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New medications for epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932863/non-imidazole-based-histamine-h3-receptor-antagonists-with-anticonvulsant-activity-in-different-seizure-models-in-male-adult-rats
#1
Bassem Sadek, Ali Saad, Gniewomir Latacz, Kamil Kuder, Agnieszka Olejarz, Tadeusz Karcz, Holger Stark, Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz
A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3-14) was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R). The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3-14) tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915398/the-interactive-electrode-localization-utility-software-for-automatic-sorting-and-labeling-of-intracranial-subdural-electrodes
#2
Roan A LaPlante, Wei Tang, Noam Peled, Deborah I Vallejo, Mia Borzello, Darin D Dougherty, Emad N Eskandar, Alik S Widge, Sydney S Cash, Steven M Stufflebeam
PURPOSE: Existing methods for sorting, labeling, registering, and across-subject localization of electrodes in intracranial encephalography (iEEG) may involve laborious work requiring manual inspection of radiological images. METHODS: We describe a new open-source software package, the interactive electrode localization utility which presents a full pipeline for the registration, localization, and labeling of iEEG electrodes from CT and MR images. In addition, we describe a method to automatically sort and label electrodes from subdural grids of known geometry...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913075/the-photosensitivity-model-is-not-a-model-for-partial-focal-seizures-rebuttal
#3
Roger J Porter
New, more effective and less toxic medications are desperately needed for patients with partial (focal) epilepsy. Many hurdles prevent the appropriate study of promising compounds. One of these hurdles is the gap between Phase I and Phase II-the expensive proof of concept to suggest that human trials in partial seizure patients will be successful. A short-cut, the photoparoxysmal response (PPR) model has recently been used to increase confidence in moving a compound into Phase II and III. This shortcut has substantial limitations...
November 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908525/the-photosensitivity-model-is-not-a-model-for-partial-focal-seizures
#4
Roger J Porter
New, more effective and less toxic medications are desperately needed for patients with partial (focal) epilepsy. Many hurdles prevent the appropriate study of promising compounds. One of these hurdles is the difficult gap between Phase I and Phase II-the expensive proof of concept to suggest that human trials in partial seizure patients will be successful. A short-cut, the photoparoxysmal response (PPR) model has recently been used to increase confidence in moving a compound into Phase II and III (K-N Trenite et al...
November 22, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861775/prevalence-of-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-in-people-30-years-of-age-a-population-based-study-in-norway
#5
Marte Syvertsen, Morten Kristoffer Hellum, Gunnar Hansen, Astrid Edland, Karl Otto Nakken, Kaja Kristine Selmer, Jeanette Koht
OBJECTIVE: Despite juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) being considered one of the most common epilepsies, population-based prevalence studies of JME are lacking. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of JME in a Norwegian county, using updated diagnostic criteria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, based on reviews of the medical records of all patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy at Drammen Hospital in the period 1999-2013. The study population consisted of 98,152 people <30 years of age...
November 16, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855438/how-to-prevent-depression-current-directions-and-future-challenges-in-children-with-chronic-medical-conditions
#6
Anna Felnhofer, Oswald D Kothgassner, Claudia Klier
With its high rates of chronicity and concomitant economic costs to society, depression ranges among the most prevalent mental disorders. Several trials have succeeded in demonstrating the beneficial effects of early depression prevention programs for otherwise healthy children and adolescents. However, comparable programs for children and adolescents with a medical condition are still scarce. This paper discusses the situation of chronically ill children and adolescents who are at risk of developing comorbid depressive symptoms using the example of three conditions frequently encountered in pediatric psychosomatic medicine: diabetes, epilepsy and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
December 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837191/age-associated-physiological-and-pathological-changes-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Franciska Erdő, László Denes, Elizabeth de Lange
The age-associated decline of the neurological and cognitive functions becomes more and more serious challenge for the developed countries with the increasing number of aged populations. The morphological and biochemical changes in the aging brain are the subjects of many extended research projects worldwide for a long time. However, the crucial role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment and disruption in the pathological processes in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders received special attention just for a few years...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779300/-results-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-a-national-epilepsy-referral-centre
#8
P Roldan-Ramos, L A Reyes-Figueroa, J Rumia, E Martinez-Lizana, A Donaire, M Carreno-Martinez
AIM: To describe clinical results and complications derived from vagal nerve stimulation therapy in drug resistant epileptic patients unsuitable for other surgical treatments, since the first implant in an epilepsy national referral centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the patients implanted in our centre was held. Data related to baseline characteristics of their epilepsy and therapy complications was collected. RESULTS: 32 new implants in 31 patients are included, mean age of 34 years, 29...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773903/efficacy-of-potassium-bromide-in-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy-a-case-of-new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus
#9
Jun Takei, Ran Takei, Satoshi Nozuma, Keiichi Nakahara, Osamu Watanabe, Hiroshi Takashima
A 40-year-old man presented with a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after febrile illness. He developed status epilepticus and required mechanical ventilation with anesthetics. Steroid pulse, intravenous immunoglobulin, and immunoadsorption therapy were administrated, and the status epilepticus improved; however, drug-resistant seizures remained. Despite the use of several antiepileptic drugs, seizures frequently occurred. Additional administration of potassium bromide resulted in significant suppression of seizures...
November 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768751/chronology-of-onset-of-mental-disorders-and-physical-diseases-in-mental-physical-comorbidity-a-national-representative-survey-of-adolescents
#10
Marion Tegethoff, Esther Stalujanis, Angelo Belardi, Gunther Meinlschmidt
BACKGROUND: The objective was to estimate temporal associations between mental disorders and physical diseases in adolescents with mental-physical comorbidities. METHODS: This article bases upon weighted data (N = 6483) from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (participant age: 13-18 years), a nationally representative United States cohort. Onset of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition lifetime mental disorders was assessed with the fully structured World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, complemented by parent report...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757065/personalized-prescribing-a-new-medical-model-for-clinical-implementation-of-psychotropic-drugs
#11
Chin B Eap
The use of pharmacogenetic tests was already being proposed in psychiatry in the early 2000s because genetic factors were known to influence drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. However, sufficient levels of evidence to justify routine use have been achieved for only a few tests (eg, major histocompatibility complex, class I, B, allele 1502 [HLA-B*1502] for carbamazepine in epilepsy and bipolar disorders); many findings are too preliminary or, when replicated, of low clinical relevance because of a small effect size...
September 2016: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753696/antiepileptic-drugs-under-investigation-for-treatment-of-focal-epilepsy
#12
Pasquale Striano, Vincenzo Belcastro, Antonietta Coppola, Carlo Minetti, Salvatore Striano
INTRODUCTION: Despite optimal medical treatment, up to 30% of patients with epilepsy continue to experience recurrent seizures, and the challenge for new more efficacious and better-tolerated drugs is continuing. New antiepileptic drugs include the evolution of preexisting drugs and new compounds identified through the investigation of additional molecular targets, such as SV2A synaptic vesicle protein, voltage-gated potassium channels, ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, and gap junctions...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747606/classification-of-epileptic-eeg-signals-based-on-simple-random-sampling-and-sequential-feature-selection
#13
Hadi Ratham Al Ghayab, Yan Li, Shahab Abdulla, Mohammed Diykh, Xiangkui Wan
Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data...
June 2016: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738382/maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-after-lamotrigine-use-in-pregnancy-a-retrospective-analysis-from-an-urban-maternal-mental-health-centre-in-new-zealand
#14
Chandni Prakash, Susan Hatters-Friedman, Charmian Moller-Olsen, Abigail North
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy is a vulnerable period for recurrence of bipolar disorder. Discontinuation of mood stabilisers during pregnancy and the postpartum period can significantly increase the risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder. Lamotrigine is an anti-epileptic drug that has been approved for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Epilepsy literature has indicated that lamotrigine has a reassuring safety profile in pregnancy but there is little information on its effectiveness and safety in pregnant women with mental disorders...
August 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725659/rare-deleterious-mutations-are-associated-with-disease-in-bipolar-disorder-families
#15
A R Rao, M Yourshaw, B Christensen, S F Nelson, B Kerner
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common, complex and heritable psychiatric disorder characterized by episodes of severe mood swings. The identification of rare, damaging genomic mutations in families with BD could inform about disease mechanisms and lead to new therapeutic interventions. To determine whether rare, damaging mutations shared identity-by-descent in families with BD could be associated with disease, exome sequencing was performed in multigenerational families of the NIMH BD Family Study followed by in silico functional prediction...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703369/multidisciplinary-rehabilitation-for-patients-with-cerebral-palsy-improving-long-term-care
#16
Antonio Trabacca, Teresa Vespino, Antonella Di Liddo, Luigi Russo
Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most frequent causes of child disability in developed countries. Children with CP need lifelong assistance and care. The current prevalence of CP in industrialized countries ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 per 1,000 live births, with one new case every 500 live births. Children with CP have an almost normal life expectancy and mortality is very low. Despite the low mortality rate, 5%-10% of them die during childhood, especially when the severe motor disability is comorbid with epilepsy and severe intellectual disability...
2016: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688898/discussing-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-are-we-empowering-our-patients-a-questionnaire-survey
#17
S Keddie, H Angus-Leppan, T Parker, S Toescu, A Nash, O Adewunmi, Rsn Liu
OBJECTIVE: To examine patient knowledge about sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) compared to other risks in epilepsy. To explore patients' experiences surrounding SUDEP disclosure and opinions on how information should be delivered. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire. SETTING: Royal Free Hospital, London outpatient epilepsy clinics. PARTICIPANTS: New and follow-up patients attending epilepsy clinics at a London teaching hospital over six months...
September 2016: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665729/new-smarca2-mutation-in-a-patient-with-nicolaides-baraitser-syndrome-and-myoclonic-astatic-epilepsy
#18
S Tang, E Hughes, K Lascelles, M A Simpson, D K Pal
We report a de novo SMARCA2 missense mutation discovered on exome sequencing in a patient with myoclonic astatic epilepsy, leading to reassessment and identification of Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome. This de novo SMARCA2 missense mutation c.3721C>G, p.Gln1241Glu is the only reported mutation on exon 26 outside the ATPase domain of SMARCA2 to be associated with Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome and adds to chromatin remodeling as a pathway for epileptogenesis. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650530/adenosine-a2a-receptor-and-ecto-5-nucleotidase-cd73-are-upregulated-in-hippocampal-astrocytes-of-human-patients-with-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-mtle
#19
Aurora R Barros-Barbosa, Fátima Ferreirinha, Ângela Oliveira, Marina Mendes, M Graça Lobo, Agostinho Santos, Rui Rangel, Julie Pelletier, Jean Sévigny, J Miguel Cordeiro, Paulo Correia-de-Sá
Refractoriness to existing medications of up to 80 % of the patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) prompts for finding new antiepileptic drug targets. The adenosine A2A receptor emerges as an interesting pharmacological target since its excitatory nature partially counteracts the dominant antiepileptic role of endogenous adenosine acting via inhibitory A1 receptors. Gain of function of the excitatory A2A receptor has been implicated in a significant number of brain pathologies commonly characterized by neuronal excitotoxicity...
September 20, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646715/long-term-outcome-of-medically-treated-epilepsy
#20
M Sillanpää, D Schmidt
PURPOSE: To review the long-term outcome of epilepsy in population-based studies. METHOD: Analysis of population-based studies. RESULTS: About two of three patients with new-onset epilepsy will, in the long run, enter five-year terminal remission. Chances for remission are best for those with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy. It is unclear whether the seizure outcome has improved over the last several decades. Social outcome, however, may have become better because of the improved level of knowledge on and public attitudes toward people with epilepsy, and possibly fewer prejudices at home, daycare, school, military and labor market...
September 9, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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