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Endogenous Exogenous Attention

Ryszard Olinski, Daniel Gackowski, Marcus S Cooke
The DNA of all living cells undergoes continuous structural and chemical alteration, which may be derived from exogenous sources, or endogenous, metabolic pathways, such as cellular respiration, replication and DNA demethylation. It has been estimated that approximately 70,000 DNA lesions may be generated per day in a single cell, and this has been linked to a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. However, it is puzzling why potentially mutagenic DNA modifications, occurring at a similar level in different organs/tissue, may lead to organ/tissue specific cancers, or indeed non-malignant disease - what is the basis for this differential response? We suggest that it is perhaps the precise location of damage, within the genome, that is a key factor...
November 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Giovanni Mento
A main distinction has been proposed between voluntary and automatic mechanisms underlying temporal orienting (TO) of selective attention. Voluntary TO implies the endogenous directing of attention induced by symbolic cues. Conversely, automatic TO is exogenously instantiated by the physical properties of stimuli. A well-known example of automatic TO is sequential effects (SEs), which refer to the adjustments in participants' behavioral performance as a function of the trial-by-trial sequential distribution of the foreperiod between two stimuli...
November 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
Semih Arbatlı, Galip Servet Aslan, Fatih Kocabaş
The common prevalence of heart failure and limitations in its treatment are leading cause of attention and interest towards the induction of cardiac regeneration with novel approaches. Recent studies provide growing evidence regarding bona fide cardiac regeneration post genetic manipulations, administration of stimulatory factors and myocardial injuries in animal models and human studies. To this end, stem cells of different sources have been tested to treat heart failure for the development of cellular therapies...
October 25, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
In this chapter we review the evidence for the role of oxytocin in parenting, and discuss some crucial but outstanding questions. This is not meant to be a comprehensive review of all studies on oxytocin and parenting in general. Instead, special attention will be paid to a dimension of parenting that has been largely neglected in behavioral and neurobiological research on parental caregiving, namely protection. Parental protection has received considerable attention in animal research but, despite its evolutionary importance, not in studies on humans...
October 11, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Laura Dugué, Elisha P Merriam, David J Heeger, Marisa Carrasco
The temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) has been associated with various cognitive and social functions, and is critical for attentional reorienting. Attention affects early visual processing. Neuroimaging studies dealing with such processes have thus far concentrated on striate and extrastriate areas. Here, we investigated whether attention orienting or reorienting modulate activity in visually driven TPJ subregions. For each observer we identified 3 visually responsive subregions within TPJ: 2 bilateral (vTPJant and vTPJpost) and 1 right lateralized (vTPJcent)...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Zeyu Cao, Xingliang Duan, Ping Yao, Weiti Cui, Dan Cheng, Jing Zhang, Qijiang Jin, Jun Chen, Tianshan Dai, Wenbiao Shen
Metabolism of molecular hydrogen (H₂) in bacteria and algae has been widely studied, and it has attracted increasing attention in the context of animals and plants. However, the role of endogenous H₂ in lateral root (LR) formation is still unclear. Here, our results showed that H₂-induced lateral root formation is a universal event. Naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA; the auxin analog) was able to trigger endogenous H₂ production in tomato seedlings, and a contrasting response was observed in the presence of N-1-naphthyphthalamic acid (NPA), an auxin transport inhibitor...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kristina Laugesen, Anna Byrjalsen, Trine Frøslev, Morten S Olsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to excess endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) has been linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated whether prenatal exposure to exogenous GC is associated with ADHD. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: A cohort of 875 996 singletons born alive between 1996 and 2009 in Denmark. Data were obtained from national registries. EXPOSURES: We identified children exposed prenatally to GCs, children unexposed prenatally and born to maternal former users, and children unexposed and born to maternal never users...
September 24, 2017: BMJ Open
Lisa N Jefferies, James T Enns, Vincent Di Lollo
Selective visual attention involves prioritizing both the location (orienting) and distribution (focusing) of processing. To date, much more research has examined attentional orienting than focusing. One of the most well-established findings is that orienting can be exogenous, as when a unique change in luminance draws attention to a spatial location (e.g., Theeuwes in Atten Percept Psychophys 51:599-606, 1992; Yantis and Jonides in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 10:601, 1984), and endogenous, as when a red distractor shape diverts attention when one is looking for a red target (e...
September 22, 2017: Psychological Research
Rasa Gulbinaite, Tara van Viegen, Martijn Wieling, Michael X Cohen, Rufin VanRullen
Rhythmic visual stimulation ("flicker") is primarily used to "tag" processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain rhythms. Here we tested the interaction between 10 Hz flicker and endogenous alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations during a selective visuospatial attention task. We recorded EEG from human participants (both genders) while they performed a modified Eriksen flanker task in which distractors and targets flickered within (10 Hz) or outside (7...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Alberto Zani, Alice Mado Proverbio
Converging neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence supports the notion that selective attention can modulate neural activity not only in V1 (BA17)-as early as 40-60 ms post-stimulus-but also at the subcortical level (thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus, LGN). V1 modulation has been documented both in space-based and (especially) object-based selection conditions, most of all in endogenous orienting paradigms. It seems then that an attentional modulation of the ERP C1 response-reflecting V1 modulation-would not be especially favoured by exogenous cuing as far as object-based attention is concerned...
October 4, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Chunlan Hong, Jingming Cao, Ching-Fen Wu, Onat Kadioglu, Anja Schüffler, Ulrich Kauhl, Sabine M Klauck, Till Opatz, Eckhard Thines, Norbert W Paul, Thomas Efferth
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) gains a lot of attention due to high prevalence and strong psychological upset, but the etiology remains undefined and effective treatment is quite limited. Growing studies demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress in various psychiatry diseases, suggesting anti-oxidation therapy might be a strategy for PTSD treatment. Free and Easy Wanderer (FAEW) is a poly-herbal drug clinically used in China for hundreds of years in the treatment of psychiatric disorder. We hypothesized that FAEW exerts clinical effects through the activity against oxidative stress with fluoxetine as antidepressant control drug...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Scott D Slotnick
There is current debate as to whether spatial attention can modulate V1 activity during the initial wave of visual processing. Research on this topic has focused on the event-related potential (ERP) C1 component, which primarily reflects activity in V1. The purpose of the present selective review was to compare experimental parameters across spatial attention studies to determine whether certain stimulus, task, or analysis conditions were more likely to produce significant C1 attention effects. Specifically, C1 attention effects were evaluated as a function of visual field location, presence or absence of distractors, load (perceptual or attentional), cue type (endogenous or exogenous), and electrode location...
September 8, 2017: Cognitive Neuroscience
Xuan Li, Xiao-Tao He, Yuan Yin, Rui-Xin Wu, Bei-Min Tian, Fa-Ming Chen
Ex vivo-expanded stem cells have long been a cornerstone of biotherapeutics and have attracted increasing attention for treating intractable diseases and improving tissue regeneration. However, using exogenous cellular materials to develop restorative treatments for large numbers of patients has become a major concern for both economic and safety reasons. Advances in cell biological research over the past two decades have expanded the potential for using endogenous stem cells during wound healing processes, and in particular, recent insight into stem cell movement and homing has prompted regenerative research and therapy based on recruiting endogenous cells...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Laurent Demany, Yann Bayle, Emilie Puginier, Catherine Semal
Four experiments investigated change detection in acoustic scenes consisting of a sum of five amplitude-modulated pure tones. As the tones were about 0.7 octave apart and were amplitude-modulated with different frequencies (in the range 2-32 Hz), they were perceived as separate streams. Listeners had to detect a change in the frequency (experiments 1 and 2) or the shape (experiments 3 and 4) of the modulation of one of the five tones, in the presence of an informative cue orienting selective attention either before the scene (pre-cue) or after it (post-cue)...
July 27, 2017: Hearing Research
Y Duan, F Li, W Wang, Q Guo, C Wen, Y Li, Y Yin
Obesity rises rapidly and is a major health concern for modern people. Importantly, it is a major risk factor in the development of numerous chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently, interleukin (IL)-15 has attracted considerable attention as a potential regulator for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity and T2DM. The beneficial effects include increased loss of fat mass and body weight, improved lipid and glucose metabolism, reduced white adipose tissue inflammation, enhanced mitochondrial function, alterations in the composition of muscle fibres and gut bacterial and attenuated endoplasmic reticulum stress...
July 28, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Phillipp Kurtz, Katharine A Shapcott, Jochen Kaiser, Joscha T Schmiedt, Michael C Schmid
Spatial attention allows us to make more accurate decisions about events in our environment. Decision confidence is thought to be intimately linked to the decision making process as confidence ratings are tightly coupled to decision accuracy. While both spatial attention and decision confidence have been subjected to extensive research, surprisingly little is known about the interaction between these two processes. Since attention increases performance it might be expected that confidence would also increase...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lisa N Jefferies, Vincent Di Lollo
The main question examined in the present work was whether spatial attention can be deployed to an appropriate structural framework not only endogenously when the framework is displayed continuously, as in previous work, but also exogenously, when it is displayed transiently 100 ms before the target. The results of five experiments answered that question in the negative. We found that the onset transient triggered by a brief presentation of the structural framework did enhance the response to the upcoming target...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Raymond M Klein, Tariq Hassan, Graham Wilson, Yoko Ishigami, Jonathan Mulle
BACKGROUND: Recognizing that attention is not a unitary system, the Attention Network Test (ANT) and its variants were developed to measure the efficacy of the multiple components of attention. One potential weakness of these tests (ANTs) is that they are unengaging. This poses a problem when particular groups are tested (e.g., young children), when more stable measures of performance are desirable (and can only be achieved in longer testing sessions) and when repeated testing is necessary...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Paulina Kęska, Joanna Stadnik, Dorota Zielińska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska
Meat and meat products are an important component of the daily diet. Nevertheless, they are perishable goods and are prone to microbial contamination, which leads to an increased risk to the health of consumers as well as economic losses in the meat industry. Fermentation has been used for thousands of years to preserve meat. As a result of extensive biochemical reactions occurring in meat during fermentation and ripening, the condi- tions inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria are formed...
April 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
D Dutta, K Hickey, M Salifu, C Fauer, C Willingham, S E Stabenfeldt
Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its key receptor CXCR4 have been implicated in directing cellular recruitment for several pathological/disease conditions thus also gained considerable attention for regenerative medicine. One regenerative approach includes sustained release of SDF-1 to stimulate prolonged stem cell recruitment. However, the impact of SDF-1 sustained release on the endogenous SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling axis is largely unknown as auto-regulatory mechanisms typically dictate cytokine/receptor signaling...
July 25, 2017: Biomaterials Science
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