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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145183/catastrophe-reaction-and-emotionalism
#1
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
The catastrophic reaction (CR; a disruptive and uncontrolled behavior triggered by anger, irritability, and hostility) and emotionalism (a condition of uncontrolled crying or laughing) are disorders of the emotional regulation and expression, the prevalence of which is underestimated in neurology. Their occurrence is an additional factor of poor outcome for neurologic patients. Although they have been recognized and completely described in their clinical manifestations more than a century ago, many issues remain unsolved regarding their pathogenesis and the respective role of the brain damage and psychological factors...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141310/-analysis-of-gene-mutation-of-early-onset-epileptic-spasm-with-unknown-reason
#2
X Yang, G Pan, W H Li, L M Zhang, B B Wu, H J Wang, P Zhang, S Z Zhou
Objective: To summarize the gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason. Method: In this prospective study, data of patients with early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason were collected from neurological department of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between March 2016 and December 2016. Patients with known disorders such as infection, metabolic, structural, immunological problems and known genetic mutations were excluded. Patients with genetic disease that can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and phenotypic characteristics were also excluded...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140112/a-2017-review-of-pharmacotherapy-for-treating-focal-epilepsy-where-are-we-now-and-how-will-treatment-develop
#3
Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
Focal epilepsy is the most common type of epilepsy with approximately 30 million patients affected worldwide. There is a major challenge to develop new antiepileptic treatments as currently approximately one third of patients remain uncontrolled under our best standards of care. Areas covered: An overview is given on first- and second generation antiepileptic drugs and their mechanisms of action, and on recent new strategies for antiepileptic targets, including drugs aiming at disease modification. Expert opinion: Newer antiepileptic drugs have enabled a better tolerated and individualized treatment for many patients...
November 15, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134855/model-based-sensitivity-analysis-for-outcome-reporting-bias-in-the-meta-analysis-of-benefit-and-harm-outcomes
#4
John Copas, Anthony Marson, Paula Williamson, Jamie Kirkham
Outcome reporting bias occurs when outcomes in research studies are selectively reported, the selection being influenced by the study results. For benefit outcomes, we have shown how risk assessments using the Outcome Reporting Bias in Trials risk classification scale can be used to calculate bias-adjusted treatment effect estimates. This paper presents a new and simpler version of the benefits method, and shows how it can be extended to cover the partial reporting and non-reporting of harm outcomes. Our motivating example is a Cochrane systematic review of 12 studies of Topiramate add-on therapy for drug-resistant partial epilepsy...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133852/nitrosynapsin-therapy-for-a-mouse-mef2c-haploinsufficiency-model-of-human-autism
#5
Shichun Tu, Mohd Waseem Akhtar, Rosa Maria Escorihuela, Alejandro Amador-Arjona, Vivek Swarup, James Parker, Jeffrey D Zaremba, Timothy Holland, Neha Bansal, Daniel R Holohan, Kevin Lopez, Scott D Ryan, Shing Fai Chan, Li Yan, Xiaofei Zhang, Xiayu Huang, Abdullah Sultan, Scott R McKercher, Rajesh Ambasudhan, Huaxi Xu, Yuqiang Wang, Daniel H Geschwind, Amanda J Roberts, Alexey V Terskikh, Robert A Rissman, Eliezer Masliah, Stuart A Lipton, Nobuki Nakanishi
Transcription factor MEF2C regulates multiple genes linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and human MEF2C haploinsufficiency results in ASD, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. However, molecular mechanisms underlying MEF2C haploinsufficiency syndrome remain poorly understood. Here we report that Mef2c (+/-)(Mef2c-het) mice exhibit behavioral deficits resembling those of human patients. Gene expression analyses on brains from these mice show changes in genes associated with neurogenesis, synapse formation, and neuronal cell death...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#6
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129763/mammillothalamic-and-mammillotegmental-tracts-as-new-targets-for-dementia-and-epilepsy-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Naci Balak, Ece Balkuv, Ali Karadag, Recep Basaran, Huseyin Biceroglu, Buruç Erkan, Necmettin Tanriover
Very recently, neuromodulation through deep brain stimulation (DBS) has appeared as a new surgical procedure in the treatment of some types of dementia and epilepsy. The mammillothalamic and the mammillotegmental tracts are involved among the new targets. To our knowledge, a review article focused specifically on these mammillary body efferents is lacking in the medical literature. Their contribution to memory is, regrettably, often overlooked. There is evidence that mammillary bodies can contribute to memory independently from hippocampal formation, but the mechanism is not yet known...
November 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122492/d-leucine-evaluation-in-an-epilepsy-model
#8
Kylie Holden, Adam L Hartman
BACKGROUND: Current medicines do not provide sufficient seizure control for nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy. New options are needed to address this treatment gap. We recently found that the atypical amino acid d-leucine protected against acutely-induced seizures in mice, but its effect in chronic seizures has not been explored. We hypothesized that d-leucine would protect against spontaneous recurrent seizures. We also investigated whether mice lacking a previously-described d-leucine receptor (Tas1R2/R3) would be protected against acutely-induced seizures...
November 7, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111385/jnk1-inhibition-by-licochalcone-a-leads-to-neuronal-protection-against-excitotoxic-insults-derived-of-kainic-acid
#9
Oriol Busquets, Miren Ettcheto, Ester Verdaguer, Rubén Dario, Carme Auladell, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Jaume Folch, Antoni Camins
The mitogen-activated protein kinase family (MAPK) is an important group of enzymes involved in cellular responses to diverse external stimuli. One of the members of this family is the c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). The activation of the JNK pathway has been largely associated with the pathogenesis that occurs in epilepsy and neurodegeneration. Kainic acid (KA) administration in rodents is an experimental approach that induces status epilepticus (SE) and replicates many of the phenomenological features of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)...
October 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111296/a-neurosurgeon-s-view-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-structures
#10
Yarema B Bezchlibnyk, Jon T Willie, Robert E Gross
Stereotactic laser ablation of mesial temporal structures is a promising new surgical intervention for patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Since this procedure was first used to treat MTLE in 2010, the literature contains reports of 37 patients that underwent MR-guided stereotactic laser amygdalohippocampotomy (SLAH) using Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (LITT) with at least 1year of follow-up. This early body of data suggests that SLAH is a safe and effective treatment for MTLE in properly selected patients...
October 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104044/calcitonin-potentiates-the-anticonvulsant-and-antinociceptive-effects-of-valproic-acid-and-pregabalin-in-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-mice
#11
Nada M Hamada, Rehab H Ashour, Amany A Shalaby, Hussien M El-Beltagi
Antiepileptic drugs are the backbone for epilepsy management. Epilepsy may be accompanied by decreased pain threshold. Thus, anticonvulsant agents with antinociceptive properties are of great importance. This study investigated the possible anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects of calcitonin in combination with either valproic acid or pregabalin and whether these effects might occur through γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulation. Eighty-four male Balb/C mice were divided into 7 groups: control-naïve, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, PTZ-calcitonin, PTZ-valproic acid, PTZ-pregabalin, PTZ-calcitonin-valproic acid (PCV) combination, and PTZ-calcitonin-pregabalin (PCP) combination...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097123/epilepsy-as-a-network-disorder-2-what-can-we-learn-from-other-network-disorders-such-as-dementia-and-schizophrenia-and-what-are-the-implications-for-translational-research
#12
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman, Andres M Kanner, Alon Friedman, Ingmar Blümcke, Candice E Crocker, Fernando Cendes, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Hans Förstl, André A Fenton, Anthony A Grace, Jorge Palop, Jason Morrison, Astrid Nehlig, Asuri Prasad, Karen S Wilcox, Nathalie Jette, Bernd Pohlmann-Eden
There is common agreement that many disorders of the central nervous system are 'complex', that is, there are many potential factors that influence the development of the disease, underlying mechanisms, and successful treatment. Most of these disorders, unfortunately, have no cure at the present time, and therapeutic strategies often have debilitating side effects. Interestingly, some of the 'complexities' of one disorder are found in another, and the similarities are often network defects. It seems likely that more discussions of these commonalities could advance our understanding and, therefore, have clinical implications or translational impact...
October 30, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096132/atomic-force-microscopy-investigations-of-fibronectin-and-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrin-signaling-in-neuroplasticity-and-seizure-susceptibility-in-experimental-epilepsy
#13
Xin Wu, Mariappan Muthuchamy, Doodipala Samba Reddy
Extracellular matrix protein-integrin interaction on neurons plays an important role in the development of neuroplasticity in the brain. However, the role of fibronectin-integrin signaling in epilepsy is elusive. Here, we examined the functional role of fibronectin-integrin signaling by utilizing a combination approach involving atomic force microscopy (AFM), immunocytochemistry, and pharmacology in epileptic mouse dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGCs). There was marked increase in the fibronectin receptor α5β1-integrin staining intensity in DGGCs in epileptic mice...
October 24, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076473/-the-management-of-patients-with-new-epileptic-seizures-in-the-early-period-after-resection-of-hemispheric-tumors-two-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#14
E Yu Sokolova, I A Savin, A B Kadasheva, A V Gavryushin, D I Pitskhelauri, A V Kozlov, K N Lapteva, V V Podlepich
Epileptic seizures developing for the first time after a neurosurgical intervention (de novo seizures) are a challenge for choosing an optimal treatment. The pathogenesis of these seizures is often associated with factors that become inactive in the early postoperative period. These seizures can not serve the basis for diagnosing symptomatic epilepsy and should be regarded as a brain response to surgery, and patients do not need anticonvulsant therapy that reduces the quality of life. But in some situations, new early postoperative seizures serve the onset of symptomatic epilepsy and require prolonged anticonvulsant therapy...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076416/novel-treatment-and-new-drugs-in-epilepsy-treatment
#15
Elissavet Eskioglou, M P Perrenoud, Phiilippe Ryvlin, Jan Novy
We now get benefit from more than 20 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the care of people with epilepsy. Newer generation of AED is associated with a more favourable tolerability profile than older generation AEDs which makes them easier to use, despite similar efficacy. In order to define the place of newer generation AEDs in the therapy, we review here the main current guidelines about their use for a special issue concerning antiepileptic drugs in neurosurgical practice. We also discuss how to tailor the treatment with newer generation AEDs according to the patient's needs and comorbid conditions...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076408/role-of-histone-deacetylases-hdacs-in-epilepsy-and-epileptogenesis
#16
Rita Citraro, Antonio Leo, Andrew Constanti, Emilio Russo
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in different brain functions such as the development of the nervous system and normal neuronal function. At the same time, it has been proposed that several neurological diseases are in part, caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying pathological alterations in the brain genome are not completely understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Post-transcriptional histone acetylation is a major mechanism of chromatin remodeling, contributing to epigenetic regulation of gene transcription...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070417/milestones-to-the-discovery-of-t-type-calcium-channel-blockers-for-the-treatment-of-generalized-epilepsies
#17
Olivier Bezençon, Romain Siegrist, Bibia Heidmann, Davide Pozzi, Simon Stamm, Luboš Remeň, Sylvia Richard, Lloyd Simons, Rick Gaston, Dennis Downing, Corinna Grisostomi, Catherine Roch, Melanie Kessler, John Gatfield, Richard Moon, Thomas Pfeifer, Johannes Mosbacher, Isabelle Reymond, Eric A Ertel, Ruben de Kanter, Bruno Capeleto, Elvire Fournier, Markus Rey, Luca Moccia, Michael Toeroek-Schafroth, René Roscher, Benno Schindelholz
We describe the discovery and optimization of new, brain-penetrant T-type calcium channel blockers. We present optimized compounds with excellent efficacy in a rodent model of generalized absence-like epilepsy. Along the fine optimization of a chemical series with a pharmacological target located in the CNS (target potency, brain penetration, and solubility), we successfully identified an Ames negative aminopyrazole as putative metabolite of this compound series. Our efforts culminated in the selection of compound 20, which was elected as a preclinical candidate...
October 25, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069823/microrna-134-plasma-levels-before-and-after-treatment-with-valproic-acid-for-epilepsy-patients
#18
Xiaofeng Wang, Yifeng Luo, Shuangxi Liu, Liming Tan, Sanhu Wang, Rongyong Man
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorders characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures. MicroRNAs play a vital role in regulating synaptic plasticity, brain development and post-transcriptional expression of proteins. In both animal models of epilepsy and human patients, miR-134, a brain-specific microRNA has recently been identified as a potential regulator of epileptogenesis. METHODS: microRNA identified as targets for the actions of valproic acid (VPA) are known to have important effects in brain function...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067682/eslicarbazepine-acetate-add-on-for-drug-resistant-partial-epilepsy
#19
REVIEW
Xian-Chao Chang, Hai Yuan, Yi Wang, Hui-Qin Xu, Wen-Ke Hong, Rong-Yuan Zheng
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review published in the Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12.The majority of people with epilepsy have a good prognosis, but up to 30% of people continue to have seizures despite several regimens of antiepileptic drugs. In this review, we summarized the current evidence regarding eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) when used as an add-on treatment for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of ESL when used as an add-on treatment for people with drug-resistant partial epilepsy...
October 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066951/connexin43-and-pannexin-based-channels-in-neuroinflammation-and-cerebral-neuropathies
#20
REVIEW
Denis Sarrouilhe, Catherine Dejean, Marc Mesnil
Connexins (Cx) are largely represented in the central nervous system (CNS) with 11 Cx isoforms forming intercellular channels. Moreover, in the CNS, Cx43 can form hemichannels (HCs) at non-junctional membrane as does the related channel-forming Pannexin1 (Panx1) and Panx2. Opening of Panx1 channels and Cx43 HCs appears to be involved in inflammation and has been documented in various CNS pathologies. Over recent years, evidence has accumulated supporting a link between inflammation and cerebral neuropathies (migraine, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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