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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532713/electroencephalography-after-a-single-unprovoked-seizure
#1
REVIEW
Derek B Debicki
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation of seizure disorders. In particular, EEG is used as an additional investigation for a single unprovoked seizure. Epileptiform abnormalities are related to seizure disorders and have been shown to predict recurrent unprovoked seizures (i.e., a clinical definition of epilepsy). Thus, the identification of epileptiform abnormalities after a single unprovoked seizure can inform treatment options. The current review addresses the relationship between EEG abnormalities and seizure recurrence...
April 25, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528670/glycine-receptor-drug-discovery
#2
Joseph W Lynch, Yan Zhang, Sahil Talwar, Argel Estrada-Mondragon
Postsynaptic glycine receptor (GlyR) chloride channels mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and brain stem, although presynaptic and extrasynaptic GlyRs are expressed more widely throughout the brain. In humans, GlyRs are assembled as homo- or heteromeric pentamers of α1-3 and β subunits. GlyR malfunctions have been linked to a range of neurological disorders including hyperekplexia, temporal lobe epilepsy, autism, breathing disorders, and chronic inflammatory pain. Although it is possible that GlyRs may eventually be clinically targeted for a variety of neurological disorders, most research to date has focused on developing GlyR-targeted treatments for chronic pain...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521671/the-anticonvulsant-effects-of-ketogenic-diet-on%C3%A2-epileptic-seizures-and-potential-mechanisms
#3
Yifan Zhang, Jingwei Xu, Yingchao Zhang, Wei Yang, Bingjin Li
Epilepsy is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurologic disorders with characteristics of epileptic seizures. Although the multitude of anticonvulsant drugs has been developed, recurrent epileptic seizures remain intractable and contribute to the serious morbidity worldwide. Recently, increasing studies have established the beneficial effects of ketogenic diet (KD) on epileptic seizure reduction. Both basic experiments and clinical trials demonstrated that KD significantly reduced seizure frequency with mild adverse effects...
May 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521115/anticonvulsant-profile-of-the-neuroactive-steroid-sge-516-in-animal-models
#4
Rebecca S Hammond, Alison L Althaus, Michael A Ackley, Carla Maciag, Gabriel Martinez Botella, Francesco G Salituro, Albert J Robichaud, James J Doherty
Despite the availability of multiple antiepileptic drugs (AED), failure to adequately control seizures is a challenge for approximately one third of epilepsy patients, and new therapies with a differentiated mechanism of action are needed. The neuroactive steroid, SGE-516, is a positive allosteric modulator of both gamma- and delta-containing GABAA receptors. This broad GABAA receptor activity differentiates neuroactive steroids like SGE-516 from benzodiazepines, a class of anticonvulsants which have been shown in vitro to selectively target gamma-subunit containing GABAA receptors...
May 7, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521067/antiepileptic-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-infants-with-severe-myoclonic-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Brigo, Stanley C Igwe, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2015, Issue 10.Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infants (SMEI), also known as Dravet syndrome, is a rare, refractory form of epilepsy, for which stiripentol (STP) has been recently licensed as add-on therapy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of STP and other antiepileptic drug treatments (including ketogenic diet) for patients with SMEI. SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update we searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register (20 December 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online (CRSO, 20 December 2016), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 20 December 2016) and ClinicalTrials...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508994/disease-modifying-effects-of-neural-regeneration-peptide-2945-in-the-gaers-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#6
Gabi Dezsi, Frank Sieg, Mark Thomas, Terence J O'Brien, Marieke van der Hart, Nigel C Jones
Epilepsy is a common neurological condition characterised by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Current anti-epileptic drugs are only effective and tolerated in ~70% of patients, leaving a substantial proportion of patients untreated. As such, there is a pressing need to develop new therapies. We assessed the anti-seizure activity of Neural Regeneration Peptide 2945 (NRP 2945) in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy. Drug effects on seizures were assessed using two study designs. Male adult GAERS were implanted with EEG electrodes to measure seizure frequency...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508312/trpc-channels-and-programmed-cell-death
#7
Jian Zhou, Yichang Jia
Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), bind to their high-affinity receptors to promote neuronal survival during brain development. One of the key downstream pathways is the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway, which not only plays a central role in calcium release from internal store but also in activation of TRPC channels coupled with neurotrophin receptors. TRPC channels are required for the neurotrophin-mediated neuronal protective effects. In addition, activation of TRPC channels is able to protect neurons in the absence of neurotrophin...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504953/adaptive-seizure-onset-detection-framework-using-a-hybrid-pca-csp-approach
#8
Sina Khanmohammadi, Chun-An Chou
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in the world. Prompt detection of seizure onset from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can improve the treatment of epileptic patients. This paper presents a new adaptive patientspecific seizure onset detection framework that dynamically selects a feature from enhanced EEG signals to discriminate seizures from normal brain activity. The proposed framework employs principle component analysis (PCA) and common spatial patterns (CSP) to enhance the EEG signals and uses the extracted discriminative feature as an input for adaptive distance-based change point detector to identify the seizure onsets...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497044/predicting-the-types-of-ion-channel-targeted-conotoxins-based-on-avc-svm-model
#9
Wang Xianfang, Wang Junmei, Wang Xiaolei, Zhang Yue
The conotoxin proteins are disulfide-rich small peptides. Predicting the types of ion channel-targeted conotoxins has great value in the treatment of chronic diseases, epilepsy, and cardiovascular diseases. To solve the problem of information redundancy existing when using current methods, a new model is presented to predict the types of ion channel-targeted conotoxins based on AVC (Analysis of Variance and Correlation) and SVM (Support Vector Machine). First, the F value is used to measure the significance level of the feature for the result, and the attribute with smaller F value is filtered by rough selection...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486926/5-ht3-receptors-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-epilepsy
#10
Hongyan Zhao, Pu Wang, Shurui Chen, Xin Li, Hongliang Huo
Epilepsy is a syndrome of brain dysfunction caused by spontaneous, abnormal discharge. Many anti-epileptic drugs have developed in past decades. 5-HT is an important neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of the human body which is involved in a number of physiological activities, such as sensation, movement, and behavior. 5-HT subtype have been divided into seven sub-groups from 5-HT1 to 5HT7. An increasing number of studies have shown that the activation of the 5-HT3 receptor can inhibit epileptic seizures, while inhibition of the 5HT3 receptor can promote spike waves...
May 8, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481729/anticonvulsant-drugs-for-generalized-tonic-clonic-epilepsy
#11
Giangennaro Coppola, Alessandra Piccorossi, Francesca Felicia Operto, Alberto Verrotti
Primary generalized tonic clonic seizures (pGTCS) are still linked to major concerns for the clinic and hazards for patients suffering from idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), so a quick search of the most effective and appropriate therapy is needed to control them. The key criteria for proper treatment are syndromic diagnosis and distinction between newly diagnosed and refractory patients. Other criteria include age, gender and comorbidities. Areas covered: Treatment for pGTCS has expanded in the last two years, with new antiepileptic drugs like perampanel joining valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, topiramate, while further evidence-based data are required for zonisamide and lacosamide...
May 8, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479855/the-genetic-relationship-between-epilepsy-and-hemiplegic-migraine
#12
REVIEW
Yiqing Huang, Hai Xiao, Xingyue Qin, Yuan Nong, Donghua Zou, Yuan Wu
Epilepsy and migraine are common diseases of the nervous system and share genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms. Familial hemiplegic migraine is an autosomal dominant disease. It is often used as a model of migraine. Four genes often contain one or more mutations in both epilepsy and hemiplegic migraine patients (ie, CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A, and PRRT2). A better understanding of the shared genetics of epilepsy and hemiplegic migraine may reveal new strategic directions for research and treatment of both the disorders...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468601/anticonvulsant-activity-of-caryocar-coriaceum-wittm-fixed-pulp-oil-against-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures
#13
Cleide Correia Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos Oliveira, Jéssica Grigoletto, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Vinícius Rafael Funck, Letícia Meier, Michele Rechia Fighera, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Ana Flávia Furian, Irwin Rose Alencar Menezes, Mauro Schneider Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy is a common brain disease and a major worldwide public health problem. The seizures in a significant number of patients suffering from epilepsy remain inadequately controlled by currently available pharmacological treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for the discovery of new anticonvulsant approaches with improved efficacy and a better safety profile. In this context, natural products can be a valuable source of substances with potential anticonvulsant activity...
May 3, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462454/the-national-institute-of-neurological-disorders-and-stroke-ninds-epilepsy-therapy-screening-program-etsp
#14
John H Kehne, Brian D Klein, Shamsi Raeissi, Shalini Sharma
For over 40 years, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/National Institutes of Health-funded Anticonvulsant Screening Program has provided a preclinical screening service for participants world-wide that helped identify/characterize new antiseizure compounds, a number of which advanced to the market for the treatment of epilepsy. The newly-renamed Epilepsy Therapy Screening Program (ETSP) has a refocused mission to identify novel agents which will help address the considerable remaining unmet medical needs in epilepsy...
May 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458341/the-role-of-mpges-1-in-inflammatory-brain-diseases
#15
Yuri Ikeda-Matsuo
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been thought to be an important mediator of inflammation in peripheral tissues, but recent studies clearly show the involvement of PGE2 in inflammatory brain diseases. In some animal models of brain disease, the genetic disruption and chemical inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 resulted in the reduction of PGE2 and amelioration of symptoms, and it had been thought that PGE2 produced by COX-2 may be involved in the progression of injuries. However, COX-2 produces not only PGE2, but also some other prostanoids, and thus the protective effects of COX-2 inhibition, as well as severe side effects, may be caused by the inhibition of prostanoids other than PGE2...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456162/long-term-variability-of-importance-of-brain-regions-in-evolving-epileptic-brain-networks
#16
Christian Geier, Klaus Lehnertz
We investigate the temporal and spatial variability of the importance of brain regions in evolving epileptic brain networks. We construct these networks from multiday, multichannel electroencephalographic data recorded from 17 epilepsy patients and use centrality indices to assess the importance of brain regions. Time-resolved indications of highest importance fluctuate over time to a greater or lesser extent, however, with some periodic temporal structure that can mostly be attributed to phenomena unrelated to the disease...
April 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452614/outcomes-after-hemispherectomy-in-adult-patients-with-intractable-epilepsy-institutional-experience-and-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#17
Courtney M Schusse, Kris Smith, Cornelia Drees
OBJECTIVE Hemispherectomy is a surgical technique that is established as a standard treatment in appropriately selected patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. It has proven to be successful in pediatric patients with unilateral hemispheric lesions but is underutilized in adults. This study retrospectively evaluated the clinical outcomes after hemispherectomy in adult patients with refractory epilepsy. METHODS This study examined 6 cases of hemispherectomy in adult patients at Barrow Neurological Institute. In addition, all case series of hemispherectomy in adult patients were identified through a literature review using MEDLINE and PubMed...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441341/a-long-term-treatment-with-arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide-combined-with-valproate-increases-neurogenesis-in-a-mouse-pilocarpine-model-of-epilepsy
#18
Marta Andres-Mach, Mirosław Zagaja, Agnieszka Haratym-Maj, Radosław Rola, Maciej Maj, Joanna Haratym, Monika Dudra-Jastrzębska, Jarogniew J Łuszczki
Rational polytherapy in the treatment of refractory epilepsy has been the main therapeutic modality for several years. In treatment with two or more antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), it is of particular importance that AEDs be selected based on their high anticonvulsant properties, minimal side effects, and impact on the formation of new neurons. The aim of the study was to conduct an in vivo evaluation of the relationship between treatments with synthetic cannabinoid arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) alone or in combination with valproic acid (VPA) and hippocampal neurogenesis in a mouse pilocarpine model of epilepsy...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438505/turning-down-the-volume-astrocyte-volume-change-in-the-generation-and-termination-of-epileptic-seizures
#19
REVIEW
Thomas R Murphy, Devin K Binder, Todd A Fiacco
Approximately 1% of the global population suffers from epilepsy, a class of disorders characterized by recurrent and unpredictable seizures. Of these cases roughly one-third are refractory to current antiepileptic drugs, which typically target neuronal excitability directly. The events leading to seizure generation and epileptogenesis remain largely unknown, hindering development of new treatments. Some recent experimental models of epilepsy have provided compelling evidence that glial cells, especially astrocytes, could be central to seizure development...
April 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437319/quality-of-antiepileptic-treatment-among-older-medicare-beneficiaries-with-epilepsy-a-retrospective-claims-data-analysis
#20
Maria Pisu, Joshua Richman, Kendra Piper, Roy Martin, Ellen Funkhouser, Chen Dai, Lucia Juarez, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Edward Faught
BACKGROUND: Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EI-AEDs) are not recommended for older adults with epilepsy. Quality Indicator for Epilepsy Treatment 9 (QUIET-9) states that new patients should not receive EI-AEDs as first line of treatment. In light of reported racial/ethnic disparities in epilepsy care, we investigated EI-AED use and QUIET-9 concordance across major racial/ethnic groups of Medicare beneficiaries. RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries 67 years old and above in 2009 augmented for minority representation...
April 21, 2017: Medical Care
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