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Endogenous Exogenous Attention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604051/safe-or-out-does-the-location-of-attention-affect-judgments-at-first-base-in-baseball
#1
Ralph S Redden, Ghislain d'Entremont, Raymond M Klein
Titchener's law of prior entry states that attended stimuli are perceived before unattended stimuli. Prior entry effects measured with visual stimuli have been generated with both endogenous and exogenous attentional deployment (e.g., by Shore, Spence, & Klein, 2001). In theory, the endogenous form of prior entry may have implications for baseball umpire judgments. Conventionally, umpires are instructed to first attend to the ball when it is hit into play; however, where they attend at the imperative instant of the play at first base can vary between individuals and across scenarios...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569539/distracting-tracking-interactions-between-negative-emotion-and-attentional-load-in-multiple-object-tracking
#2
Gina M D'Andrea-Penna, Sebastian M Frank, Todd F Heatherton, Peter U Tse
Stimuli that attract exogenous attention have been shown to interfere with behavioral performance on various tasks. In the present study, participants performed multiple-object tracking (MOT) in conditions where either neutral or negatively valenced images were flashed at fixation. Results reveal a significant impairment of tracking accuracy in the emotional MOT conditions compared to the neutral conditions specifically at the highest level of task difficulty. These findings suggest that emotional distraction is most detrimental when maximal endogenous attentional engagement is required...
June 1, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554583/autologous-and-allogeneic-cardiac-stem-cell-therapy-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Francisco Fernández-Avilés
Stem cell therapy is one of the most promising therapeutic innovations to help restore cardiac structure and function after ischemic insults to the heart. However, phase I and II clinical trials with autologous "first-generation stem cells" have yielded inconsistent results in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients and have not produced the definitive evidence for their broad clinical application. Recently, new cell types such as cardiac stem cells (CSC) and new allogeneic sources have attracted the attention of researchers given their inherent biological, clinical and logistic advantages...
May 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539263/nutrients-neurogenesis-and-brain-ageing-from-disease-mechanisms-to-therapeutic-opportunities
#4
REVIEW
Marco Fidaleo, Virve Cavallucci, Giovambattista Pani
Appreciation of the physiological relevance of mammalian adult neurogenesis has in recent years rapidly expanded from a phenomenon of homeostatic cell replacement and brain repair to the current view of a complex process involved in high order cognitive functions. In parallel, an array of endogenous or exogenous triggers of neurogenesis have also been identified, among which metabolic and nutritional cues have drawn significant attention. Converging evidence from animal and in vitro studies point to nutrient sensing and energy metabolism as major physiological determinants of neural stem cell fate, and modulators of the whole neurogenic process...
May 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534121/organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-are-crucial-biopterin-transporters-involved-in-bodily-distribution-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-exclusion-of-its-excess
#5
Akiko Ohashi, Kaori Mamada, Tomonori Harada, Masako Naito, Tomihisa Takahashi, Shin Aizawa, Hiroyuki Hasegawa
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a common coenzyme of phenylalanine-, tyrosine-, and tryptophan hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and NO synthases (NOS). Synthetic BH4 is used medicinally for BH4-responsive phenylketonuria and inherited BH4 deficiency. BH4 supplementation has also drawn attention as a therapy for various NOS-related cardio-vascular diseases, but its use has met with limited success in decreasing BH2, the oxidized form of BH4. An increase in the BH2/BH4 ratio leads to NOS dysfunction. Previous studies revealed that BH4 supplementation caused a rapid urinary loss of BH4 accompanied by an increase in the blood BH2/BH4 ratio and an involvement of probenecid-sensitive but unknown transporters was strongly suggested in these processes...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516445/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-vertebrates-emphasis-on-the-zebrafish-model
#6
REVIEW
Francesca Oltrabella, Adam Melgoza, Brian Nguyen, Su Guo
The endocannabinoid system (eCBs), named after the plant Cannabis sativa, comprises cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands known as "endocannabinoids", and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of these ligands, as well as putative transporters for these ligands. ECBs proteins and small molecules have been detected in early embryonic stages of many vertebrate models. As a result, cannabinoid receptors and endogenous as well as exogenous cannabinoids influence development and behavior in many vertebrate species...
May 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477287/the-current-understanding-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy-tic-a-focused-review-on-pathophysiology
#7
REVIEW
Stefano Giordano, Luca Spiezia, Elena Campello, Paolo Simioni
The emergency management of acute severe bleeding in trauma patients has changed significantly in recent years. In particular, greater attention is now being devoted to a prompt assessment of coagulation alterations, which allows for immediate haemostatic resuscitation procedures when necessary. The importance of an early trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) diagnosis has led physicians to increase the efforts to better understand the pathophysiological alterations observed in the haemostatic system after traumatic injuries...
May 5, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439793/mixed-signals-the-effect-of-conflicting-reward-and-goal-driven-biases-on-selective-attention
#8
Daniel Preciado, Jaap Munneke, Jan Theeuwes
Attentional selection depends on the interaction between exogenous (stimulus-driven), endogenous (goal-driven), and selection history (experience-driven) factors. While endogenous and exogenous biases have been widely investigated, less is known about their interplay with value-driven attention. The present study investigated the interaction between reward-history and goal-driven biases on perceptual sensitivity (d') and response time (RT) in a modified cueing paradigm presenting two coloured cues, followed by sinusoidal gratings...
April 24, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411243/potent-vasoconstrictor-kisspeptin-10-induces-atherosclerotic-plaque-progression-and-instability-reversal-by-its-receptor-gpr54-antagonist
#9
Kengo Sato, Remina Shirai, Mina Hontani, Rina Shinooka, Akinori Hasegawa, Tomoki Kichise, Tomoyuki Yamashita, Hayami Yoshizawa, Rena Watanabe, Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Shinji Koba, Youichi Kobayashi, Tsutomu Hirano, Takuya Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), a potent vasoconstrictor and inhibitor of angiogenesis, and its receptor, GPR54, have currently received much attention in relation to pre-eclampsia. However, it still remains unknown whether KP-10 could affect atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the effects of KP-10 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human monocyte-derived macrophages, human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro, and atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice in vivo...
April 14, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400732/how-factors-involved-in-the-resolution-of-crystal-induced-inflammation-target-il-1%C3%AE
#10
REVIEW
Francesca Oliviero, Anna Scanu
One of the main clinical features characterizing crystal-induced inflammation is its spontaneous resolution. The aim of this review is to outline the various factors involved in the self-limiting course of crystal-induced inflammation focusing on their effect on IL-1β production. Endogenous molecules that are induced or locally recruited by the process itself, inhibitory proteins naturally present in the joint and exogenous dietary factors are discussed. Aside from the classical well-known molecules involved in the resolution of crystal-induced acute attack such as TGFβ, IL-10, IL-1Ra, and lipoproteins, particular attention is paid to recently uncovered mechanisms such as the aggregation of neutrophil extracellular traps, the release of ectosomes from neutrophil surface, and alpha-1-anti-trypsin-mediated IL-1 inhibition...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386696/cd1-a-singed-cat-of-the-three-antigen-presentation-systems
#11
REVIEW
Radoslaw Kaczmarek, Mariola Pasciak, Katarzyna Szymczak-Kulus, Marcin Czerwinski
Contrary to general view that the MHC Class I and II are the kapellmeisters of recognition and response to antigens, there is another big player in that part of immunity, represented by CD1 glycoproteins. In contrast to MHC Class I or II, which present peptides, CD1 molecules present lipids. Humans express five CD1 proteins (CD1a-e), four of which (CD1a-d) are trafficked to the cell surface, where they may display lipid antigens to T-cell receptors. This interaction may lead to both non-cognate and cognate T cell help to B cells, the latter eliciting anti-lipid antibody response...
June 2017: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377278/factors-modulating-bioavailability-of-quercetin-related-flavonoids-and-the-consequences-of-their-vascular-function
#12
REVIEW
Junji Terao
Nowadays dietary flavonoids attract much attention in the prevention of chronic diseases. Epidemiological and intervention studies strongly suggest that flavonoid intake has beneficial effects on vascular health. It is unlikely that flavonoids act as direct antioxidants, although oxidative stress profoundly contributes to vascular impairment leading to cardiovascular diseases. Instead, flavonoids may exert their function by tuning the cellular redox state to an adaptive response or tolerable stress. However, the optimum intake of flavonoids from supplements or diet has not been clarified yet, because a number of exogenous and endogenous factors modulating their bioavailability affect their vascular function...
April 2, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376344/differential-effects-of-phasic-and-tonic-alerting-on-the-efficiency-of-executive-attention
#13
Dariusz Asanowicz, Anna Marzecová
The study examined how alerting and executive attention interact in a task involving conflict resolution. We proposed a tentative scenario in which an initial exogenous phasic alerting phase is followed by an endogenous tonic alerting phase, and hypothesized that these two processes may have distinct effects on conflict resolution. Phasic alerting was expected to increase the conflict, whereas tonic alerting was expected to decrease the conflict. Three experiments were conducted using different variants of the flanker task with visual alerting cues and varied cue-target intervals (SOA), to differentiate between effects of phasic alerting (short SOA) and tonic alerting (long SOA)...
April 1, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343938/testosterone-influences-volitional-but-not-reflexive-orienting-of-attention-in-human-males
#14
Steve Hansen, Jim McAuliffe, Bernard Goldfarb, Justin M Carré
The impact of testosterone (T) on the exogenous (Experiment 1) and endogenous (Experiment 2) orienting of visual attention in males was examined. Sixteen male participants completed both an exogenous and an endogenous cuing task on two separate days. About 2-3h prior to testing, either a placebo or a dose of T was administered. The inhibition of return (IOR) phenomenon was observed during the exogenous cuing task, but IOR was not influenced by T. During the endogenous task, participants demonstrated the expected cuing effects on both days...
June 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336411/exogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-eliminates-spatial-memory-retrieval-impairment-and-hippocampal-ca1-ltd-enhancement-caused-by-acute-stress-via-promoting-glutamate-uptake
#15
Jin He, Ruixian Guo, Pengxin Qiu, Xingwen Su, Guangmei Yan, Jianqiang Feng
Acute stress impairs the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retrieval, and its synaptic mechanisms are associated with hippocampal CA1 long-term depression (LTD) enhancement in the adult rats. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is recognized as a novel gasotransmitter and has the neural protective roles. However, very little attention has been paid to understanding the effects of H2S on spatial memory retrieval impairment. We observed the protective effects of NaHS (a donor of H2S) against spatial memory retrieval impairment caused by acute stress and its synaptic mechanisms...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294715/moving-beyond-attentional-biases-shifting-the-interhemispheric-balance-between-left-and-right-posterior-parietal-cortex-modulates-attentional-control-processes
#16
Felix Duecker, Teresa Schuhmann, Nina Bien, Christianne Jacobs, Alexander T Sack
The concept of interhemispheric competition has been very influential in attention research, and the occurrence of biased attention due to an imbalance in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is well documented. In this context, the vast majority of studies have assessed attentional performance with tasks that did not include an explicit experimental manipulation of attention, and, as a consequence, it remains largely unknown how these findings relate to core attentional constructs such as endogenous and exogenous control and spatial orienting and reorienting...
July 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284987/orienting-of-attention-with-and-without-cue-awareness
#17
Laura Herreros, Anthony J Lambert, Ana B Chica
Many cognitive processes operate without consciousness, and exogenous attentional capture seems to be one of them. While endogenously attending to the opposite location of a cue cannot occur without cue awareness, attending the cued location in an exogenous or stimulus driven form can occur even when participants are not aware of the presence of the cue (McCormick, 1997). Orienting attention to a specific location shortens reaction times to supra-threshold stimuli, and increases the likelihood of consciously perceiving near-threshold stimuli in that location...
March 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281160/further-evidence-in-favor-of-prior-entry-from-endogenous-attention-to-a-location-in-space
#18
Ralph S Redden, Ghislain d'Entremont, Raymond M Klein
Titchener's (1908) law of prior entry states that "the object of attention comes to consciousness more quickly than the objects which we are not attending to," or otherwise, that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli. Shore, Spence, and Klein (Psychological Science, 12, 205-212. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00337 , 2001) showed that endogenous visuospatial orienting does in fact elicit prior-entry effects, albeit to a smaller degree than does exogenous visuospatial orienting. In disagreement with this finding, Schneider and Bavelier (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 333-366...
March 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273110/transient-human-auditory-cortex-activation-during-volitional-attention-shifting
#19
Christian Harm Uhlig, Alexander Gutschalk
While strong activation of auditory cortex is generally found for exogenous orienting of attention, endogenous, intra-modal shifting of auditory attention has not yet been demonstrated to evoke transient activation of the auditory cortex. Here, we used fMRI to test if endogenous shifting of attention is also associated with transient activation of the auditory cortex. In contrast to previous studies, attention shifts were completely self-initiated and not cued by transient auditory or visual stimuli. Stimuli were two dichotic, continuous streams of tones, whose perceptual grouping was not ambiguous...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270972/en-face-coherence-microscopy-invited
#20
REVIEW
Olivier Thouvenin, Kate Grieve, Peng Xiao, Clement Apelian, A Claude Boccara
En face coherence microscopy or flying spot or full field optical coherence tomography or microscopy (FF-OCT/FF-OCM) belongs to the OCT family because the sectioning ability is mostly linked to the source coherence length. In this article we will focus our attention on the advantages and the drawbacks of the following approaches: en face versus B scan tomography in terms of resolution, coherent versus incoherent illumination and influence of aberrations, and scanning versus full field imaging. We then show some examples to illustrate the diverse applications of en face coherent microscopy and show that endogenous or exogenous contrasts can add valuable information to the standard morphological image...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
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