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Endogenous Exogenous Attention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224478/targeting-the-nf-e2-related-factor-2-pathway-a-novel-strategy-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Handong Wang
As an essential component of cellular defense against a variety of endogenous and exogenous stresses, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has received increased attention in the past decades. Multiple studies indicate that Nrf2 acts not only as an important protective factor in injury models but also as a downstream target of therapeutic agents. Activation of Nrf2 has increasingly been linked to many human diseases, especially in central nervous system (CNS) injury such as traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162847/c-tactile-afferents-cutaneous-mediators-of-oxytocin-release-during-affiliative-tactile-interactions
#2
REVIEW
Susannah C Walker, Paula D Trotter, William T Swaney, Andrew Marshall, Francis P Mcglone
Low intensity, non-noxious, stimulation of cutaneous somatosensory nerves has been shown to trigger oxytocin release and is associated with increased social motivation, plus reduced physiological and behavioural reactivity to stressors. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the specific nature of the mechanosensory nerves which mediate these effects. In recent years, the neuroscientific study of human skin nerves (microneurography studies on single peripheral nerve fibres) has led to the identification and characterisation of a class of touch sensitive nerve fibres named C-tactile afferents...
January 19, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127028/natural-killer-t-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Godfrey S Getz, Catherine A Reardon
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that develops in response to hyperlipidaemia. Cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The role of natural killer T (NKT) cells in response to microbial pathogens and inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis has received increasing attention in the past 10-15 years. Endogenous self-lipid antigens and exogenous lipid antigens, including those on microorganisms can activate NKT cells...
January 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120728/momordicacharantia-a-new-strategic-vision-to-improve-the-therapy-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#4
Wai Chin Chong, Rohit Gundamaraju, Ravichandra Vemuri, Marcus T Scotti, Luciana Scotti
BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum is the major site for protein biosynthesis. Any perturbation in the endoplasmic reticulum will compromise its functions and reduce its efficiency in protein biosynthesis. As a result, misfolded proteins are produced and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum. This will result in endoplasmic reticulum stress, which reduces the quantity and quality of the functional protein synthesized from the cell. Besides that, the protein biosynthesis is also highly affected by oxidative stress...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120309/microbial-production-of-astilbin-a-bioactive-rhamnosylated-flavanonol-from-taxifolin
#5
Nguyen Huy Thuan, Sailesh Malla, Nguyen Thanh Trung, Dipesh Dhakal, Anaya Raj Pokhrel, Luan Luong Chu, Jae Kyung Sohng
Flavonoids are plant-based polyphenolic biomolecules with a wide range of biological activities. Glycosylated flavonoids have drawn special attention in the industries as it improves solubility, stability, and bioactivity. Herein, we report the production of astilbin (ATN) from taxifolin (TFN) in genetically-engineered Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The exogenously supplied TFN was converted to ATN by 3-O-rhamnosylation utilizing the endogeneous TDP-L-rhamnose in presence of UDP-glycosyltransferase (ArGT3, Gene Bank accession number: At1g30530) from Arabidopsis thaliana...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118103/attention-modifies-spatial-resolution-according-to-task-demands
#6
Antoine Barbot, Marisa Carrasco
How does visual attention affect spatial resolution? In texture-segmentation tasks, exogenous (involuntary) attention automatically increases resolution at the attended location, which improves performance where resolution is too low (at the periphery) but impairs performance where resolution is already too high (at central locations). Conversely, endogenous (voluntary) attention improves performance at all eccentricities, which suggests a more flexible mechanism. Here, using selective adaptation to spatial frequency, we investigated the mechanism by which endogenous attention benefits performance in resolution tasks...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100609/sterol-binding-by-the-tombusviral-replication-proteins-is-essential-for-replication-in-yeast-and-plants
#7
Kai Xu, Peter D Nagy
: Membranous structures derived from various organelles are important for replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses. Although the important roles of co-opted host proteins in RNA virus replication have been appreciated for a decade, the equally important functions of cellular lipids in virus replication are gaining full attention only recently. Previous works with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in model host yeast have revealed essential roles for phosphatidylethanolamine and sterols in viral replication...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070455/social-and-environmental-factors-modulate-leucocyte-profiles-in-free-living-greylag-geese-anser-anser
#8
Didone Frigerio, Sonja C Ludwig, Josef Hemetsberger, Kurt Kotrschal, Claudia A F Wascher
BACKGROUND: Blood parameters such as haematocrit or leucocyte counts are indicators of immune status and health, which can be affected, in a complex way, by exogenous as well as endogenous factors. Additionally, social context is known to be among the most potent stressors in group living individuals, therefore potentially influencing haematological parameters. However, with few exceptions, this potential causal relationship received only moderate scientific attention. METHODS: In a free-living and individually marked population of the highly social and long-lived Greylag goose, Anser anser, we relate variation in haematocrit (HCT), heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L) and blood leucocyte counts to the following factors: intrinsic (sex, age, raising condition, i...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028777/spatial-attention-is-necessary-for-object-based-attention-evidence-from-temporal-order-judgments
#9
Ian Donovan, Jay Pratt, Sarah Shomstein
Attentional selection is a dynamic process that relies on multiple types of representations. That object representations contribute to attentional selection has been known for decades; however, most evidence for this contribution has been gleaned from studies that have relied on various forms of spatial cueing (some endogenous and some exogenous). It has thus remained unclear whether object-based attentional selection is a direct result of spatial cuing, or whether it still emerges without any spatial marker...
December 27, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003197/antibacterial-mechanism-of-405-nanometer-light-emitting-diode-against-salmonella-at-refrigeration-temperature
#10
Min-Jeong Kim, Hyun-Gyun Yuk
The aim of this study was to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of 405 ± 5-nm light-emitting diode (LED) illumination against Salmonella at 4°C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by determining endogenous coproporphyrin content, DNA oxidation, damage to membrane function, and morphological change. Gene expression levels, including of oxyR, recA, rpoS, sodA, and soxR, were also examined to understand the response of Salmonella to LED illumination. The results showed that Salmonella strains responded differently to LED illumination, revealing that S...
March 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861588/endogenous-testosterone-and-exogenous-oxytocin-modulate-attentional-processing-of-infant-faces
#11
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Katharina A Schwarz, Christian Sprenger, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816713/development-of-predictive-models-for-predicting-binding-affinity-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-to-fish-sex-hormone-binding-globulin
#12
Huihui Liu, Xianhai Yang, Cen Yin, Mengbi Wei, Xiao He
Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR)...
February 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713713/isochronous-sequential-presentation-helps-children-orient-their-attention-in-time
#13
Katherine A Johnson, Marita Bryan, Kira Polonowita, Delia Decroupet, Jennifer T Coull
Knowing when an event is likely to occur allows attentional resources to be oriented toward that moment in time, enhancing processing of the event. We previously found that children (mean age 11 years) are unable to use endogenous temporal cues to orient attention in time, despite being able to use endogenous spatial cues (arrows) to orient attention in space. Arrow cues, however, may have proved beneficial by engaging exogenous (automatic), as well as endogenous (voluntary), orienting mechanisms. We therefore conducted two studies in which the exogenous properties of visual temporal cues were increased, to examine whether this helped children orient their attention in time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704072/recent-advances-in-the-chemical-imaging-of-human-fingermarks-a-review
#14
Qianhui Wei, Meiqin Zhang, Božidar Ogorevc, Xueji Zhang
This review highlights the considerable advances in the chemical imaging of human fingermarks that provide more chemical information, including numerous endogenous and exogenous constituents. Despite remarkable development in DNA analysis and recognition, human fingermark analysis remains one of the priority approaches available for obtaining reliable forensic evidence. Additional information about the donor can be obtained from the chemical composition of latent fingermarks in addition to the ridge pattern, such as the age, gender, medical history, and possible drug habits...
September 30, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667794/site-of-metabolism-prediction-for-oxidation-reactions-mediated-by-oxidoreductases-based-on-chemical-bond
#15
Shuaibing He, Manman Li, Xiaotong Ye, Hongyu Wang, Wenkang Yu, Wenjing He, Yun Wang, Yanjiang Qiao
MOTIVATION: The metabolites of exogenous and endogenous compounds play a pivotal role in the domain of metabolism research. However, they are still unclear for most chemicals in our environment. The in silico methods for predicting the site of metabolism (SOM) are considered to be efficient and low-cost in SOM discovery. However, many in silico methods are focused on metabolism processes catalyzed by several specified Cytochromes P450s, and only apply to substrates with special skeleton...
September 25, 2016: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609405/stabilization-of-species-coexistence-in-spatial-models-through-the-aggregation-segregation-effect-generated-by-local-dispersal-and-nonspecific-local-interactions
#16
Matteo Detto, Helene C Muller-Landau
Spatial interactions are widely acknowledged to play a significant role in sustaining diversity in ecological communities. However, theoretical work on this topic has focused on how spatial processes affect coexistence of species that differ in their strategies, with less attention to how spatial processes matter when competitors are equivalent. Furthermore, though it is recognized that models with local dispersal and local competition may sustain higher diversities of equivalent competitors than models in which these are not both localized, there is debate as to whether this reflects merely equalizing effects or whether there is also a stabilizing component...
December 2016: Theoretical Population Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531234/orienting-of-visual-attention-in-aging
#17
Hadas Erel, Daniel A Levy
Changes in attention are among the most important cognitive shifts associated with aging, with implications for maintenance of vocational competencies, participation in social interactions, and successful execution of activities of daily living. An important facet of attention is orienting, the ability to selectively attend a location or modality and thereby engender perceptual augmentation. Orienting also involves shifting of the focus of attention in response to unanticipated salient events. Aging may impact orienting through a variety of neurocognitive mechanisms and the interactions between them...
October 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521839/hydrogen-sulfide-compensates-nitric-oxide-deficiency-in-murine-corpus-cavernosum
#18
Günay Yetik-Anacak, Aycan Dikmen, Ciro Coletta, Emma Mitidieri, Mehmet Dereli, Erminia Donnarumma, Roberta d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Raffaella Sorrentino
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is considered as a marker for cardiovascular diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is the major cause of erectile dysfunction (ED). The role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in erection has recently been recognized and is receiving attention as a pharmacological target. Several studies have focused on the effect of H2S on NO-dependent relaxation, but the role of NO on H2S in penile tissue has not been studied yet. Unlike NO, H2S is mainly synthesized from smooth muscle cells rather than endothelial cells...
August 10, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506420/diabetes-induction-by-total-pancreatectomy-in-minipigs-with-simultaneous-splenectomy-a-feasible-approach-for-advanced-diabetes-research
#19
Sophie Heinke, Barbara Ludwig, Undine Schubert, Janine Schmid, Thomas Kiss, Anja Steffen, Stefan Bornstein, Stefan Ludwig
BACKGROUND: Safe and reliable diabetes models are a key prerequisite for advanced preclinical studies on diabetes. Chemical induction is the standard model of diabetes in rodents and also widely used in large animal models of non-human primates and minipigs. However, uncertain efficacy, the potential of beta-cell regeneration, and relevant side effects are debatable aspects particularly in large animals. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a surgical approach of total pancreatectomy combined with splenectomy for diabetes induction in an exploratory study in Goettingen minipigs...
September 2016: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451078/postmenopausal-breast-cancer-risk-and-interactions-between-body-mass-index-menopausal-hormone-therapy-use-and-vitamin-d-supplementation-evidence-from-the-e3n-cohort
#20
Claire Cadeau, Agnès Fournier, Sylvie Mesrine, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Guy Fagherazzi, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
Experimental studies suggest protective effects of vitamin D on breast carcinogenesis, but epidemiological evidence is not conclusive. Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to modulate the effect of supplementation on the vitamin D status, but its potential influence on the relationship with breast cancer risk has been little studied. We investigated a potential interaction between BMI and vitamin D supplementation on breast cancer risk while considering an already reported interaction between vitamin D supplementation and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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