tittanegro, Fernanda Aparecida Helena Batista, José Geraldo de Carvalho Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Albane Le Maire, Ana Carolina Migliorini Figueira
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of a nuclear receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, playing key roles in maintenance of adipose tissue and in regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. This receptor is the target of thiazolidinediones, a class of antidiabetic drugs, which improve insulin sensitization and regulate glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Despite the beneficial effects of drugs, such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, their use is associated with several side effects, including weight gain, heart failure, and liver disease, since these drugs induce full activation of the receptor...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
A Tabassum, T Mahboob
The present study focused on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) activation on renal oxidative damages, serum visfatin, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. Following the institutional animal ethics committee guidelines, Wistar rats were categorized into five groups: group 1: fed on a normal rat diet; group 2: HFD-induced obese rats (HFD for 8 weeks); group 3: HFD-fed rats treated with rosiglitazone (RSG; 3 mg/kg orally for 7 days); group 4: T2DM rats induced by HFD and low dose of streptozotocin (i...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Mehri Jamilian, Mansooreh Samimi, Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Esmat Aghadavod, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Zatollah Asemi
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common complication of pregnancy, and it is mostly associated with postpartum diabetes, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Fish oil (omega-3) supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of different chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancers, though the evidence of its impact on gestational diabetes is scarce. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of fish oil administration on gene expression related to insulin action, blood lipids, and inflammation in women with GDM...
January 31, 2018: Nutrients
Sharma Love, Malik A Mudasir, Subhash C Bhardwaj, Gurdarshan Singh, Sheikh A Tasduq
Aim: To investigate the effects of tacrolimus (TC) and everolimus (EV) on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by high fat, high cholesterol and fructose (fast food) diet in C57BL/6J mice. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n=8). 1) Standard Chow (SC); 2) Fast food (FF) diet; 3) FF + Tacrolimus (TC, 1mg/kg) and; 4) FF + Everolimus (EV, 1mg/kg) and treated for 16 weeks. Serum and tissue samples were analyzed for evidence of inflammation, fibrosis, lipogenesis, and apoptosis...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
Xin Zhang, Zhen-Guo Ma, Yu-Pei Yuan, Si-Chi Xu, Wen-Ying Wei, Peng Song, Chun-Yan Kong, Wei Deng, Qi-Zhu Tang
Agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) can activate 5' AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and exert cardioprotective effects. A previous study has demonstrated that rosmarinic acid (RA) can activate PPAR-γ, but its effect on cardiac remodeling remains largely unknown. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of RA on cardiac remodeling and to clarify the underlying mechanism. Mice were subjected to aortic banding to generate pressure overload induced cardiac remodeling and then were orally administered RA (100 mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks beginning 1 week after surgery...
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Elham Rahmani, Mehri Jamilian, Bahareh Dadpour, Zahra Nezami, Zahra Vahedpoor, Samaneh Mahmoodi, Esmat Aghadavod, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Abolfazl Beiki Hassan, Zatollah Asemi
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the effects of fish oil administration on gene expression related to insulin, lipid and inflammation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 40 subjects with PCOS, aged 18-40 years old. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (n=20) or placebo (n=20) twice a day for 12 weeks...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
David Lasar, Matthias Rosenwald, Elke Kiehlmann, Miroslav Balaz, Bettina Tall, Lennart Opitz, Martin E Lidell, Nicola Zamboni, Petra Krznar, Wenfei Sun, Lukas Varga, Patrik Stefanicka, Jozef Ukropec, Pirjo Nuutila, Kirsi Virtanen, Ez-Zoubir Amri, Sven Enerbäck, Walter Wahli, Christian Wolfrum
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been suggested as the master regulators of adipose tissue formation. However, their role in regulating brown fat functionality has not been resolved. To address this question, we generated mice with inducible brown fat-specific deletions of PPARα, β/δ, and γ, respectively. We found that both PPARα and β/δδ are dispensable for brown fat function. In contrast, we could show that ablation of PPARγ in vitro and in vivo led to a reduced thermogenic capacity accompanied by a loss of inducibility by β-adrenergic signaling, as well as a shift from oxidative fatty acid metabolism to glucose utilization...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
Małgorzata Szkup, Aleksander Jerzy Owczarek, Daria Schneider-Matyka, Jacek Brodowski, Beata Łój, Elżbieta Grochans
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is regarded as a set of abnormalities, increasing the risk of serious functioning disorders. It can develop as a result of genetic predisposition. AIM: The aim of this study was to establish associations between MetS-related abnormalities and the PPAR-γ rs1801282, FTO rs9939609, and MC4R rs17782313 polymorphisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 425 women aged 45-60 years. The participants were surveyed and subjected to anthropometric, biochemical and genetic analysis...
January 9, 2018: Aging
Mehri Jamilian, Azadeh Shojaei, Mansooreh Samimi, Faraneh Afshar Ebrahimi, Esmat Aghadavod, Maryam Karamali, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Hamidreza Jamilian, Somayeh Alaeinasab, Sadegh Jafarnejad, Zatollah Asemi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Forty PCOS women were allocated into two groups and treated with 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 12 weeks. Parameters of mental health were recorded at baseline and after the 12-week intervention...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
Hayam Ibrahim Gad Allam, Abeer AbdulMoati Al Masri
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist on renal functions and blood levels of vasoregulatory peptides by administering rosiglitazone-a PPAR-γ agonist- to nitric oxide (NO) synthase lacking pregnant rats as a creature model of preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Medical College at King Khaled University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from July 2016 to May 2017...
January 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Samah Mohamed Elaidy, Mona A Hussain, Mohamed K El-Kherbetawy
Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) is an approved strategy in facing insulin resistance (IR) for the diabetes mellitus (DM)-type 2. The PPAR-γ modulators display improvements in the insulin sensitizing and adverse effects of the traditional thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is proposed as a PPAR-γ receptor ligand, with agonistic post-transcriptional effects. Currently, NTZ-antidiabetic activities versus pioglitazone (PIO) in a high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) rat model of type-2 diabetes was explored...
December 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Wen Sun, Kang Zheng, Bin Liu, Danping Fan, Hui Luo, Xiaoyuan Qu, Li Li, Xiaojuan He, Jianfeng Yi, Cheng Lu
Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) is the most general form of spinal degenerative disease and is characterized by pain and numbness of the neck and arm. Gentongping (GTP) granule, as a classical Chinese patent medicine, has been widely used in curing CSR, whereas the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the pharmacological mechanisms of GTP on CSR. The rat model of CSR was induced by spinal cord injury (SCI). Our results showed that GTP could significantly alleviate spontaneous pain as well as ameliorate gait...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
Zhiwei Wu, Dan Liu, Yongqi Liu, Na Xue, Chunlu Yan, Yun Su
To study the effect of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in hypoxic environment. The optimal APS concentration, which could promote the proliferation of BMSCs, was screened by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method. The concentration was used to intervene in BMSCs-induced by adipogenic differentiation fluid growing in different oxygen concentrations (3%, 6%, 10% and 20%). The formation of lipid droplets in the BMSCs-intervened was observed by oil red O staining under the optical microscope...
November 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists are insulin-sensitising drugs used for the treatment of insulin resistance. In addition to lowering glucose in diabetes, these drugs may also protect against hyperlipidaemia and arteriosclerosis, which are risk factors for stroke. This is an update of a review first published in January 2014 and subsequently updated in October 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular events for people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)...
December 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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