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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807611/initial-treatment-for-nonsyndromic-early-life-epilepsy-an-unexpected-consensus
#1
Renée A Shellhaas, Anne T Berg, Zachary M Grinspan, Courtney J Wusthoff, John J Millichap, Tobias Loddenkemper, Jason Coryell, Russell P Saneto, Catherine J Chu, Sucheta M Joshi, Joseph E Sullivan, Kelly G Knupp, Eric H Kossoff, Cynthia Keator, Elaine C Wirrell, John R Mytinger, Ignacio Valencia, Shavonne Massey, William D Gaillard
OBJECTIVE: There are no evidence-based guidelines on the preferred approach to treating early-life epilepsy. We examined initial therapy selection in a contemporary US cohort of children with newly diagnosed, nonsyndromic, early-life epilepsy (onset before age three years). METHODS: Seventeen pediatric epilepsy centers participated in a prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy with onset under 36 months of age. Details regarding demographics, seizure types, and initial medication selections were obtained from medical records...
June 27, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805770/-new-classifications-of-epilepsies-and-seizure-types-created-by-the-international-league-against-epilepsy-2017
#2
Ye V Makushkin, S N Oskolkova, G A Fastovtsov
First part of this review (Chapter 1) demonstrates an ambiguous attitude toward psychiatry among professionals and in society in recent decades. The articles of supporters and opponents of psychiatry are also quoted. The authors describe the dynamics of the reflection of psychopathology in the main widely accepted classifications and manuals. Critical and negative opinions regarding the DSM-5, due to its role in the 'medicalization' processes, for the movement 'World Mental Health', are mentioned. The history of antipsychiatry movement and its results for psychiatry and society are analyzed as well...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800118/deep-source-localization-with-magnetoencephalography-based-on-sensor-array-decomposition-and-beamforming
#3
Yegang Hu, Yicong Lin, Baoshan Yang, Guangrui Tang, Tao Liu, Yuping Wang, Jicong Zhang
In recent years, the source localization technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) has played a prominent role in cognitive neuroscience and in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychological disorders. However, locating deep brain activities such as in the mesial temporal structures, especially in preoperative evaluation of epilepsy patients, may be more challenging. In this work we have proposed a modified beamforming approach for finding deep sources. First, an iterative spatiotemporal signal decomposition was employed for reconstructing the sensor arrays, which could characterize the intrinsic discriminant features for interpreting sensor signals...
August 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797973/frontal-fibers-connecting-the-superior-frontal-gyrus-to-broca-s-area-a-cortico-cortical-evoked-potential-study
#4
Satoshi Ookawa, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Yukinori Akiyama, Tamaki Kobayashi, Yukihiro Yamao, Takayuki Kikuchi, Riki Matsumoto, Takeharu Kunieda, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a deep frontal pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus (SFG) to Broca's area. This fiber is assumed to be associated with language functions, especially speech initiation and spontaneity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to electrophysiologically investigate this network using cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). METHOD: Eight patients with brain tumors or medically intractable focal epilepsies who underwent frontal craniotomy over the language dominant side were enrolled in this study...
August 7, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790971/recurrent-epileptic-auras-as-a-presenting-symptom-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Rani A Sarkis, Kim C Willment, Seth A Gale, Barbara A Dworetzky
Seizures are a common co-morbidity during the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in a subset of patients may be one of the presenting symptoms. In this case series, we highlight three patients with recurrent medically refractory epileptic auras whose work up ultimately lead to the diagnosis of AD. All three patients underwent prolonged EEG, serial neuropsychological testing, FDG-PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers, and MRI. CSF biomarkers were particularly helpful in two cases. These cases highlight the importance of having a high index of suspicion for AD in new onset "idiopathic" epilepsy in the elderly...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765403/a-hyperacute-neurology-team-transforming-emergency-neurological-care
#6
Arani Nitkunan, Bridget K MacDonald, Ajay Boodhoo, Andrew Tomkins, Caitlin Smyth, Medina Southam, Fred Schon
We present the results of an 18-month study of a new model of how to care for emergency neurological admissions. We have established a hyperacute neurology team at a single district general hospital. Key features are a senior acute neurology nurse coordinator, an exclusively consultant-delivered service, acute epilepsy nurses, an acute neurophysiology service supported by neuroradiology and acute physicians and based within the acute medical admissions unit. Key improvements are a major increase in the number of patients seen, the speed with which they are seen and the percentage seen on acute medical unit before going to the general wards...
July 2017: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753497/disease-modifying-effect-of-atipamezole-in-a-model-of-post-traumatic-epilepsy
#7
Jari Nissinen, Pedro Andrade, Teemu Natunen, Mikko Hiltunen, Tarja Malm, Katja Kanninen, Joana I Soares, Olena Shatillo, Jukka Sallinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Treatment of TBI remains a major unmet medical need, with 2.5 million new cases of traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year in Europe and 1.5 million in the USA. This single-center proof-of-concept preclinical study tested the hypothesis that pharmacologic neurostimulation with proconvulsants, either atipamezole, a selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, or the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist SR141716A, as monotherapy would improve functional recovery after TBI. A total of 404 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into two groups: sham-injured or lateral fluid-percussion-induced TBI...
July 12, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742196/sociological-histories-on-epilepsy-as-causes-for-disqualification-stipulated-in-the-japanese-road-traffic-act-of-1960-and-revised-road-traffic-act-of-2001
#8
G Imataka, S Yoshihara
In the wake of successive cases of fatal accidents caused by patients behind the wheel whose driving was likely to be hindered due to paroxysmal diseases, including epilepsy, there has been an outcry from victims demanding stricter criminal penalties against the perpetrators due to negligence. As a result of this action, a revised Road Traffic Act was put into effect in Japan on June 14, 2013. This act established new penal provisions against any person who provides false statements on his/her medical condition(s) when acquiring or renewing a driver's license...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740620/use-and-cost-comparison-of-clobazam-to-other-antiepileptic-drugs-for-treatment-of-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#9
Clément François, John M Stern, Augustina Ogbonnaya, Tasneem Lokhandwala, Pamela Landsman-Blumberg, Amy Duhig, Vivienne Shen, Robin Tan
Background: Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a severe form of childhood-onset epilepsy associated with serious injuries due to frequent and severe seizures. Of the antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) approved for LGS, clobazam is a more recent market entrant, having been approved in October 2011. Recent AED budget impact and cost-effectiveness analyses for LGS suggest that adding clobazam to a health plan formulary may result in decreased medical costs; however, research on clinical and economic outcomes and treatment patterns with these AED treatments in LGS is limited...
2017: Journal of Market Access & Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725554/successful-surgical-management-of-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-norse-presenting-with-gelastic-seizures-in-a-3%C3%A2-year-old-girl
#10
Ahmad Marashly, Sean Lew, Jennifer Koop
Gelastic seizures (GS) are typically associated with hypothalamic hamartomas and present during childhood. However it is now known that GS can be found in focal epilepsies arising from other regions in the brain, including mesial and neocortical frontal, temporal and parietal regions. GS have rarely been described as the presenting manifestation of New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus (NORSE). In this article we describe a previously healthy 3-year-old who presented with an explosive onset of GS that were refractory to multiple anti-seizure medications...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714074/altered-metabolomic-genomic-signature-a-potential-noninvasive-biomarker-of-epilepsy
#11
Helen C Wu, Fabien Dachet, Farhad Ghoddoussi, Shruti Bagla, Darren Fuerst, Jeffrey A Stanley, Matthew P Galloway, Jeffrey A Loeb
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify noninvasive biomarkers of human epilepsy that can reliably detect and localize epileptic brain regions. Having noninvasive biomarkers would greatly enhance patient diagnosis, patient monitoring, and novel therapy development. At the present time, only surgically invasive, direct brain recordings are capable of detecting these regions with precision, which severely limits the pace and scope of both clinical management and research progress in epilepsy...
July 17, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699523/altered-homeostatic-functions-in-reactive-astrocytes-and-their-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target-after-brain-ischemic-injury
#12
Helena Pivonkova, Miroslava Anderova
Brain ischemic injury represents one of the greatest medical challenges for the aging population in developed countries, yet despite strong efforts, possibilities to treat ischemic injury still remain poor. Stroke, the most common type of brain ischemic injury in humans, is caused by brain artery occlusion, and represents a focal form of ischemia, which leads to neuronal loss in the ischemic core, and glial scar formation in the penumbral region around the core. Such glial scar mainly comprises reactive astrocytes, reactive NG2 glia and activated microglia...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688606/a-clinical-and-neurophysiological-motor-signature-of-unverricht-lundborg-disease
#13
E Hainque, A Blancher, V Mesnage, S Rivaud-Pechoux, A Bertrand, S Dupont, V Navarro, E Roze, I Gourfinkel-An, E Apartis
OBJECTIVES: Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) is the most common form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Cerebellar dysfunction may appear over time, contributing along with myoclonus to motor disability. The purpose of the present work was to clarify the motor and neurophysiological characteristics of ULD patients. METHODS: Nine patients with genetically proven ULD were evaluated clinically (medical history collected from patient charts, the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia and Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale)...
July 5, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675562/innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-human-epilepsies
#14
REVIEW
Jan Bauer, Albert J Becker, Wassim Elyaman, Jukka Peltola, Stephan Rüegg, Maarten J Titulaer, James A Varley, Ettore Beghi
Inflammatory mechanisms have been increasingly implicated in the origin of seizures and epilepsy. These mechanisms are involved in the genesis of encephalitides in which seizures are a common complaint. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests different inflammatory responses in the brains of patients with epilepsy depending on the etiology. In general, activation of both innate and adaptive immunity plays a role in refractory forms of epilepsy. Epilepsies in which seizures develop after infiltration of cells of the adaptive immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) include a broad range of epileptic disorders with different (known or unknown) etiologies...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669061/male-patients-affected-by-mosaic-pcdh19-mutations-five-new-cases
#15
I M de Lange, P Rump, R F Neuteboom, P B Augustijn, K Hodges, A I Kistemaker, O F Brouwer, G M S Mancini, H A Newman, Y J Vos, K L Helbig, C Peeters-Scholte, M Kriek, N V Knoers, D Lindhout, B P C Koeleman, M J A van Kempen, E H Brilstra
Pathogenic variants in the PCDH19 gene are associated with epilepsy, intellectual disability (ID) and behavioural disturbances. Only heterozygous females and mosaic males are affected, likely due to a disease mechanism named cellular interference. Until now, only four affected mosaic male patients have been described in literature. Here, we report five additional male patients, of which four are older than the oldest patient reported so far. All reported patients were selected for genetic testing because of developmental delay and/or epilepsy...
July 2017: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659857/a-new-rat-model-of-epileptic-spasms-based-on-methylazoxymethanol-induced-malformations-of-cortical-development
#16
Eun-Hee Kim, Mi-Sun Yum, Minyoung Lee, Eun-Jin Kim, Woo-Hyun Shim, Tae-Sung Ko
Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) can cause medically intractable epilepsies and cognitive disabilities in children. We developed a new model of MCD-associated epileptic spasms by treating rats prenatally with methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) to induce cortical malformations and postnatally with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) to induce spasms. To produce cortical malformations to infant rats, two dosages of MAM (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) were injected to pregnant rats at gestational day 15. In prenatally MAM-exposed rats and the controls, spasms were triggered by single (6 mg/kg on postnatal day 12 (P12) or 10 mg/kg on P13 or 15 mg/kg on P15) or multiple doses (P12, P13, and P15) of NMDA...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622332/comparison-of-monocyte-gene-expression-among-patients-with-neurocysticercosis-associated-epilepsy-idiopathic-epilepsy-and-idiopathic-headaches-in-india
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vasudevan Prabhakaran, Douglas A Drevets, Govindan Ramajayam, Josephine J Manoj, Michael P Anderson, Jay S Hanas, Vedantam Rajshekhar, Anna Oommen, Hélène Carabin
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a neglected tropical disease, inflicts substantial health and economic costs on people living in endemic areas such as India. Nevertheless, accurate diagnosis using brain imaging remains poorly accessible and too costly in endemic countries. The goal of this study was to test if blood monocyte gene expression could distinguish patients with NCC-associated epilepsy, from NCC-negative imaging lesion-free patients presenting with idiopathic epilepsy or idiopathic headaches...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599984/prevention-and-management-of-postoperative-seizures-in-neuro-oncology
#18
F Chassoux, E Landre
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy related to brain tumors is often difficult to treat and may impact the quality of life. We performed a review of current recommendations for the prevention of postoperative seizures and optimizing the anti-epileptic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Based on studies performed since 2000 we conducted the review by (1) analyzing the incidence of tumoral epilepsy and mechanisms of epileptogenicity; (2) describing the current medical and surgical strategy according to oncologic treatments; (3) discussing the management of postoperative seizures; (4) considering the drug withdrawal after oncologic therapy...
June 6, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599256/cirrhosis-patients-stroke-risks-and-adverse-outcomes-two-nationwide-studies
#19
Hsin-Yun Wu, Chao-Shun Lin, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Chaur-Jong Hu, Chun-Chuan Shih, Yih-Giun Cherng, Ta-Liang Chen, Chien-Chang Liao
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between liver cirrhosis (LC) and stroke is not completely understood. Our purpose was to evaluate stroke risk and post-stroke outcomes in patients with LC. METHODS: We identified 6944 adults aged 20 years and older, newly diagnosed with LC, using the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2005. The comparison cohort consisted of 27,776 adults without LC, randomly selected by frequency matching in age and sex...
May 25, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587680/in-vitro-antineoplastic-effects-of-brivaracetam-and-lacosamide-on-human-glioma-cells
#20
Ambra Rizzo, Sara Donzelli, Vita Girgenti, Andrea Sacconi, Chiara Vasco, Andrea Salmaggi, Giovanni Blandino, Marta Maschio, Emilio Ciusani
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a frequent symptom in patients with glioma. Although treatment with antiepileptic drugs is generally effective in controlling seizures, drug-resistant patients are not uncommon. Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) and P-gp are over-represented in brain tissue of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, suggesting their involvement in the clearance of antiepileptic medications. In addition to their anticonvulsant action, some drugs have been documented for cytotoxic effects...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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