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Endogenous Exogenous Attention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343847/neural-substrates-of-purely-endogenous-self-regulatory-control-of-attention
#1
Suk Won Han, Hyunji Shin, Dahee Jeong, Shinyoung Jung, Eunhee Bae, Joo Yeon Kim, Hyeon-Man Baek, Kyoheon Kim
Stimulus-driven orienting of attention toward a novel, salient stimulus is a highly adaptive behavior. In an opposing vein, it is also crucial to endogenously redirect attention to other stimuli of behavioral significance if the attended stimulus was evaluated to be unimportant. This stimulus-driven orienting and subsequent reorienting of attention are known to be mediated by similar neural substrates. However, this might be because reorienting was triggered by a sensory transition exogenously capturing attention, such as an abrupt onset of a new stimulus...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328938/time-course-of-inhibition-of-return-in-a-spatial-cueing-paradigm-with-distractors
#2
Vivian Eng, Alfred Lim, Steve M J Janssen, Jason Satel
Studies of endogenous and exogenous attentional orienting in spatial cueing paradigms have been used to investigate inhibition of return, a behavioral phenomenon characterized by delayed reaction time in response to recently attended locations. When eye movements are suppressed, attention is covertly oriented to central or peripheral stimuli. Overt orienting, on the other hand, requires explicit eye movements to the stimuli. The present study examined the time course of slowed reaction times to previously attended locations when distractors are introduced into overt and covert orienting tasks...
January 9, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316114/on-the-prevalence-and-dynamics-of-inverted-trophic-pyramids-and-otherwise-top-heavy-communities
#3
REVIEW
Douglas J McCauley, Gabriel Gellner, Neo D Martinez, Richard J Williams, Stuart A Sandin, Fiorenza Micheli, Peter J Mumby, Kevin S McCann
Classically, biomass partitioning across trophic levels was thought to add up to a pyramidal distribution. Numerous exceptions have, however, been noted including complete pyramidal inversions. Elevated levels of biomass top-heaviness (i.e. high consumer/resource biomass ratios) have been reported from Arctic tundra communities to Brazilian phytotelmata, and in species assemblages as diverse as those dominated by sharks and ants. We highlight two major pathways for creating top-heaviness, via: (1) endogenous channels that enhance energy transfer across trophic boundaries within a community and (2) exogenous pathways that transfer energy into communities from across spatial and temporal boundaries...
January 9, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262304/effects-of-central-and-peripheral-cueing-on-perceptual-and-saccade-performance
#4
Tobias Moehler, Katja Fiehler
Previous research on the spatiotemporal dynamics of exogenous and endogenous attentional allocation during saccade preparation yielded conflicting results. We hypothesize that this can be explained by the cueing type used to orient attention in a perceptual task. We investigated the time-course of attentional allocation as a function of cueing type (central vs peripheral), spatial congruency of the cued perceptual and saccade task locations, and cue validity in a dual-task paradigm. Participants performed a visual discrimination task during saccade preparation...
December 17, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222491/exploring-biased-attention-towards-body-related-stimuli-and-its-relationship-with-body-awareness
#5
Gerardo Salvato, Gabriele De Maio, Gabriella Bottini
Stimuli of great social relevance exogenously capture attention. Here we explored the impact of body-related stimuli on endogenous attention. Additionally, we investigate the influence of internal states on biased attention towards this class of stimuli. Participants were presented with a body, face, or chair cue to hold in memory (Memory task) or to merely attend (Priming task) and, subsequently, they were asked to find a circle in an unrelated visual search task. In the valid condition, the circle was flanked by the cue...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211799/comparison-of-mirna-quantitation-by-nanostring-in-serum-and-plasma-samples
#6
Catherine Foye, Irene K Yan, Waseem David, Neha Shukla, Yacob Habboush, Lori Chase, Kristen Ryland, Vivek Kesari, Tushar Patel
Circulating microRNAs that are associated with specific diseases have garnered much attention for use in diagnostic assays. However, detection of disease-associated miRNA can be affected by several factors such as release of contaminating cellular miRNA during sample collection, variations due to amplification of transcript for detection, or controls used for normalization for accurate quantitation. We analyzed circulating miRNA in serum and plasma samples obtained concurrently from 28 patients, using a Nanostring quantitative assay platform...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187831/learning-where-to-look-for-high-value-improves-decision-making-asymmetrically
#7
Jaron T Colas, Joy Lu
Decision making in any brain is imperfect and costly in terms of time and energy. Operating under such constraints, an organism could be in a position to improve performance if an opportunity arose to exploit informative patterns in the environment being searched. Such an improvement of performance could entail both faster and more accurate (i.e., reward-maximizing) decisions. The present study investigated the extent to which human participants could learn to take advantage of immediate patterns in the spatial arrangement of serially presented foods such that a region of space would consistently be associated with greater subjective value...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180950/dissociable-electroencephalograph-correlates-of-visual-awareness-and-feature-based-attention
#8
Yifan Chen, Xiaochun Wang, Yanglan Yu, Ying Liu
Background: The relationship between awareness and attention is complex and controversial. A growing body of literature has shown that the neural bases of consciousness and endogenous attention (voluntary attention) are independent. The important role of exogenous attention (reflexive attention) on conscious experience has been noted in several studies. However, exogenous attention can also modulate subliminal processing, suggesting independence between the two processes. The question of whether visual awareness and exogenous attention rely on independent mechanisms under certain circumstances remains unanswered...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157002/effects-of-circadian-clock-protein-per1b-on-zebrafish-visual-functions
#9
Ke Nie, Kun Wang, Deng-Feng Huang, Yu-Bin Huang, Wu Yin, Da-Long Ren, Han Wang, Bing Hu
The circadian clock is an endogenous and entrainable time-keeping mechanism with a period of approximately 24 h, operated by transcription/translation feedback loops composed of circadian clock genes and their proteins. The visual system displays robust circadian changes. Relatively little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying visual circadian rhythmicity. Zebrafish period1b (per1b), as a canonical circadian clock gene, is involved in circadian regulation. Here, we observed that zebrafish per1b mutants exhibit visual defects including reduced behavioral contrast sensitivity and significant retinal dopaminergic deficiency...
November 20, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128527/endogenously-generated-dna-nucleobase-modifications-source-and-significance-as-possible-biomarkers-of-malignant-transformation-risk-and-role-in-anticancer-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Ryszard Olinski, Daniel Gackowski, Marcus S Cooke
The DNA of all living cells undergoes continuous structural and chemical alteration, which may be derived from exogenous sources, or endogenous, metabolic pathways, such as cellular respiration, replication and DNA demethylation. It has been estimated that approximately 70,000 DNA lesions may be generated per day in a single cell, and this has been linked to a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. However, it is puzzling why potentially mutagenic DNA modifications, occurring at a similar level in different organs/tissue, may lead to organ/tissue specific cancers, or indeed non-malignant disease - what is the basis for this differential response? We suggest that it is perhaps the precise location of damage, within the genome, that is a key factor...
November 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109036/the-role-of-the-p3-and-cnv-components-in-voluntary-and-automatic-temporal-orienting-a-high-spatial-resolution-erp-study
#11
Giovanni Mento
A main distinction has been proposed between voluntary and automatic mechanisms underlying temporal orienting (TO) of selective attention. Voluntary TO implies the endogenous directing of attention induced by symbolic cues. Conversely, automatic TO is exogenously instantiated by the physical properties of stimuli. A well-known example of automatic TO is sequential effects (SEs), which refer to the adjustments in participants' behavioral performance as a function of the trial-by-trial sequential distribution of the foreperiod between two stimuli...
November 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064067/stem-cells-in-regenerative-cardiology
#12
Semih Arbatlı, Galip Servet Aslan, Fatih Kocabaş
The common prevalence of heart failure and limitations in its treatment are leading cause of attention and interest towards the induction of cardiac regeneration with novel approaches. Recent studies provide growing evidence regarding bona fide cardiac regeneration post genetic manipulations, administration of stimulatory factors and myocardial injuries in animal models and human studies. To this end, stem cells of different sources have been tested to treat heart failure for the development of cellular therapies...
October 25, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019101/oxytocin-and-human-sensitive-and-protective-parenting
#13
Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
In this chapter we review the evidence for the role of oxytocin in parenting, and discuss some crucial but outstanding questions. This is not meant to be a comprehensive review of all studies on oxytocin and parenting in general. Instead, special attention will be paid to a dimension of parenting that has been largely neglected in behavioral and neurobiological research on parental caregiving, namely protection. Parental protection has received considerable attention in animal research but, despite its evolutionary importance, not in studies on humans...
October 11, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981585/specific-visual-subregions-of-tpj-mediate-reorienting-of-spatial-attention
#14
Laura Dugué, Elisha P Merriam, David J Heeger, Marisa Carrasco
The temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) has been associated with various cognitive and social functions, and is critical for attentional reorienting. Attention affects early visual processing. Neuroimaging studies dealing with such processes have thus far concentrated on striate and extrastriate areas. Here, we investigated whether attention orienting or reorienting modulate activity in visually driven TPJ subregions. For each observer we identified 3 visually responsive subregions within TPJ: 2 bilateral (vTPJant and vTPJpost) and 1 right lateralized (vTPJcent)...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972563/hydrogen-gas-is-involved-in-auxin-induced-lateral-root-formation-by-modulating-nitric-oxide-synthesis
#15
Zeyu Cao, Xingliang Duan, Ping Yao, Weiti Cui, Dan Cheng, Jing Zhang, Qijiang Jin, Jun Chen, Tianshan Dai, Wenbiao Shen
Metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H₂) in bacteria and algae has been widely studied, and it has attracted increasing attention in the context of animals and plants. However, the role of endogenous H₂ in lateral root (LR) formation is still unclear. Here, our results showed that H₂-induced lateral root formation is a universal event. Naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA; the auxin analog) was able to trigger endogenous H₂ production in tomato seedlings, and a contrasting response was observed in the presence of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid (NPA), an auxin transport inhibitor...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947451/use-of-glucocorticoids-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-offspring-a-nationwide-danish-cohort-study
#16
Kristina Laugesen, Anna Byrjalsen, Trine Frøslev, Morten S Olsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to excess endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) has been linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated whether prenatal exposure to exogenous GC is associated with ADHD. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: A cohort of 875 996 singletons born alive between 1996 and 2009 in Denmark. Data were obtained from national registries. EXPOSURES: We identified children exposed prenatally to GCs, children unexposed prenatally and born to maternal former users, and children unexposed and born to maternal never users...
September 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939935/the-exogenous-and-endogenous-control-of-attentional-focusing
#17
Lisa N Jefferies, James T Enns, Vincent Di Lollo
Selective visual attention involves prioritizing both the location (orienting) and distribution (focusing) of processing. To date, much more research has examined attentional orienting than focusing. One of the most well-established findings is that orienting can be exogenous, as when a unique change in luminance draws attention to a spatial location (e.g., Theeuwes in Atten Percept Psychophys 51:599-606, 1992; Yantis and Jonides in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 10:601, 1984), and endogenous, as when a red distractor shape diverts attention when one is looking for a red target (e...
September 22, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931569/individual-alpha-peak-frequency-predicts-10-hz-flicker-effects-on-selective-attention
#18
Rasa Gulbinaite, Tara van Viegen, Martijn Wieling, Michael X Cohen, Rufin VanRullen
Rhythmic visual stimulation ("flicker") is primarily used to "tag" processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain rhythms. Here we tested the interaction between 10 Hz flicker and endogenous alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations during a selective visuospatial attention task. We recorded EEG from human participants (both genders) while they performed a modified Eriksen flanker task in which distractors and targets flickered within (10 Hz) or outside (7...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920772/endogenous-attention-to-object-features-modulates-the-erp-c1-component
#19
Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
Converging neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence supports the notion that selective attention can modulate neural activity not only in V1 (BA17)-as early as 40-60 ms post-stimulus-but also at the subcortical level (thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN). V1 modulation has been documented both in space-based and (especially) object-based selection conditions, most of all in endogenous orienting paradigms. It seems then that an attentional modulation of the ERP C1 response-reflecting V1 modulation-would not be especially favoured by exogenous cuing as far as object-based attention is concerned...
October 4, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912423/the-chinese-herbal-formula-free-and-easy-wanderer-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-through-keap1-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#20
Chunlan Hong, Jingming Cao, Ching-Fen Wu, Onat Kadioglu, Anja Schüffler, Ulrich Kauhl, Sabine M Klauck, Till Opatz, Eckhard Thines, Norbert W Paul, Thomas Efferth
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) gains a lot of attention due to high prevalence and strong psychological upset, but the etiology remains undefined and effective treatment is quite limited. Growing studies demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress in various psychiatry diseases, suggesting anti-oxidation therapy might be a strategy for PTSD treatment. Free and Easy Wanderer (FAEW) is a poly-herbal drug clinically used in China for hundreds of years in the treatment of psychiatric disorder. We hypothesized that FAEW exerts clinical effects through the activity against oxidative stress with fluoxetine as antidepressant control drug...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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