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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924712/anticonvulsant-effect-of-dipropofol-by-enhancing-native-gaba-currents-in-cortical-neurons-in-mice
#1
Jingliang Zhang, Xiaoling Chen, Matti Kårbø, Yi Zhao, Long An, Rutao Wang, KeWei Wang, Zhuo Huang
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy disorder, remains a major unmet medical need. Propofol is used as short-acting medication for general anesthesia and refractory status epilepticus with issues of decreased consciousness and memory loss. Dipropofol, a derivative of propofol, has been reported to exert antioxidative and antibacterial activities. Here we report that dipropofol exerted anticonvulsant activity in mouse model of kainic acid-induced seizures. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings of brain slices from the medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) revealed that dipropofol hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential and reduced the number of action potential firings, resulting in suppression of cortical neuronal excitability...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906699/causes-of-mortality-in-early-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Graciane Radaelli, Francisco de Souza Santos, Wyllians Vendramini Borelli, Leonardo Pisani, Magda Lahorgue Nunes, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, Jaderson Costa da Costa
INTRODUCTION: Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy syndrome (EIEE), also known as Ohtahara syndrome, is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy syndrome defined by clinical features and electroencephalographic findings. Epileptic disorders with refractory seizures beginning in the neonatal period and/or early infancy have a potential risk of premature mortality, including sudden death. We aimed to identify the causes of death in EIEE and conducted a literature survey of fatal outcomes...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898974/practice-guideline-update-summary-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-ii-treatment-resistant-epilepsy-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology-and-the-american
#3
Andres M Kanner, Eric Ashman, David Gloss, Cynthia Harden, Blaise Bourgeois, Jocelyn F Bautista, Bassel Abou-Khalil, Evren Burakgazi-Dalkilic, Esmeralda Llanas Park, John Stern, Deborah Hirtz, Mark Nespeca, Barry Gidal, Edward Faught, Jacqueline French
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology guideline for managing treatment-resistant (TR) epilepsy with second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: 2004 criteria were used to systemically review literature (January 2003 to November 2015), classify pertinent studies according to the therapeutic rating scheme, and link recommendations to evidence strength. RESULTS: Forty-two articles were included. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following are established as effective to reduce seizure frequency (Level A): immediate-release pregabalin and perampanel for TR adult focal epilepsy (TRAFE); vigabatrin for TRAFE (not first-line treatment); rufinamide for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) (add-on therapy)...
June 13, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894004/generic-antiepileptic-drugs-safe-or-harmful-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#4
Martin Holtkamp, William H Theodore
Generic antiepileptic drugs (AED) are significantly cheaper than brand name drugs, and may reduce overall health care expenditures. Regulatory bodies in Europe and North America require bioequivalence between generic and innovator drugs with regard to area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak plasma concentration (Cmax ); strict cutoff values have been defined. The main issue is if bioequivalence ensures therapeutic equivalence. Are switches from brand to generic, or between generic AEDs entirely safe or potentially harmful in patients with epilepsy? We summarized and evaluated the available evidence from bioequivalence, health care utilization, and clinical studies on safety of generic AEDs...
June 12, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879920/highly-selective-sglt2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-reduces-seizure-activity-in-pentylenetetrazol-induced-murine-model-of-epilepsy
#5
Mumin Alper Erdogan, Dimas Yusuf, Joanna Christy, Volkan Solmaz, Arife Erdogan, Emin Taskiran, Oytun Erbas
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over 10 million individuals suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy. New therapeutic strategies are needed to address this debilitating disease. Inhibition of sodium-glucose linked transporters (SGLTs), which are variably expressed in the brain, has been demonstrated to reduce seizure activity in murine models of epilepsy. Here we investigated the effects of dapagliflozin, a highly competitive SGLT2 inhibitor currently used as a drug for diabetes mellitus, on seizure activity in rats with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizures...
June 7, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875648/brain-code-a-secure-neuroinformatics-platform-for-management-federation-sharing-and-analysis-of-multi-dimensional-neuroscience-data
#6
Anthony L Vaccarino, Moyez Dharsee, Stephen Strother, Don Aldridge, Stephen R Arnott, Brendan Behan, Costas Dafnas, Fan Dong, Kenneth Edgecombe, Rachad El-Badrawi, Khaled El-Emam, Tom Gee, Susan G Evans, Mojib Javadi, Francis Jeanson, Shannon Lefaivre, Kristen Lutz, F Chris MacPhee, Jordan Mikkelsen, Tom Mikkelsen, Nicholas Mirotchnick, Tanya Schmah, Christa M Studzinski, Donald T Stuss, Elizabeth Theriault, Kenneth R Evans
Historically, research databases have existed in isolation with no practical avenue for sharing or pooling medical data into high dimensional datasets that can be efficiently compared across databases. To address this challenge, the Ontario Brain Institute's "Brain-CODE" is a large-scale neuroinformatics platform designed to support the collection, storage, federation, sharing and analysis of different data types across several brain disorders, as a means to understand common underlying causes of brain dysfunction and develop novel approaches to treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799616/associations-between-periodic-social-events-and-status-epilepticus-an-11-year-cohort-study
#7
Alexa Hollinger, Saskia Semmlack, Gian Marco De Marchis, Rainer Spiegel, Sabina Hunziker, Stephan Rüegg, Stephan Marsch, Raoul Sutter
OBJECTIVES: Periodic social events may influence the incidence and course of status epilepticus (SE), likely explained by patients' behavioral changes regarding alcohol intake, sleep, and compliance with antiseizure medication. However, data regarding the association between such events and SE are lacking. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify associations between periodic social events and the incidence, etiology, and outcome of SE. METHODS: Adult patients who were admitted to a tertiary academic medical care center with SE from 2005 to 2015 were included...
May 25, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796351/multimodal-imaging-in-extratemporal-epilepsy-surgery
#8
Christian Vollmar, Aurelia Peraud, Soheyl Noachtar
Neuroimaging is crucial for the evaluation of patients considered for resective epilepsy surgery. Multimodal image fusion is a new tool to integrate all available localizing information on the individual epileptogenic network in a three-dimensional (3D) manner to plan invasive EEG recordings and delineate the epileptogenic zone from the eloquent cortex for the neurosurgical planning of a tailored resection. Here, we illustrate the multimodal fusion of images from different modalities in a patient with medically intractable non-lesional frontal lobe epilepsy who underwent partial frontal lobe resection, rendering him seizure-free...
March 18, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791724/resolving-ambiguities-in-sudep-classification
#9
Orrin Devinsky, Elizabeth Bundock, Dale Hesdorffer, Elizabeth Donner, Brian Moseley, Esma Cihan, Fizza Hussain, Daniel Friedman
OBJECTIVE: To examine the consistency of applying the Nashef et al (2012) criteria to classify sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). METHODS: We reviewed cases from the North American SUDEP Registry (n = 250) and Medical Examiner Offices (n = 1301: 698 Maryland, 457 New York City, 146 San Diego). Two epileptologists with expertise in SUDEP and epilepsy-related mortality independently reviewed medical records, scene investigation, autopsy, and toxicology and assigned a SUDEP class...
May 23, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786810/-epilepsy-and-comorbid-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#10
Viviann Nordin, Ingrid B Olsson, Torbjörn Tomson
In children and adults with epilepsy, it is important to be aware of and diagnose common comorbidities that may have a large impact on quality of life. Comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders include intellectual disability, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Depression and anxiety are common findings, and also the risk of psychosis is increased. The medication used to treat these comorbidities is found to be effective with little risks of seizure exacerbation, i.e. medication with methylphenidate, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and second generation neuroleptics...
May 22, 2018: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783981/implementing-integrated-services-for-people-with-epilepsy-in-primary-care-in-ethiopia-a-qualitative-study
#11
Raquel Catalao, Tigist Eshetu, Ruth Tsigebrhan, Girmay Medhin, Abebaw Fekadu, Charlotte Hanlon
BACKGROUND: In order to tackle the considerable treatment gap for epilepsy in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a task sharing model is recommended whereby care is integrated into primary health services. However, there are limited data on implementation and impact of such services in LMICs. Our study aimed to explore the perspectives of service users and caregivers on the accessibility, experience and perceived impact of epilepsy treatment received in a task-shared model in a rural district of Ethiopia...
May 21, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780310/mobile-software-as-a-medical-device-samd-for-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-development-of-digital-therapeutics-comprising-behavioral-and-music-based-interventions-for-neurological-disorders
#12
Pegah Afra, Carol S Bruggers, Matthew Sweney, Lilly Fagatele, Fareeha Alavi, Michael Greenwald, Merodean Huntsman, Khanhly Nguyen, Jeremiah K Jones, David Shantz, Grzegorz Bulaj
Digital health technologies for people with epilepsy (PWE) include internet-based resources and mobile apps for seizure management. Since non-pharmacological interventions, such as listening to specific Mozart's compositions, cognitive therapy, psychosocial and educational interventions were shown to reduce epileptic seizures, these modalities can be integrated into mobile software and delivered by mobile medical apps as digital therapeutics. Herein, we describe: (1) a survey study among PWE about preferences to use mobile software for seizure control, (2) a rationale for developing digital therapies for epilepsy, (3) creation of proof-of-concept mobile software intended for use as an adjunct digital therapeutic to reduce seizures, and (4) broader applications of digital therapeutics for the treatment of epilepsy and other chronic disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778017/the-preconception-care-experiences-of-women-with-epilepsy-on-sodium-valproate
#13
Lorna Lawther, Helen Dolk, Marlene Sinclair, Jim Morrow
PURPOSE: To understand the preconception experiences of women with epilepsy who have been taking the teratogenic drug valproate. METHODS: Seven women were recruited, three from a preconception clinic and four from an antenatal clinic in a region of the UK. All had taken valproate preconceptionally. Three preconception clinic encounters were observed and audio-recorded. Interviews with all women were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Women experienced a "trajectory of balance"...
May 16, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753573/impact-of-prior-authorization-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-children-with-epilepsy
#14
Elaine C Wirrell, Alexander J Vanderwiel, Lauren Nickels, Saskia L Vanderwiel, Katherine C Nickels
OBJECTIVE: We assessed how commonly prior authorization results in treatment delay or missed doses in children with epilepsy. METHODS: Parents of 462 children followed in a pediatric epilepsy clinic were surveyed regarding prior authorization in the preceding year. Epilepsy and insurance details were collected. If prior authorization was required, parents were asked whether it resulted in (1) delayed initiation of a newly-prescribed antiepileptic drug, and/or (2) lapse in coverage of a current medication...
April 3, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739726/new-onset-seizures-in-a-patient-with-long-qt-syndrome-lqts2-and-a-pathogenic-carboxyl-terminus-frameshift-variant-of-the-kcnh2-gene
#15
Katherine Zarroli, Henry Querfurth
In patients with Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), mutations in the potassium channel KCNH2 gene increase seizure susceptibility with missense mutations involving the pore region of the gene acting as a positive predictor of seizures. Seizures are less commonly reported in patients with carboxyl (C')-terminus mutations. This case report describes a young man who presented with syncope followed by a first seizure and was found to have LQTS caused by a pathogenic carboxyl-terminus deletion/frameshifting mutation of the KCNH2 gene...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708182/neurologist-patient-communication-about-epilepsy-in-the-united-states-spain-and-germany
#16
John M Stern, Fernando Cendes, Frank Gilliam, Patrick Kwan, Philippe Ryvlin, Joseph Sirven, Brien Smith, Aleksandra Adomas, Lauren Walter
Background: Effective communication between patients and their health care providers is recognized as critically important to improve the quality of health services for individuals with epilepsy. We aimed to describe in-office neurologist-patient conversations about epilepsy and focus on disease identification, shared decision-making, and care planning. Methods: Transcripts and audio recordings of conversations between patients and neurologists in the United States, Spain, and Germany were analyzed linguistically in the topic areas of epilepsy identification and diagnosis, disease education, treatments, and care planning...
April 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691835/rufinamide-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-epilepsy
#17
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often requiring treatment with a combination of AEDs. In this review, we summarised the current evidence regarding rufinamide, a novel anticonvulsant medication, which, as a triazole derivative, is structurally unrelated to any other currently used anticonvulsant medication, when used as an add-on treatment for refractory epilepsy...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689391/risk-factors-for-in-hospital-seizures-and-new-onset-epilepsy-in-coil-embolization-of-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
Suresh K Nathan, Indraneel S Brahme, Ahmed I Kashkoush, Katherine Anetakis, Brian T Jankowitz, Parthasarathy D Thirumala
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine risk factors for inpatient seizures and long-term epilepsy in patients receiving coil embolization for aneurysm-associated subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for patients admitted to the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center from 2010 to 2014 for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Only patients with coil embolization were included. Variables such as subdural hematoma, cerebral infarction, postoperative vasospasm, cerebral edema, and mass effect were collected...
April 22, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681488/brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-as-a-prognostic-factor-for-neurological-outcome
#19
Minsun Kwak, Mi-Sun Yum, Hye-Ryun Yeh, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Sung Ko
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to predict the neurological outcomes of patients with congenital cytomegalovirus infection by analysis of magnetic resonance images of the brain. METHODS: From June 2007 to June 2016, 31 patients were diagnosed with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection at Asan Medical Center. The medical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of these patients were reviewed, and the relationships between MRI findings and neurological outcomes were analyzed...
June 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623027/preclinical-to-clinical-translation-of-studies-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#20
Gabriela G Regner, Patrícia Pereira, Douglas T Leffa, Carla de Oliveira, Rafael Vercelino, Felipe Fregni, Iraci L S Torres
Epilepsy is a chronic brain syndrome characterized by recurrent seizures resulting from excessive neuronal discharges. Despite the development of various new antiepileptic drugs, many patients are refractory to treatment and report side effects. Non-invasive methods of brain stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been tested as alternative approaches to directly modulate the excitability of epileptogenic neural circuits. Although some pilot and initial clinical studies have shown positive results, there is still uncertainty regarding the next steps of investigation in this field...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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