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Local anesthetic

Hesham Elsharkawy, Amit Pawa, Edward R Mariano
Ultrasound-guided interfascial plane blocks are a recent development in modern regional anesthesia research and practice and represent a new route of transmission for local anesthetic to various anatomic locations, but much more research is warranted. Before becoming overtaken with enthusiasm for these new techniques, a deeper understanding of fascial tissue anatomy and structure, as well as precise targets for needle placement, is required. Many factors may influence the ultimate spread and quality of resulting interfascial plane blocks, and these must be understood in order to best integrate these techniques into contemporary perioperative pain management protocols...
March 20, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Blair Peters, Jennifer L Giuffre
PURPOSE: Treatment patterns of carpal tunnel surgery by members of the American Society of Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) have recently been published. The majority of cases in this study were performed in the general operating room with intravenous (IV) sedation or a Bier block. Patients were most commonly prescribed hydrocodone for postoperative pain. The majority of carpal tunnel releases at our center are performed under local anesthesia alone, with plain acetaminophen (Tylenol) or codeine prescribed for postoperative pain...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Marco Scardino, Tiziana D'Amato, Federica Martorelli, Giorgia Fenocchio, Vincenzo Simili, Berardo Di Matteo, Dario Bugada, Elizaveta Kon
BACKGROUND: Currently many TKA protocols rely on multimodal analgesic protocols with patient-controlled analgesia systems that administer opioids through a patient controlled IV infusion pump, in addition to concomitant peripheral nerve blocks and local anesthetics. Although effective, PCA IV opioids do not provide optimal results with fast track rehabilitation protocols. METHODS: The present is a retrospective study comparing the novel sublingual sufentanil PCA system (SSTS) to our standard of care foreseeing continuous femoral nerve block (cFNB) within a multimodal analgesic in a TKA fast-track protocol...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Chika Hamaya, Travis Barr, Gary R Strichartz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Local anesthetics (LAs) are often infiltrated subcutaneously for localized perioperative numbing. In addition to blocking nerve conduction, LAs act on pathways used by a variety of pain-inducing and inflammatory mediators. We describe the effects in isolated model sensory neurons of LAs on responses to the algogenic and sensitizing peptide, bradykinin (BK). METHODS: ND/7 sensory neurons were stimulated by different concentrations of BK in the presence or absence of LAs, with transient increases in intracellular calcium (Δ[Ca]in) detected fluorometrically in fields of cells...
March 17, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Yasmin Elkhashab, Andrew Ng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coccygodynia is pain within the coccyx area. The diagnosis is made clinically with symptoms of pain in the coccyx region and worsening pain in sitting position. The initial treatment is conservative therapy. For patients who do not respond to conservative therapies, there are further interventions available. This includes local injection of local anesthetics and steroids, neurolysis of sacral nerve roots, caudal epidural block, pulse radiofrequency (PRF), intra-rectal massage and manipulation, ganglion impar block, levator ani massage and stretching, coccyx manipulation, and coccygectomy...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Keumah Han, Jongbin Kim
Local anesthesia is administered to control pain, but it may induce fear and anxiety. Root planing is a non-surgical periodontal therapy; however, when it is performed in an extensive manner, some tissue removal is inevitable. Notably, this removal may be so painful that local anesthesia is required to be administered to the area scheduled for the treatment. Although patients tend to accept root planing easily, they frequently express a fear of local anesthesia. Intraosseous anesthesia (IA) is an intraosseous injection technique, whereby local anesthetic is injected into the cancellous bone supporting the teeth...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Adam M Fahs, Denise M Koueiter, Michael D Kurdziel, Kristine A Huynh, Clayton R Perry, James J Verner
BACKGROUND: The psoas compartment block (PCB) or periarticular soft-tissue local anesthetic injection are forms of regional anesthesia often used as one of the components in multimodal anesthesia applied during total hip arthroplasty (THA). The most efficacious form of regional anesthesia for THA has yet to be determined. METHODS: In a single-surgeon, prospective, clinical trial, patients undergoing THA via direct anterior approach were randomized to receive an intraoperative periarticular local anesthetic infiltration (periarticular injection) or a PCB...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Masao Yamaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Arerugī, [Allergy]
Sakornrat Khongkhunthian, Thanapat Sastraruji, Srikanjana Klayraung, Siriporn Okonogi
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of two local anesthetic rice nanogels (RNG) on pain reduction from needle insertion in oral cavity. Nanogel base was prepared using modified rice as gelling agent. The average particle size of RNG determined by photon correlation spectrophotometer was 485 ± 70 nm. Lidocaine hydrochloride (LH) and prilocaine hydrochloride (PH) were incorporated into RNG to obtain anesthetic RNG containing 5% and 20% LH or PH. Clinical efficacy test of each gel was performed in oral cavity of 100 healthy volunteers (25-60 years old)...
2018: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Charlotte B Winder, Cynthia L Miltenburg, Jan M Sargeant, Stephen J LeBlanc, Derek B Haley, Kerry D Lissemore, M Ann Godkin, Todd F Duffield
Disbudding is a common management procedure performed on dairy farms and, when done without pain mitigation, is viewed as a key welfare issue. Use of pain control has increased in recent years, but full adoption of anesthesia and analgesia by veterinarians or dairy producers has not been achieved. This may in part be due to the lack of a consistent recommendations of treatment protocols between studies examining pain control methods for disbudding. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effects of these pain control practices for the most common method of disbudding, cautery, on outcomes associated with disbudding pain in calves...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Qinghong Zheng, Xiaohong Peng, Hai Yu
BACKGROUND: Apart from the known anesthetic and antiarrhythmic effects, recent studies also highlight the anticancer activities of local anesthetics. In line with the findings, our work shows that ropivacaine, an amide-linked local anesthetic drug, targets chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) via inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of ropivacaine in CML cell lines and primary stem or progenitor cells were investigated using apoptosis, proliferation and colony formation assays...
March 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Fauzia A Khan, Alan F Merry
The safety of anesthesia characteristic of high-income countries today is not matched in low-resource settings with poor infrastructure, shortages of anesthesia providers, essential drugs, equipment, and supplies. Health care is delivered through complex systems. Achieving sustainable widespread improvement globally will require an understanding of how to influence such systems. Health outcomes depend not only on a country's income, but also on how resources are allocated, and both vary substantially, between and within countries...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Faye M Evans, Juan C Duarte, Carolina Haylock Loor, Wayne Morriss
There is an urgent need to train more anesthesia providers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is also a need to provide more educational opportunities in subspecialty areas of anesthetic practice such as trauma management, pain management, obstetric anesthesia, and pediatric anesthesia. Together, these subspecialty areas make up a large proportion of the clinical workload in LMICs. In these countries, the quality of education may be variable, there may be few teachers, and opportunities for continued learning and mentorship are rare...
April 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Frederik Flenner, Nicole Arlt, Mahtab Nasib, Sophie Schobesberger, Thea Koch, Ursula Ravens, Felix Friedrich, Viacheslav Nikolaev, Torsten Christ, Sebastian N Stehr
BACKGROUND: Systemic toxicity of local anesthetics is predominantly complicated by their myocardial toxicity. Especially long-acting local anesthetics exert a negative inotropic effect that has been described at lower concentrations than defined for blockade of myocardial ion channels. We evaluated the negative inotropic effect of bupivacaine at a concentration described for clinical toxicity testing the hypothesis that negative inotropy is a result of reduced Ca sensitivity rather than blockade of ion channels...
March 16, 2018: Anesthesiology
P A Stapleton, C R McBride, J Yi, A B Abukabda, T R Nurkiewicz
Preconceptive health encompasses male and female reproductive capability. In females, this takes into account each of the stages of the estrous cycle. Microvascular reactivity varies throughout the estrous cycle in response to hormonal changes and in preparation for pregnancy. Microvascular alterations in response to engineered nanomaterial (ENM) exposure have been described within 24-hours of inhalation; however, the impact upon the uterine vasculature at differing estrous stages and at late-stage pregnancy is unclear...
March 12, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Dror Cohen, Bruno van Swinderen, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Hierarchically organized brains communicate through feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) pathways. In mammals, FF and FB are mediated by higher and lower frequencies during wakefulness. FB is preferentially impaired by general anesthetics in multiple mammalian species. This suggests FB serves critical functions in waking brains. The brain of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is also hierarchically organized, but the presence of FB in these brains is not established. Here, we studied FB in the fly brain, by simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) from low-order peripheral structures and higher-order central structures...
January 2018: ENeuro
C Genna, C M Oddo, A Mazzoni, A Wahlbom, S Micera, H Jörntell
The presence of contralateral tactile input can profoundly affect ipsilateral tactile perception and unilateral stroke in somatosensory areas can result in bilateral tactile deficits, suggesting that bilateral tactile integration is an important part of brain function. Whereas previous studies have shown that bilateral tactile inputs exist and that there are neural interactions between inputs from the two sides, no previous study explored to what extent the local neuronal circuitry processing contains detailed information about the nature of the tactile input from the two sides...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chin-Yu Lee, Tao-Hsin Tung, Chia-Yu Liu, Shu-Hui Wang, Ching-Chi Chi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Local anesthetic cream (LAC) has been used for analgesia in various procedures. However, the analgesic effect of LAC in cryotherapy for warts is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of LAC in cryotherapy for warts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of LAC in cryotherapy for warts. We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE on 31 March 2017 for relevant RCTs...
March 2018: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Carllini Barroso Vicentini, Juliana Cama Ramacciato, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Rubens Gonçalves Teixeira, Rogério Heládio Lopes Motta
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare two therapeutic protocols of dexamethasone for the prevention of postoperative swelling, pain, and other complications after the extraction of impacted third molars, in a prospective, randomized, crossover, double-blinded clinical trial. METHODS: Fifty patients with symmetrical impaction of third molars were randomly assigned to two different protocols of dexamethasone for each side. Patients underwent two sessions performed at a 21-day interval...
March 13, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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