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Local anesthetic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930830/effect-of-dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-ropivacaine-for-wound-infiltration-in-patients-undergoing-open-gastrectomy-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Hengfei Luan, Pin Zhu, Xiaobao Zhang, Liang Tian, Jiying Feng, Yong Wu, Yongxin Yan, Zhibin Zhao, Xiaoping Gu
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether dexmedetomidine could potentiate the analgesic efficacy of ropivacaine, when added to ropivacaine for wound infiltration in patients undergoing open gastrectomy. METHODS: Fifty patients scheduled for open gastrectomy were divided into 2 equal groups that were received wound infiltration using 20 mL 0.3% ropivacaine plus 2 mL normal saline (group R) or 20 mL 0.3% ropivacaine plus 2 mL 1...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928637/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-play-a-predominant-role-in-the-cholinergic-potentiation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked-firing-responses-of-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#2
Zsolt K Bali, Lili V Nagy, István Hernádi
The aim of the present study was to identify in vivo electrophysiological correlates of the interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission underlying memory. Extracellular spike recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats in combination with local microiontophoretic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and acetylcholine (ACh). Both NMDA and ACh increased the firing rate of the neurons. Furthermore, the simultaneous delivery of NMDA and ACh resulted in a more pronounced excitatory effect that was superadditive over the sum of the two mono-treatment effects and that was explained by cholinergic potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928573/a-comparative-study-for-the-analgesic-efficacy-and-safety-profile-of-fentanyl-versus-clonidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-epidural-ropivacaine-0-75-in-lower-abdominal-surgeries
#3
Shuchi Nigam, Shivani Rastogi, Amit Tyagi, Rajlakshmi Bhandari
CONTEXT: Different adjuvants are coadministered with local anesthetics to improve the speed of onset and duration of analgesia, and to reduce the dose, the selection of which is often left to the choice of an anesthesiologist. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety profile of fentanyl and clonidine as an adjuvant to epidural ropivacaine anesthesia. SETTING AND DESIGN: With institutional ethical committee clearance, a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind clinical study was conducted at Vivekananda Polyclinic and Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928571/dexmedetomidine-as-adjuvant-to-lower-doses-of-intrathecal-bupivacaine-for-lower-limb-orthopedic-surgeries
#4
Taznim Mohamed, Indu Susheela, Beena P Balakrishnan, Suvarna Kaniyil
BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine, an α2 adrenergic agonist, has been found to be a useful adjuvant to local anesthetics. It has been found to produce satisfactory block with lower doses of spinal bupivacaine. AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the difference in spinal block characteristics and hemodynamic effects of 7, 8, and 9 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine combined with 5 μg dexmedetomidine and to find out the optimum dose that would provide satisfactory block and hemodynamic stability for lower limb orthopedic surgeries...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928566/effect-of-verapamil-as-an-adjuvant-to-levobupivacaine-in-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block
#5
Sidharth Sraban Routray, Debasis Mishra, Daityari Routray, Kasturi Nanda
BACKGROUND: Many adjuvants have been used with local anesthetics to reduce the time of onset and prolong the duration of analgesia in brachial plexus blocks. However, few studies are there using verapamil as an adjuvant with levobupivacaine. AIMS: This study aims to study the effects of verapamil as adjuvant to levobupivacaine in supraclavicular block for upper extremity surgery. METHODS: In this double-blinded clinical trial, 60 American Society of Anesthesiologist Class I and II patients posted to undergo upper extremity surgery were divided into 2 different groups randomly...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928560/age-based-local-anesthetic-dosing-in-pediatric-spinal-anesthesia-evaluation-of-a-new-formula-a-pilot-study-in-indian-patients
#6
S Parthasarathy, T Senthilkumar
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia is a safe alternative to general anesthesia and often the anesthetic technique of choice in many lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries in children. As the vertebral column and spinal cord grows variedly with age and not weight, we planned to administer an age-based dosing schedule of hyperbaric bupivacaine in the intra-thecal space in select infra umbilical surgeries in children. The aim was to find out the efficacy and complications associated with this dosage...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928559/a-comparative-study-between-intrathecal-isobaric-ropivacaine-0-75-plus-dexmedetomidine-and-isobaric-ropivacaine-0-75-plus-fentanyl-for-lower-limb-surgeries
#7
Prabhavathi Ravipati, G Anand Isaac, P Narasimha Reddy, Leela Krishna, T Supritha
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia is used commonly intraoperatively. However, local anesthetics are associated with relatively short duration of action. A number of adjuvants have been used to prolong the postoperative analgesia. OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl when given intrathecally as an adjuvant to 2.5 ml of 0.75% isobaric ropivacaine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty selected patients were randomized to receive 2...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928552/comparative-efficacy-of-minimal-concentration-of-racemic-bupivacaine-0-0625-with-fentanyl-and-ropivacaine-0-1-with-fentanyl-for-epidural-labor-analgesia
#8
T N Chethanananda, M R Shashank, N Madhu, J Achyutha, Karna Venkata Siva Kumar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aims to compare the minimum effective concentration of local anesthetic (LA) bupivacaine and ropivacaine with highly lipid soluble opioids fentanyl for providing optimal labor epidural analgesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of racemic bupivacaine 0.0625% and 0.1% of ropivacaine both mixed with 2 μg/ml of fentanyl for epidural labor analgesia in parturients with spontaneous labor and normal fetal heart rate tracing...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928550/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-tramadol-as-an-adjuvant-to-intrathecal-isobaric-levobupivacaine-for-elective-infraumbilical-surgeries
#9
Dewan Roshan Singh, Hajer Mohamed, N Krishnaveni, Kusha Nag
BACKGROUND: Long-acting local anesthetics are used in subarachnoid block to increase the duration of anesthesia. Adjuvants are added to improve the duration of analgesia. SETTINGS: Randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Department of Anesthesiology in a tertiary care hospital. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose tramadol as an intrathecal adjuvant to levobupivacaine in terms of duration of analgesia, onset of sensory blockade, onset of motor blockade, and duration of motor blockade...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926439/from-darting-game-to-darting-pain-how-benumbing-aconite-paved-the-way-for-local-anesthetics
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926119/procaine-is-a-specific-dna-methylation-inhibitor-with-anti-tumor-effect-for-human-gastric-cancer
#11
Yong-Chao Li, Yun Wang, Dan-Dan Li, Ying Zhang, Tian-Cheng Zhao, Chang-Feng Li
DNA hypermethylation and the silencing of tumor suppressor genes caused by DNA hypermethylation is considered as a molecular hallmark of many kinds of cancers. Procaine, a local anesthetic, has been shown as a potential DNA methylation inhibitor in some types of cancers. However, the influence of procaine on DNA methylation regulation as well as the biological function in gastric cancer is still unknown. We report here that procaine represses the DNA-methylation level and promotes the proliferation arrest and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924474/evaluation-of-satisfaction-of-individuals-rehabilitated-with-zygomatic-implants-as-regards-anesthetic-and-sedative-procedure-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Paulo H T Almeida, Alexander D'Alvia Salvoni, Fabiana M G França
PURPOSE: To evaluate the satisfaction of individuals with atrophic maxilla, rehabilitated with fixed dental prostheses, anchored on zygomatic implants, with variables being the anesthetic procedure: general anesthesia, or local with sedation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By means of the clinical record charts from the Training Course in Advanced Hospital Surgeries for Implant Dentists conducted at the Campinas-SP unit of the São Leopoldo Mandic School of Dentistry, 30 individuals were randomly selected...
October 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923309/altered-penile-caveolin-expression-in-diabetes-potential-role-in-erectile-dysfunction
#13
Jay Parikh, Alice Zemljic-Harpf, Johnny Fu, Dimosthenis Giamouridis, Tung-Chin Hsieh, Adam Kassan, Karnam S Murthy, Valmik Bhargava, Hemal H Patel, M Raj Rajasekaran
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of increased severity of erectile dysfunction in men with diabetes and their poor response to oral pharmacotherapy are unclear. Defective vascular endothelium and consequent impairment in the formation and action of nitric oxide (NO) are implicated as potential mechanisms. Endothelial NO synthase, critical for NO generation, is localized to caveolae, plasma membrane lipid rafts enriched in structural proteins, and caveolins. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced changes in caveolin expression are recognized to play a role in cardiovascular dysfunction...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922962/changes-in-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-activities-in-a-shockwave-induced-traumatic-brain-injury-model-using-lithotripsy
#14
Afshin Andre Divani, Jenny-Ann Phan, Pascal Salazar, Karen S SantaCruz, Ornina Bachour, Javad Mahmoudi, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Martin Pomper
We present a longitudinal study of cerebral metabolism using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in a rat model of shockwave-induced traumatic brain injury (SW-TBI). Anesthetized rats received 5 or 10 shockwave pulses to the right anterior lateral or dorsal frontal regions using shockwave lithotripsy. Animals were scanned for FDG uptake at baseline, 3 hours post-injury, and 3 days post-injury, using a small animal PET/CT scanner. FDG uptake at all time points was quantified as the ratio of brain activity relative to peripheral activity in the left ventricle (LV) in the heart (Abrain/ALV) for the entire brain, each hemisphere, and four cortices (motor, cingulate, somatosensory, and restrosplenial)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922230/optimal-dose-of-perineural-dexamethasone-to-prolong-analgesia-after-brachial-plexus-blockade-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Kyle Robert Kirkham, Alain Jacot-Guillarmod, Eric Albrecht
BACKGROUND: Perineural dexamethasone has gained popularity in regional anesthesia to prolong analgesia duration. However, uncertainty remains regarding the optimal perineural dose. Clarification of this characteristic is of significant importance as the administration of dexamethasone may lead to dose-dependent complications. The objective of this meta-analysis was to define the optimal perineural dexamethasone dose to prolong analgesia after brachial plexus blockade for adult patients undergoing upper limb surgery...
September 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920562/comparison-of-general-and-local-anesthesia-for-deep-brain-stimulator-insertion-a-systematic-review
#16
Veena Sheshadri, Nathan C Rowland, Jigesh Mehta, Marina Englesakis, Pirjo Manninen, Lashmi Venkatraghavan
BACKGROUND: Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) has become a standard treatment for many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The reported clinical outcome measures for procedures done under general anesthesia (GA) compared to traditional local anesthetic (LA) technique are quite heterogeneous and difficult to compare. The aim of this systematic review and metaanalysis was to determine whether the clinical outcome after STN-DBS insertion under GA is comparable to that under LA in patients with Parkinson's disease...
September 18, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919152/erector-spinae-plane-esp-block-in-the-management-of-post-thoracotomy-pain-syndrome-a-case-series
#17
Mauricio Forero, Manikandan Rajarathinam, Sanjib Adhikary, Ki Jinn Chin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Post thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) remains a common complication of thoracic surgery with significant impact on patients' quality of life. Management usually involves a multidisciplinary approach that includes oral and topical analgesics, performing appropriate interventional techniques, and coordinating additional care such as physiotherapy, psychotherapy and rehabilitation. A variety of interventional procedures have been described to treat PTPS that is inadequately managed with systemic or topical analgesics...
September 11, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917061/use-of-lipid-emulsion-therapy-in-local-anesthetic-overdose
#18
Ozgur Karcioglu
The use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy as antidote in systemic toxicity of certain agents has gained widespread support. There are increasing data suggesting use of ILE in reversing from local anesthetic-induced systemic toxicity severe, life-threatening cardiotoxicity, although findings are contradictory. Efficiency of ILE was demonstrated in animal studies in the treatment of severe impairment of cardiac functions, via a mechanism for trapping lipophilic drugs in an expanded plasma lipid compartment ("lipid sink")...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915792/levosimendan-combined-with-epinephrine-improves-rescue-outcomes-in-a-rat-model-of-lipid-based-resuscitation-from-bupivacaine-induced-cardiac-arrest
#19
Fubei Nan, Xixi Cai, Yingchao Ye, Xuzhong Xu, Zhengqian Li, Min Li, Limei Chen
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of a combination of a lipid emulsion with epinephrine in reversing local anesthetic-induced cardiac arrest has been confirmed. The combination of a lipid emulsion with levosimendan, was shown to be superior to administration of a lipid emulsion alone with regard to successful resuscitation. In this study, we compared the reversal effects of levosimendan, epinephrine, and a combination of the two agents in lipid-based resuscitation in a rat model of bupivacaine-induced cardiac arrest...
September 15, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914647/effect-of-an-intravenous-dexamethasone-added-to-caudal-local-anesthetics-to-improve-postoperative-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-with-trial-sequential-analysis
#20
Hiromasa Kawakami, Takahiro Mihara, Nobuhito Nakamura, Koui Ka, Takahisa Goto
BACKGROUND: Caudal anesthesia has been used for postoperative pain control in pediatric surgical patients, but the duration of the analgesic effect is occasionally unsatisfactory. Intravenous steroids have been shown to be effective for postsurgical pain management after certain surgeries. The aim of this meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA) was to evaluate the analgesic effect of steroids in patients administered with caudal anesthesia. METHODS: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis...
September 12, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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