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Endogenous Exogenous Attention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920772/endogenous-attention-to-object-features-modulates-the-erp-c1-component
#1
Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
Converging neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence supports the notion that selective attention can modulate neural activity not only in V1 (BA17) - as early as 40-60 ms post-stimulus - but also at subcortical level (thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN). V1 modulation has been documented both in space-based and (especially) object-based selection conditions, most of all in endogenous orienting paradigms. It seems then that an attentional modulation of ERP C1 response - reflecting V1 modulation - would not be especially favoured by exogenous cuing as far as object-based attention is concerned...
September 18, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912423/the-chinese-herbal-formula-free-and-easy-wanderer-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-through-keap1-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#2
Chunlan Hong, Jingming Cao, Ching-Fen Wu, Onat Kadioglu, Anja Schüffler, Ulrich Kauhl, Sabine M Klauck, Till Opatz, Eckhard Thines, Norbert W Paul, Thomas Efferth
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) gains a lot of attention due to high prevalence and strong psychological upset, but the etiology remains undefined and effective treatment is quite limited. Growing studies demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress in various psychiatry diseases, suggesting anti-oxidation therapy might be a strategy for PTSD treatment. Free and Easy Wanderer (FAEW) is a poly-herbal drug clinically used in China for hundreds of years in the treatment of psychiatric disorder. We hypothesized that FAEW exerts clinical effects through the activity against oxidative stress with fluoxetine as antidepressant control drug...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826303/the-experimental-parameters-that-affect-attentional-modulation-of-the-erp-c1-component
#3
Scott D Slotnick
There is current debate as to whether spatial attention can modulate V1 activity during the initial wave of visual processing. Research on this topic has focused on the event-related potential (ERP) C1 component, which primarily reflects activity in V1. The purpose of the present selective review was to compare experimental parameters across spatial attention studies to determine whether certain stimulus, task, or analysis conditions were more likely to produce significant C1 attention effects. Specifically, C1 attention effects were evaluated as a function of visual field location, presence or absence of distractors, load (perceptual or attentional), cue type (endogenous or exogenous), and electrode location...
September 8, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767189/administration-of-signalling-molecules-dictates-stem-cell-homing-for-in-situ-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
Xuan Li, Xiao-Tao He, Yuan Yin, Rui-Xin Wu, Bei-Min Tian, Fa-Ming Chen
Ex vivo-expanded stem cells have long been a cornerstone of biotherapeutics and have attracted increasing attention for treating intractable diseases and improving tissue regeneration. However, using exogenous cellular materials to develop restorative treatments for large numbers of patients has become a major concern for both economic and safety reasons. Advances in cell biological research over the past two decades have expanded the potential for using endogenous stem cells during wound healing processes, and in particular, recent insight into stem cell movement and homing has prompted regenerative research and therapy based on recruiting endogenous cells...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763678/detecting-temporal-changes-in-acoustic-scenes-the-variable-benefit-of-selective-attention
#5
Laurent Demany, Yann Bayle, Emilie Puginier, Catherine Semal
Four experiments investigated change detection in acoustic scenes consisting of a sum of five amplitude-modulated pure tones. As the tones were about 0.7 octave apart and were amplitude-modulated with different frequencies (in the range 2-32 Hz), they were perceived as separate streams. Listeners had to detect a change in the frequency (experiments 1 and 2) or the shape (experiments 3 and 4) of the modulation of one of the five tones, in the presence of an informative cue orienting selective attention either before the scene (pre-cue) or after it (post-cue)...
July 27, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752527/interleukin-15-in-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction-current-understanding-and-future-perspectives
#6
REVIEW
Y Duan, F Li, W Wang, Q Guo, C Wen, Y Li, Y Yin
Obesity rises rapidly and is a major health concern for modern people. Importantly, it is a major risk factor in the development of numerous chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently, interleukin (IL)-15 has attracted considerable attention as a potential regulator for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity and T2DM. The beneficial effects include increased loss of fat mass and body weight, improved lipid and glucose metabolism, reduced white adipose tissue inflammation, enhanced mitochondrial function, alterations in the composition of muscle fibres and gut bacterial and attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress...
July 28, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743958/the-influence-of-endogenous-and-exogenous-spatial-attention-on-decision-confidence
#7
Phillipp Kurtz, Katharine A Shapcott, Jochen Kaiser, Joscha T Schmiedt, Michael C Schmid
Spatial attention allows us to make more accurate decisions about events in our environment. Decision confidence is thought to be intimately linked to the decision making process as confidence ratings are tightly coupled to decision accuracy. While both spatial attention and decision confidence have been subjected to extensive research, surprisingly little is known about the interaction between these two processes. Since attention increases performance it might be expected that confidence would also increase...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718175/deployment-of-spatial-attention-to-a-structural-framework-exogenous-alerting-and-endogenous-goal-directed-factors
#8
Lisa N Jefferies, Vincent Di Lollo
The main question examined in the present work was whether spatial attention can be deployed to an appropriate structural framework not only endogenously when the framework is displayed continuously, as in previous work, but also exogenously, when it is displayed transiently 100 ms before the target. The results of five experiments answered that question in the negative. We found that the onset transient triggered by a brief presentation of the structural framework did enhance the response to the upcoming target...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711379/the-attentiontrip-a-game-like-tool-for-measuring-the-networks-of-attention
#9
Raymond M Klein, Tariq Hassan, Graham Wilson, Yoko Ishigami, Jonathan Mulle
BACKGROUND: Recognizing that attention is not a unitary system, the Attention Network Test (ANT) and its variants were developed to measure the efficacy of the multiple components of attention. One potential weakness of these tests (ANTs) is that they are unengaging. This poses a problem when particular groups are tested (e.g., young children), when more stable measures of performance are desirable (and can only be achieved in longer testing sessions) and when repeated testing is necessary...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703952/potential-of-bacteriocins-from-lab-to-improve-microbial-quality-of-dry-cured-and-fermented-meat-products
#10
Paulina Kęska, Joanna Stadnik, Dorota Zielińska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska
Meat and meat products are an important component of the daily diet. Nevertheless, they are perishable goods and are prone to microbial contamination, which leads to an increased risk to the health of consumers as well as economic losses in the meat industry. Fermentation has been used for thousands of years to preserve meat. As a result of extensive biochemical reactions occurring in meat during fermentation and ripening, the condi- tions inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria are formed...
April 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703822/spatiotemporal-presentation-of-exogenous-sdf-1-with-plga-nanoparticles-modulates-sdf-1-cxcr4-signaling-axis-in-the-rodent-cortex
#11
D Dutta, K Hickey, M Salifu, C Fauer, C Willingham, S E Stabenfeldt
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its key receptor CXCR4 have been implicated in directing cellular recruitment for several pathological/disease conditions thus also gained considerable attention for regenerative medicine. One regenerative approach includes sustained release of SDF-1 to stimulate prolonged stem cell recruitment. However, the impact of SDF-1 sustained release on the endogenous SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling axis is largely unknown as auto-regulatory mechanisms typically dictate cytokine/receptor signaling...
July 25, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637409/fertility-drugs-and-ovarian-cancer
#12
Aus Tariq Ali
The aetiology of ovarian cancer is multifactorial with both endogenous and exogenous risk factors playing an important role. The exact pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is still not well understood, despite the number of hypotheses published. Due to an increase in the number of women using fertility drugs, much attention has been focused on the long-term health effects of such drugs. Although fertility drugs facilitate the ovulation process, it is however associated with a significant increase in hormone concentrations, placing exposed women at increased risk of gynaecological cancer...
June 20, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604051/safe-or-out-does-the-location-of-attention-affect-judgments-at-first-base-in-baseball
#13
Ralph S Redden, Ghislain d'Entremont, Raymond M Klein
Titchener's law of prior entry states that attended stimuli are perceived before unattended stimuli. Prior entry effects measured with visual stimuli have been generated with both endogenous and exogenous attentional deployment (e.g., by Shore, Spence, & Klein, 2001). In theory, the endogenous form of prior entry may have implications for baseball umpire judgments. Conventionally, umpires are instructed to first attend to the ball when it is hit into play; however, where they attend at the imperative instant of the play at first base can vary between individuals and across scenarios...
June 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569539/distracting-tracking-interactions-between-negative-emotion-and-attentional-load-in-multiple-object-tracking
#14
Gina M D'Andrea-Penna, Sebastian M Frank, Todd F Heatherton, Peter U Tse
Stimuli that attract exogenous attention have been shown to interfere with behavioral performance on various tasks. In the present study, participants performed multiple-object tracking (MOT) in conditions where either neutral or negatively valenced images were flashed at fixation. Results reveal a significant impairment of tracking accuracy in the emotional MOT conditions compared to the neutral conditions specifically at the highest level of task difficulty. These findings suggest that emotional distraction is most detrimental when maximal endogenous attentional engagement is required...
September 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554583/autologous-and-allogeneic-cardiac-stem-cell-therapy-for-cardiovascular-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Ricardo Sanz-Ruiz, Francisco Fernández-Avilés
Stem cell therapy is one of the most promising therapeutic innovations to help restore cardiac structure and function after ischemic insults to the heart. However, phase I and II clinical trials with autologous "first-generation stem cells" have yielded inconsistent results in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients and have not produced the definitive evidence for their broad clinical application. Recently, new cell types such as cardiac stem cells (CSC) and new allogeneic sources have attracted the attention of researchers given their inherent biological, clinical and logistic advantages...
May 26, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539263/nutrients-neurogenesis-and-brain-ageing-from-disease-mechanisms-to-therapeutic-opportunities
#16
REVIEW
Marco Fidaleo, Virve Cavallucci, Giovambattista Pani
Appreciation of the physiological relevance of mammalian adult neurogenesis has in recent years rapidly expanded from a phenomenon of homeostatic cell replacement and brain repair to the current view of a complex process involved in high order cognitive functions. In parallel, an array of endogenous or exogenous triggers of neurogenesis has also been identified, among which metabolic and nutritional cues have drawn significant attention. Converging evidence from animal and in vitro studies points to nutrient sensing and energy metabolism as major physiological determinants of neural stem cell fate, and modulators of the whole neurogenic process...
May 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534121/organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-are-crucial-biopterin-transporters-involved-in-bodily-distribution-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-exclusion-of-its-excess
#17
Akiko Ohashi, Kaori Mamada, Tomonori Harada, Masako Naito, Tomihisa Takahashi, Shin Aizawa, Hiroyuki Hasegawa
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a common coenzyme of phenylalanine-, tyrosine-, and tryptophan hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and NO synthases (NOS). Synthetic BH4 is used medicinally for BH4-responsive phenylketonuria and inherited BH4 deficiency. BH4 supplementation has also drawn attention as a therapy for various NOS-related cardio-vascular diseases, but its use has met with limited success in decreasing BH2, the oxidized form of BH4. An increase in the BH2/BH4 ratio leads to NOS dysfunction. Previous studies revealed that BH4 supplementation caused a rapid urinary loss of BH4 accompanied by an increase in the blood BH2/BH4 ratio and an involvement of probenecid-sensitive but unknown transporters was strongly suggested in these processes...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516445/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-vertebrates-emphasis-on-the-zebrafish-model
#18
REVIEW
Francesca Oltrabella, Adam Melgoza, Brian Nguyen, Su Guo
The endocannabinoid system (eCBs), named after the plant Cannabis sativa, comprises cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands known as "endocannabinoids", and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of these ligands, as well as putative transporters for these ligands. ECBs proteins and small molecules have been detected in early embryonic stages of many vertebrate models. As a result, cannabinoid receptors and endogenous as well as exogenous cannabinoids influence development and behavior in many vertebrate species...
May 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477287/the-current-understanding-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy-tic-a-focused-review-on-pathophysiology
#19
REVIEW
Stefano Giordano, Luca Spiezia, Elena Campello, Paolo Simioni
The emergency management of acute severe bleeding in trauma patients has changed significantly in recent years. In particular, greater attention is now being devoted to a prompt assessment of coagulation alterations, which allows for immediate haemostatic resuscitation procedures when necessary. The importance of an early trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) diagnosis has led physicians to increase the efforts to better understand the pathophysiological alterations observed in the haemostatic system after traumatic injuries...
May 5, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439793/mixed-signals-the-effect-of-conflicting-reward-and-goal-driven-biases-on-selective-attention
#20
Daniel Preciado, Jaap Munneke, Jan Theeuwes
Attentional selection depends on the interaction between exogenous (stimulus-driven), endogenous (goal-driven), and selection history (experience-driven) factors. While endogenous and exogenous biases have been widely investigated, less is known about their interplay with value-driven attention. The present study investigated the interaction between reward-history and goal-driven biases on perceptual sensitivity (d') and response time (RT) in a modified cueing paradigm presenting two coloured cues, followed by sinusoidal gratings...
July 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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