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Endogenous Exogenous Attention

Jingli Hou, Meng Qian, Huanhuan Zhao, Yingchun Li, Yongfang Liao, Guifang Han, Zhelong Xu, Feng Wang, Yuguang Song, Yangping Liu
Much attention has been paid to develop optical probes for noninvasive, quantitative, in vivo monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) due to its important roles in the initiation and development of numerous diseases. Motivated to meet this need, we herein report the synthesis of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (AB1) for H2 O2 by modulating intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process of the dye 9H-1,3-Dichloro-7-hydroxy-9,9-dimethylacridine-2-one (DDAO). The probe AB1 exhibits both a large NIR fluorescence turn-on and a ratiometric response to H2 O2 with high sensitivity and specificity...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Roland Pfister, Alexander T El Gammal, Eugen Bellon, Esther K Diekhof
Nurturing behavior may be critically influenced by the interplay of different hormones. The neuropeptide oxytocin is known to promote maternal behavior and its reduction has been associated with postpartum depression risk and child neglect. Contrariwise, the observed decrease in testosterone level during early parenthood may benefit caretaking behavior, whereas increased testosterone may reduce attention to infants. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the interactive influence of testosterone and oxytocin on selective attention to and neural processing of the baby schema (BS)...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bryan Mackowiak, Jessica Hodge, Sydney Stern, Hongbing Wang
Over the past 20 years, the ability of the xenobiotic receptors to coordinate an array of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in response to endogenous and exogenous stimuli has been extensively characterized and well documented. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR) are the xenobiotic receptors that have received the most attention, as they regulate the expression of numerous proteins important to drug metabolism and clearance and formulate a central defensive mechanism to protect the body against xenobiotic challenges...
May 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Anna Boguszewska-Czubara, Barbara Budzynska, Krystyna Skalicka-Wozniak, Jacek Kurzepa
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and, at the same time, influence cell differentiation, migration, proliferation and survival. Their importance in variety of human diseases including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary emphysema and fibrotic disorders has been known for many years but special attention should be paid on the role of MMPs in the central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Till now, there are not many well documented physiological MMP target proteins in the brain and only some pathological ones...
May 13, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Jin Yan, Dezhen Wang, Jiyan Miao, Chang Liu, Yao Wang, Miaomiao Teng, Zhiqiang Zhou, Wentao Zhu
Endosulfan, an organochloride pesticide, has been used for many commercial purposes. Endosulfan is composed of two isomers, α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan. In biological and soil systems, endosulfan is metabolized into endosulfan sulfate. In this study, the different toxicological effects of α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, and endosulfan sulfate on the livers and kidneys of mice were comprehensively investigated. The results demonstrated that both endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate disturbed the hepatic and renal antioxidant systems...
April 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Wei Guo, Hor Yue Tan, Ning Wang, Xuanbin Wang, Yibin Feng
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of death from cancer, with increasing prevalence worldwide. The mortality rate of HCC is similar to its incidence rate, which reflects its poor prognosis. At present, the diagnosis of HCC is still mostly dependent on invasive biopsy, imaging methods, and serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) testing. Because of the asymptomatic nature of early HCC, biopsy and imaging methods usually detect HCC at the middle-late stages. AFP has limited sensitivity and specificity, as many other nonmalignant liver diseases can also result in a very high serum level of AFP...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Harma Meffert, Elizabeth Penner, Michelle R VanTieghem, Isaiah Sypher, Joseph Leshin, R James R Blair
INTRODUCTION: Models of attention suggest that endogenous and exogenous factors can bias attention. However, recent data suggest that reward can also enhance attention towards relevant stimulus features as a function of involuntary biases. In this study, we utilized the additional singleton task to determine the neural circuitry that biases perceptual processing as a function of reward history. METHODS: Participants searched for a unique shape amongst an array of differently shaped objects...
April 3, 2018: Brain Research
Sam V Wass, Kaili Clackson, Stanimira D Georgieva, Laura Brightman, Rebecca Nutbrown, Victoria Leong
Previous research has suggested that when a social partner, such as a parent, pays attention to an object, this increases the attention that infants pay to that object during spontaneous, naturalistic play. There are two contrasting reasons why this might be: first, social context may influence increases in infants' endogenous (voluntary) attention control; second, social settings may offer increased opportunities for exogenous attentional capture. To differentiate these possibilities, we compared 12-month-old infants' naturalistic attention patterns in two settings: Solo Play and Joint Play with a social partner (the parent)...
April 6, 2018: Developmental Science
Sisi Liu, Duo Liu, Zhihui Pan, Zhengye Xu
A growing body of research suggests that visual-spatial attention is important for reading achievement. However, few studies have been conducted in non-alphabetic orthographies. This study extended the current research to reading development in Chinese, a logographic writing system known for its visual complexity. Eighty Hong Kong Chinese children were selected and divided into poor reader and typical reader groups, based on their performance on the measures of reading fluency, Chinese character reading, and reading comprehension...
March 25, 2018: Dyslexia: the Journal of the British Dyslexia Association
Annette Safi, Christoph Nikendei, Valentin Terhoeven, Matthias Weisbrod, Anuradha Sharma
Background: The study aimed to isolate and localize mutually independent cognitive processes evoked during a word recognition task involving food-related and food-neutral words using independent component analysis (ICA) for continuously recorded EEG data. Recognition memory (old/new effect) involves cognitive subcomponents-familiarity and recollection-which may be temporally and spatially dissociated in the brain. Food words may evoke additional attentional salience which may interact with the old/new effect...
January 2018: Brain and Behavior
Ummuhan Isoglu-Alkac, M Numan Ermutlu, Gökçer Eskikurt, İlker Yücesir, Sernaz Demirel Temel, Tan Temel
Physical exercise and the training effects of repeated practice of skills over an extended period of time may have additive effects on brain networks and functions. Various motor skills and attentional styles can be developed by athletes engaged in different sports. In this study, the effects of fast ball sports and dance training on attention were investigated by event related potentials (ERP). ERP were recorded in auditory and visual tasks in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Yunsoo Kim, Ho Ran Park
PURPOSE: This study aimed to construct and test a hypothetical model of the quality of life of school-age children with asthma based on the health-related quality of life model by Wilson and Cleary. METHODS: Data were collected from 205 pairs of pediatric outpatients diagnosed with asthma and their parents in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do from July 2016 to April 2017. The exogenous variables were asthma knowledge, number of accompanying allergic diseases, and social support...
February 2018: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
Wenpei Fan, Bryant C Yung, Xiaoyuan Chen
Featuring high biocompatibility, the emerging field of gas therapy has attracted extensive attention in the medical and scientific communities. Currently, considerable research has focused on the gasotransmitter nitric oxide (NO) owing to its unparalleled dual roles in directly killing cancer cells at high concentrations and cooperatively sensitizing cancer cells to other treatments for synergistic therapy. Of particular note, recent state-of-the-art studies have turned our attention to the chemical design of various endogenous/exogenous stimuli-responsive NO-releasing nanomedicines and their biomedical applications for on-demand NO-sensitized synergistic cancer therapy, which are discussed in this Minireview...
March 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ashleigh Johnstone, Paloma Marí-Beffa
There is substantial evidence that training in Martial Arts is associated with improvements in cognitive function in children; but little has been studied in healthy adults. Here, we studied the impact of extensive training in Martial Arts on cognitive control in adults. To do so, we used the Attention Network Test (ANT) to test two different groups of participants: with at least 2 years of Martial Arts experience, and with no experience with the sport. Participants were screened from a wider sample of over 500 participants who volunteered to participate...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kristin N Meyer, Feng Du, Emily Parks, Joseph B Hopfinger
Despite behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for dissociations between endogenous (voluntary) and exogenous (reflexive) attention, fMRI results have yet to consistently and clearly differentiate neural activation patterns between these two types of attention. This study specifically aimed to determine whether activity in the dorsal fronto-parietal network differed between endogenous and exogenous conditions. Participants performed a visual discrimination task in endogenous and exogenous attention conditions while undergoing fMRI scanning...
March 2018: Neuropsychologia
Kai Ma, Nian Xiong, Yan Shen, Chao Han, Ling Liu, Guoxin Zhang, Luxi Wang, Shiyi Guo, Xingfang Guo, Yun Xia, Fang Wan, Jinsha Huang, Zhicheng Lin, Tao Wang
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is currently considered a systemic neurodegenerative disease manifested with not only motor but also non-motor symptoms. In particular, weight loss and malnutrition, a set of frequently neglected non-motor symptoms, are indeed negatively associated with the life quality of PD patients. Moreover, comorbidity of weight loss and malnutrition may impact disease progression, giving rise to dyskinesia, cognitive decline and orthostatic hypotension, and even resulting in disability and mortality...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Carmela Centola, Arianna Giorgetti, Simona Zaami, Raffaele Giorgetti
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (γ-hydroxybutyrate or GHB) is a physiological compound of mammalians with specific receptors in central nervous system (CNS). Apart from an endogenous production, GHB is also an exogenous molecule found in pharmaceutical as well as in illicit formulations, and it shares the same binding sites and is. Products manufactured and spread in these two fields, whose borders are all but strictly defined and traced, differ for the in-vivo effects and for the potential of abuse...
January 23, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
Suk Won Han, Hyunji Shin, Dahee Jeong, Shinyoung Jung, Eunhee Bae, Joo Yeon Kim, Hyeon-Man Baek, Kyoheon Kim
Stimulus-driven orienting of attention toward a novel, salient stimulus is a highly adaptive behavior. In an opposing vein, it is also crucial to endogenously redirect attention to other stimuli of behavioral significance if the attended stimulus was evaluated to be unimportant. This stimulus-driven orienting and subsequent reorienting of attention are known to be mediated by similar neural substrates. However, this might be because reorienting was triggered by a sensory transition exogenously capturing attention, such as an abrupt onset of a new stimulus...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vivian Eng, Alfred Lim, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
Studies of endogenous and exogenous attentional orienting in spatial cueing paradigms have been used to investigate inhibition of return, a behavioral phenomenon characterized by delayed reaction time in response to recently attended locations. When eye movements are suppressed, attention is covertly oriented to central or peripheral stimuli. Overt orienting, on the other hand, requires explicit eye movements to the stimuli. The present study examined the time course of slowed reaction times to previously attended locations when distractors are introduced into overt and covert orienting tasks...
February 2018: Acta Psychologica
Douglas J McCauley, Gabriel Gellner, Neo D Martinez, Richard J Williams, Stuart A Sandin, Fiorenza Micheli, Peter J Mumby, Kevin S McCann
Classically, biomass partitioning across trophic levels was thought to add up to a pyramidal distribution. Numerous exceptions have, however, been noted including complete pyramidal inversions. Elevated levels of biomass top-heaviness (i.e. high consumer/resource biomass ratios) have been reported from Arctic tundra communities to Brazilian phytotelmata, and in species assemblages as diverse as those dominated by sharks and ants. We highlight two major pathways for creating top-heaviness, via: (1) endogenous channels that enhance energy transfer across trophic boundaries within a community and (2) exogenous pathways that transfer energy into communities from across spatial and temporal boundaries...
March 2018: Ecology Letters
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