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Endogenous Exogenous Attention

Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Katharina A Schwarz, Christian Sprenger, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women...
2016: PloS One
Huihui Liu, Xianhai Yang, Cen Yin, Mengbi Wei, Xiao He
Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR)...
February 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Katherine A Johnson, Marita Bryan, Kira Polonowita, Delia Decroupet, Jennifer T Coull
Knowing when an event is likely to occur allows attentional resources to be oriented toward that moment in time, enhancing processing of the event. We previously found that children (mean age 11 years) are unable to use endogenous temporal cues to orient attention in time, despite being able to use endogenous spatial cues (arrows) to orient attention in space. Arrow cues, however, may have proved beneficial by engaging exogenous (automatic), as well as endogenous (voluntary), orienting mechanisms. We therefore conducted two studies in which the exogenous properties of visual temporal cues were increased, to examine whether this helped children orient their attention in time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Qianhui Wei, Meiqin Zhang, Božidar Ogorevc, Xueji Zhang
This review highlights the considerable advances in the chemical imaging of human fingermarks that provide more chemical information, including numerous endogenous and exogenous constituents. Despite remarkable development in DNA analysis and recognition, human fingermark analysis remains one of the priority approaches available for obtaining reliable forensic evidence. Additional information about the donor can be obtained from the chemical composition of latent fingermarks in addition to the ridge pattern, such as the age, gender, medical history, and possible drug habits...
September 30, 2016: Analyst
Shuaibing He, Manman Li, Xiaotong Ye, Hongyu Wang, Wenkang Yu, Wenjing He, Yun Wang, Yanjiang Qiao
MOTIVATION: The metabolites of exogenous and endogenous compounds play a pivotal role in the domain of metabolism research. However, they are still unclear for most chemicals in our environment. The in silico methods for predicting the site of metabolism (SOM) are considered to be efficient and low-cost in SOM discovery. However, many in silico methods are focused on metabolism processes catalyzed by several specified Cytochromes P450s, and only apply to substrates with special skeleton...
September 25, 2016: Bioinformatics
Matteo Detto, Helene C Muller-Landau
Spatial interactions are widely acknowledged to play a significant role in sustaining diversity in ecological communities. However, theoretical work on this topic has focused on how spatial processes affect coexistence of species that differ in their strategies, with less attention to how spatial processes matter when competitors are equivalent. Furthermore, though it is recognized that models with local dispersal and local competition may sustain higher diversities of equivalent competitors than models in which these are not both localized, there is debate as to whether this reflects merely equalizing effects or whether there is also a stabilizing component...
December 2016: Theoretical Population Biology
Hadas Erel, Daniel A Levy
Changes in attention are among the most important cognitive shifts associated with aging, with implications for maintenance of vocational competencies, participation in social interactions, and successful execution of activities of daily living. An important facet of attention is orienting, the ability to selectively attend a location or modality and thereby engender perceptual augmentation. Orienting also involves shifting of the focus of attention in response to unanticipated salient events. Aging may impact orienting through a variety of neurocognitive mechanisms and the interactions between them...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Günay Yetik-Anacak, Aycan Dikmen, Ciro Coletta, Emma Mitidieri, Mehmet Dereli, Erminia Donnarumma, Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Raffaella Sorrentino
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered as a marker for cardiovascular diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is the major cause of erectile dysfunction (ED). The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in erection has recently been recognized and is receiving attention as a pharmacological target. Several studies have focused on the effect of H2S on NO-dependent relaxation, but the role of NO on H2S in penile tissue has not been studied yet. Unlike NO, H2S is mainly synthesized from smooth muscle cells rather than endothelial cells...
August 10, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Sophie Heinke, Barbara Ludwig, Undine Schubert, Janine Schmid, Thomas Kiss, Anja Steffen, Stefan Bornstein, Stefan Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Safe and reliable diabetes models are a key prerequisite for advanced preclinical studies on diabetes. Chemical induction is the standard model of diabetes in rodents and also widely used in large animal models of non-human primates and minipigs. However, uncertain efficacy, the potential of beta-cell regeneration, and relevant side effects are debatable aspects particularly in large animals. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a surgical approach of total pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy for diabetes induction in an exploratory study in Goettingen minipigs...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
Claire Cadeau, Agnès Fournier, Sylvie Mesrine, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Guy Fagherazzi, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
Experimental studies suggest protective effects of vitamin D on breast carcinogenesis, but epidemiological evidence is not conclusive. Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to modulate the effect of supplementation on the vitamin D status, but its potential influence on the relationship with breast cancer risk has been little studied. We investigated a potential interaction between BMI and vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer risk while considering an already reported interaction between vitamin D supplementation and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Ana Pesquita, Craig S Chapman, James T Enns
Studies of social perception report acute human sensitivity to where another's attention is aimed. Here we ask whether humans are also sensitive to how the other's attention is deployed. Observers viewed videos of actors reaching to targets without knowing that those actors were sometimes choosing to reach to one of the targets (endogenous control) and sometimes being directed to reach to one of the targets (exogenous control). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that observers could respond more rapidly when actors chose where to reach, yet were at chance when guessing whether the reach was chosen or directed...
August 2, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Atsushi Nagaike, Takako Mitsudo, Yoshitaka Nakajima, Katsuya Ogata, Takao Yamasaki, Yoshinobu Goto, Shozo Tobimatsu
'Time-shrinking perception (TSP)' is a unique perceptual phenomenon in which the duration of two successive intervals (T1 and T2) marked by three auditory stimuli is perceived as equal even when they are physically different. This phenomenon provides a link between time and working memory; however, previous studies have mainly been performed on the auditory modality but not the visual modality. To clarify the neural mechanism of visual TSP, we performed a psychophysical experiment and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) under different T1/T2 combinations...
July 11, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Dr Kai Fürstenberg
BACKGROUND: Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. QUESTION: Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? METHODS: Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI...
2016: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
Sudheendra N R Rao, Damien D Pearse
Following spinal cord injury (SCI), a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors adversely affect the gene programs that govern the expression of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) and the production of a diversity of extracellular matrix molecules (ECM). Insufficient RAG expression in the injured neuron and the presence of inhibitory ECM at the lesion, leads to structural alterations in the axon that perturb the growth machinery, or form an extraneous barrier to axonal regeneration, respectively. Here, the role of myelin, both intact and debris, in antagonizing axon regeneration has been the focus of numerous investigations...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Gözde Şentürk, Adam S Greenberg, Taosheng Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Anna Świerczyńska, Renata Kłusek, Marek Kaciński
The authors reviewed neurophysiological methods, which are used in the evaluation of children referred for neurorehabilitation. Rehabilitation techniques which may stimulate or provoke pathological changes in EEG must be ruled out. Electrophysiological and clinical improvement allow for the extension and intensification of rehabilitation. Normal EEG pattern ensures the safe use of techniques consisting of neuromuscular re-education or passive verticalisation, electrotherapy and thermotherapy. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of cognitive impairment is based on neuropsychological tests and endogenous evoked potentials (most often P300)...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
Visuo-motor adaptation via rightward-deviating prisms has been repeatedly shown to alleviate lateralized deficits in neglect, including detection of targets as well as endogenous and exogenous orienting of attention. We review here evidence relevant to the underlying neural mechanisms. Rightward prismatic adaptation was shown to shift visual field representation from right to left inferior parietal lobule, changing thus hemispheric dominance within the ventral attentional system. This change is likely to redirect visual input to the dorsal attentional system and to re-install balance between its left- and right-hemispheric components in neglect...
June 21, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Joseph B Hopfinger, Jonathan Parsons, Flavio Fröhlich
Previous electrophysiological studies implicate both alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (>30 Hz) neural oscillations in the mechanisms of selective attention. Here, participants preformed two separate visual attention tasks, one endogenous and one exogenous, while transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), at 10 Hz, 40 Hz, or sham, was applied to the right parietal lobe. Our results provide new evidence for the roles of gamma and alpha oscillations in voluntary versus involuntary shifts of attention...
June 14, 2016: Cognitive Neuroscience
Reesha R Patel, Cindy Barbosa, Tatiana Brustovetsky, Nickolay Brustovetsky, Theodore R Cummins
Mutations in brain isoforms of voltage-gated sodium channels have been identified in patients with distinct epileptic phenotypes. Clinically, these patients often do not respond well to classic anti-epileptics and many remain refractory to treatment. Exogenous as well as endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to target voltage-gated sodium channels and cannabidiol has recently received attention for its potential efficacy in the treatment of childhood epilepsies. In this study, we further investigated the ability of cannabinoids to modulate sodium currents from wild-type and epilepsy-associated mutant voltage-gated sodium channels...
August 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Elizabeth A Krusemark, Kent A Kiehl, Joseph P Newman
Psychopathic individuals are prone to act on urges without adequate consideration of future consequences or the rights of other individuals. One interpretation of this behavior is that it reflects abnormal selective attention (i.e., a failure to process information that is incongruent with their primary focus of attention; Hiatt, Schmitt, & Newman, Neuropsychology, 18, 50-59, 2004). Unfortunately, it is unclear whether this selective attention abnormality reflects top-down endogenous influences, such as the strength or specificity of attention focus (i...
October 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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