keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Endogenous Exogenous Attention

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294715/moving-beyond-attentional-biases-shifting-the-interhemispheric-balance-between-left-and-right-posterior-parietal-cortex-modulates-attentional-control-processes
#1
Felix Duecker, Teresa Schuhmann, Nina Bien, Christianne Jacobs, Alexander T Sack
The concept of interhemispheric competition has been very influential in attention research, and the occurrence of biased attention due to an imbalance in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is well documented. In this context, the vast majority of studies have assessed attentional performance with tasks that did not include an explicit experimental manipulation of attention, and as a consequence, it remains largely unknown how these findings relate to core attentional constructs such as endogenous and exogenous control and spatial orienting and reorienting...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284987/orienting-of-attention-with-and-without-cue-awareness
#2
Laura Herreros, Anthony J Lambert, Ana B Chica
Many cognitive processes operate without consciousness, and exogenous attentional capture seems to be one of them. While endogenously attending to the opposite location of a cue cannot occur without cue awareness, attending the cued location in an exogenous or stimulus driven form can occur even when participants are not aware of the presence of the cue (McCormick, 1997). Orienting attention to a specific location shortens reaction times to supra-threshold stimuli, and increases the likelihood of consciously perceiving near-threshold stimuli in that location...
March 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281160/further-evidence-in-favor-of-prior-entry-from-endogenous-attention-to-a-location-in-space
#3
Ralph S Redden, Ghislain d'Entremont, Raymond M Klein
Titchener's (1908) law of prior entry states that "the object of attention comes to consciousness more quickly than the objects which we are not attending to," or otherwise, that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli. Shore, Spence, and Klein (Psychological Science, 12, 205-212. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00337 , 2001) showed that endogenous visuospatial orienting does in fact elicit prior-entry effects, albeit to a smaller degree than does exogenous visuospatial orienting. In disagreement with this finding, Schneider and Bavelier (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 333-366...
March 9, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273110/transient-human-auditory-cortex-activation-during-volitional-attention-shifting
#4
Christian Harm Uhlig, Alexander Gutschalk
While strong activation of auditory cortex is generally found for exogenous orienting of attention, endogenous, intra-modal shifting of auditory attention has not yet been demonstrated to evoke transient activation of the auditory cortex. Here, we used fMRI to test if endogenous shifting of attention is also associated with transient activation of the auditory cortex. In contrast to previous studies, attention shifts were completely self-initiated and not cued by transient auditory or visual stimuli. Stimuli were two dichotic, continuous streams of tones, whose perceptual grouping was not ambiguous...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270972/en-face-coherence-microscopy-invited
#5
REVIEW
Olivier Thouvenin, Kate Grieve, Peng Xiao, Clement Apelian, A Claude Boccara
En face coherence microscopy or flying spot or full field optical coherence tomography or microscopy (FF-OCT/FF-OCM) belongs to the OCT family because the sectioning ability is mostly linked to the source coherence length. In this article we will focus our attention on the advantages and the drawbacks of the following approaches: en face versus B scan tomography in terms of resolution, coherent versus incoherent illumination and influence of aberrations, and scanning versus full field imaging. We then show some examples to illustrate the diverse applications of en face coherent microscopy and show that endogenous or exogenous contrasts can add valuable information to the standard morphological image...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251978/-comparative-analysis-of-the-synchronization-methods-of-normal-and-transformed-human-cells
#6
A K Velichko, N V Petrova, S V Razin, O L Kantidze
Reactions of genetically identical cells to various exogenous and endogenous stimuli can vary significantly. One of the main factors of this non-genetic cellular heterogeneity is the cell cycle. The most convenient way to study the subcellular processes depending on the cell cycle stage is the synchronization of the cells. Toxic inhibitors of DNA replication and/or mitotic spindle assembly are typically used to synchronize cells. It is important to accurately select the synchronization method for a particular experiment...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224478/targeting-the-nf-e2-related-factor-2-pathway-a-novel-strategy-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
REVIEW
Li Zhang, Handong Wang
As an essential component of cellular defense against a variety of endogenous and exogenous stresses, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has received increased attention in the past decades. Multiple studies indicate that Nrf2 acts not only as an important protective factor in injury models but also as a downstream target of therapeutic agents. Activation of Nrf2 has increasingly been linked to many human diseases, especially in central nervous system (CNS) injury such as traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162847/c-tactile-afferents-cutaneous-mediators-of-oxytocin-release-during-affiliative-tactile-interactions
#8
REVIEW
Susannah C Walker, Paula D Trotter, William T Swaney, Andrew Marshall, Francis P Mcglone
Low intensity, non-noxious, stimulation of cutaneous somatosensory nerves has been shown to trigger oxytocin release and is associated with increased social motivation, plus reduced physiological and behavioural reactivity to stressors. However, to date, little attention has been paid to the specific nature of the mechanosensory nerves which mediate these effects. In recent years, the neuroscientific study of human skin nerves (microneurography studies on single peripheral nerve fibres) has led to the identification and characterisation of a class of touch sensitive nerve fibres named C-tactile afferents...
January 19, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127028/natural-killer-t-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#9
REVIEW
Godfrey S Getz, Catherine A Reardon
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder that develops in response to hyperlipidaemia. Cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The role of natural killer T (NKT) cells in response to microbial pathogens and inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis has received increasing attention in the past 10-15 years. Endogenous self-lipid antigens and exogenous lipid antigens, including those on microorganisms can activate NKT cells...
January 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120728/momordicacharantia-a-new-strategic-vision-to-improve-the-therapy-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#10
Wai Chin Chong, Rohit Gundamaraju, Ravichandra Vemuri, Marcus T Scotti, Luciana Scotti
BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum is the major site for protein biosynthesis. Any perturbation in the endoplasmic reticulum will compromise its functions and reduce its efficiency in protein biosynthesis. As a result, misfolded proteins are produced and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum. This will result in endoplasmic reticulum stress, which reduces the quantity and quality of the functional protein synthesized from the cell. Besides that, the protein biosynthesis is also highly affected by oxidative stress...
January 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120309/microbial-production-of-astilbin-a-bioactive-rhamnosylated-flavanonol-from-taxifolin
#11
Nguyen Huy Thuan, Sailesh Malla, Nguyen Thanh Trung, Dipesh Dhakal, Anaya Raj Pokhrel, Luan Luong Chu, Jae Kyung Sohng
Flavonoids are plant-based polyphenolic biomolecules with a wide range of biological activities. Glycosylated flavonoids have drawn special attention in the industries as it improves solubility, stability, and bioactivity. Herein, we report the production of astilbin (ATN) from taxifolin (TFN) in genetically-engineered Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The exogenously supplied TFN was converted to ATN by 3-O-rhamnosylation utilizing the endogeneous TDP-L-rhamnose in presence of UDP-glycosyltransferase (ArGT3, Gene Bank accession number: At1g30530) from Arabidopsis thaliana...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118103/attention-modifies-spatial-resolution-according-to-task-demands
#12
Antoine Barbot, Marisa Carrasco
How does visual attention affect spatial resolution? In texture-segmentation tasks, exogenous (involuntary) attention automatically increases resolution at the attended location, which improves performance where resolution is too low (at the periphery) but impairs performance where resolution is already too high (at central locations). Conversely, endogenous (voluntary) attention improves performance at all eccentricities, which suggests a more flexible mechanism. Here, using selective adaptation to spatial frequency, we investigated the mechanism by which endogenous attention benefits performance in resolution tasks...
March 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100609/sterol-binding-by-the-tombusviral-replication-proteins-is-essential-for-replication-in-yeast-and-plants
#13
Kai Xu, Peter D Nagy
Membranous structures derived from various organelles are important for replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses. Although the important roles of co-opted host proteins in RNA virus replication have been appreciated for a decade, the equally important functions of cellular lipids in virus replication have been gaining full attention only recently. Previous work with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in model host yeast has revealed essential roles for phosphatidylethanolamine and sterols in viral replication...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070455/social-and-environmental-factors-modulate-leucocyte-profiles-in-free-living-greylag-geese-anser-anser
#14
Didone Frigerio, Sonja C Ludwig, Josef Hemetsberger, Kurt Kotrschal, Claudia A F Wascher
BACKGROUND: Blood parameters such as haematocrit or leucocyte counts are indicators of immune status and health, which can be affected, in a complex way, by exogenous as well as endogenous factors. Additionally, social context is known to be among the most potent stressors in group living individuals, therefore potentially influencing haematological parameters. However, with few exceptions, this potential causal relationship received only moderate scientific attention. METHODS: In a free-living and individually marked population of the highly social and long-lived Greylag goose, Anser anser, we relate variation in haematocrit (HCT), heterophils to lymphocytes ratio (H/L) and blood leucocyte counts to the following factors: intrinsic (sex, age, raising condition, i...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028777/spatial-attention-is-necessary-for-object-based-attention-evidence-from-temporal-order-judgments
#15
Ian Donovan, Jay Pratt, Sarah Shomstein
Attentional selection is a dynamic process that relies on multiple types of representations. That object representations contribute to attentional selection has been known for decades; however, most evidence for this contribution has been gleaned from studies that have relied on various forms of spatial cueing (some endogenous and some exogenous). It has thus remained unclear whether object-based attentional selection is a direct result of spatial cuing, or whether it still emerges without any spatial marker...
December 27, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003197/antibacterial-mechanism-of-405-nanometer-light-emitting-diode-against-salmonella-at-refrigeration-temperature
#16
Min-Jeong Kim, Hyun-Gyun Yuk
The aim of this study was to elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of 405 ± 5-nm light-emitting diode (LED) illumination against Salmonella at 4°C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) by determining endogenous coproporphyrin content, DNA oxidation, damage to membrane function, and morphological change. Gene expression levels, including of oxyR, recA, rpoS, sodA, and soxR, were also examined to understand the response of Salmonella to LED illumination. The results showed that Salmonella strains responded differently to LED illumination, revealing that S...
March 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861588/endogenous-testosterone-and-exogenous-oxytocin-modulate-attentional-processing-of-infant-faces
#17
Sarah K C Holtfrerich, Katharina A Schwarz, Christian Sprenger, Luise Reimers, Esther K Diekhof
Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816713/development-of-predictive-models-for-predicting-binding-affinity-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-to-fish-sex-hormone-binding-globulin
#18
Huihui Liu, Xianhai Yang, Cen Yin, Mengbi Wei, Xiao He
Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR)...
February 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713713/isochronous-sequential-presentation-helps-children-orient-their-attention-in-time
#19
Katherine A Johnson, Marita Bryan, Kira Polonowita, Delia Decroupet, Jennifer T Coull
Knowing when an event is likely to occur allows attentional resources to be oriented toward that moment in time, enhancing processing of the event. We previously found that children (mean age 11 years) are unable to use endogenous temporal cues to orient attention in time, despite being able to use endogenous spatial cues (arrows) to orient attention in space. Arrow cues, however, may have proved beneficial by engaging exogenous (automatic), as well as endogenous (voluntary), orienting mechanisms. We therefore conducted two studies in which the exogenous properties of visual temporal cues were increased, to examine whether this helped children orient their attention in time...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704072/recent-advances-in-the-chemical-imaging-of-human-fingermarks-a-review
#20
Qianhui Wei, Meiqin Zhang, Božidar Ogorevc, Xueji Zhang
This review highlights the considerable advances in the chemical imaging of human fingermarks that provide more chemical information, including numerous endogenous and exogenous constituents. Despite remarkable development in DNA analysis and recognition, human fingermark analysis remains one of the priority approaches available for obtaining reliable forensic evidence. Additional information about the donor can be obtained from the chemical composition of latent fingermarks in addition to the ridge pattern, such as the age, gender, medical history, and possible drug habits...
September 30, 2016: Analyst
keyword
keyword
60194
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"