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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339795/lipidized-prolactin-releasing-peptide-improved-glucose-tolerance-in-metabolic-syndrome-koletsky-and-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat-study
#1
Barbora Mikulášková, Martina Holubová, Veronika Pražienková, Jana Zemenová, Lucie Hrubá, Martin Haluzík, Blanka Železná, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) has a potential to decrease food intake and ameliorate obesity, but is ineffective after peripheral administration. We have previously shown that our novel lipidized analogs PrRP enhances its stability in the circulation and enables its central effect after peripheral application. The purpose of this study was to explore if sub-chronic administration of novel PrRP analog palmitoylated in position 11 (palm11-PrRP31) to Koletsky-spontaneously hypertensive obese rats (SHROB) could lower body weight and glucose intolerance as well as other metabolic parameters...
January 16, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330660/theobromine-consumption-does-not-improve-fasting-and-postprandial-vascular-function-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects
#2
Lotte Smolders, Ronald P Mensink, Jose J van den Driessche, Peter J Joris, Jogchum Plat
BACKGOUND: Theobromine, a component of cocoa, may favorably affect conventional lipid-related cardiovascular risk markers, but effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and other vascular function markers are not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of 4-week theobromine consumption (500 mg/day) on fasting and postprandial vascular function markers. DESIGN: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 44 apparently healthy overweight (N = 30) and obese (N = 14) men and women with low HDL-C concentrations, consumed daily 500 mg theobromine or placebo for 4 weeks...
January 12, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330620/impact-of-sirtuin-1-expression-on-h3k56-acetylation-and-oxidative-stress-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-with-resveratrol-supplementation
#3
Simona Bo, Gabriele Togliatto, Roberto Gambino, Valentina Ponzo, Giusy Lombardo, Rosalba Rosato, Maurizio Cassader, Maria Felice Brizzi
AIMS: Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) down-regulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with epigenetic markers of oxidative stress. We herein aim to evaluate whether an increase in SIRT-1 expression affects histone 3 acetylation at the 56 lysine residue (H3K56ac) in T2DM patients randomly selected to receive either resveratrol (40 mg or 500 mg) or a placebo for 6 months. The primary outcome is changes in the H3K56ac level by variation in SIRT-1 expression and the secondary outcome is the evidence of association between SIRT-1 level, antioxidant markers (TAS), and metabolic variables...
January 12, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324977/maternal-metabolic-immune-and-microbial-systems-in-late-pregnancy-vary-with-malnutrition-in-mice
#4
Kristin L Connor, Christel Chehoud, Adam Altrichter, Luisa Chan, Todd Z DeSantis, Stephen J Lye
Malnutrition is a global threat to pregnancy health and impacts offspring development. Establishing an optimal pregnancy environment requires the coordination of maternal metabolic and immune pathways, which converge at the gut. Diet, metabolic and immune dysfunctions have been associated with gut dysbiosis in the non-pregnant individual. In pregnancy, these states are associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and offspring development. However, the impact of malnutrition on maternal gut microbes, and their relationships with maternal metabolic and immune status, has been largely underexplored...
January 9, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318723/endothelium-specific-cyp2j2-overexpression-attenuates-age-related-insulin-resistance
#5
Yan Yang, Ruolan Dong, Zhihui Chen, Danli Hu, Menglu Fu, Ying Tang, Dao Wen Wang, Xizhen Xu, Ling Tu
Ample evidences demonstrate that cytochrome P450 epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) exert diverse biological activities, which include potent vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of endothelium-specific CYP2J2 overexpression on age-related insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Endothelium-specific targeting of the human CYP epoxygenase, CYP2J2, transgenic mice (Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice) was utilized. The effects of endothelium-specific CYP2J2 overexpression on aging-associated obesity, inflammation, and peripheral insulin resistance were evaluated by assessing metabolic parameters in young (3 months old) and aged (16 months old) adult male Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice...
January 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316965/decreased-microglial-activation-through-gut-brain-axis-by-prebiotics-probiotics-or-synbiotics-effectively-restored-cognitive-function-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#6
Titikorn Chunchai, Wannipa Thunapong, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Keerati Wanchai, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Gabrielle Metzler, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Sasithorn Sirilun, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only obese-insulin resistance, but also cognitive decline and microglial hyperactivity. Modified gut microbiota by prebiotics and probiotics improved obese-insulin resistance. However, the effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics on cognition and microglial activity in an obese-insulin resistant condition have not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of prebiotic (Xyloolidosaccharide), probiotic (Lactobacillus paracasei HII01), or synbiotics in male obese-insulin resistant rats induced by a HFD...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316197/tofogliflozin-decreases-body-fat-mass-and-improves-peripheral-insulin-resistance
#7
Ren Matsuba, Ikuro Matsuba, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Yoshio Nagai, Yasushi Tanaka
The impact of tofogliflozin, a sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor, on peripheral glucose uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was investigated by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp method in a single-arm, open-label study. The following parameters were compared between before and after tofogliflozin administration for 12 weeks in 16 T2DM patients using dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors: body weight, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, liver function, lipid profile, and body composition...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310666/in-vivo-evidence-for-the-contribution-of-peripheral-circulating-inflammatory-exosomes-to-neuroinflammation
#8
Jing Jing Li, Bin Wang, Mahesh Chandra Kodali, Chao Chen, Eunhee Kim, Benjamin John Patters, Lubin Lan, Santosh Kumar, Xinjun Wang, Junming Yue, Francesca-Fang Liao
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is implicated in the development and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Conditions that lead to a peripheral immune response are often associated with inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a communication between the peripheral immune system and the neuroimmune system. The underlying mechanism of this relationship remains largely unknown; however, experimental studies have demonstrated that exposure to infectious stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, result in profound peripheral- and neuro-inflammation...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306049/evaluation-of-lymphedema-in-upper-extremities-by-mr-lymphangiography-comparison-with-lymphoscintigraphy
#9
Jae Seok Bae, Roh-Eul Yoo, Seung Hong Choi, Seong Oh Park, Hak Chang, Minseok Suh, Gi Jeong Cheon
PURPOSE: To validate usefulness of magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography for evaluation of peripheral lymphedema in upper extremities by comparison with lymphoscintigraphy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study had institutional review board approval and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Initially, protocol of MR lymphangiography for upper extremity was established in seven healthy volunteers with 3.0T fat-saturated three-dimensional gradient-echo MR after gadobutrol injection...
January 3, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305999/high-fat-diet-induced-obesityexacerbateshematopoiesis-deficiency-and-cytopenia-caused-by-5-fluorouracil-via-ppar-%C3%AE
#10
Yanhong Li, Shuai Zhu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Ting Liu, Linchong Su, Qiuping Zhang, Yubin Luo
The present study aims to investigate the influence of high fat diet (HFD) on hematopoietic system recovery under stress condition caused by 5-Fluouracil (5-Fu) and evaluate the alleviating benefit of PPAR-γ inhibition on aggravation of 5-Fu-induced toxicity under HFD condition. Survival rate of HFD or normal diet (ND) mice was monitored after 5-Fu injection. HSC and the progenitor cells in bone marrow were detected at various time points after 5-Fu administration by flow cytometry. Genes expression involved in stem cell and platelet proliferation were tested by RT-PCR...
January 3, 2018: Experimental Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305946/a-whole-grain-diet-reduces-peripheral-insulin-resistance-and-improves-glucose-kinetics-in-obese-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Steven K Malin, Emily L Kullman, Amanda R Scelsi, Jacob M Haus, Julianne Filion, Mangesh R Pagadala, Jean-Philippe Godin, Sunil Kochhar, Alastair B Ross, John P Kirwan
BACKGROUND: Whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes but mechanisms are unclear. PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that a WG diet reduces insulin resistance and improves glucose use in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes compared with an isocaloric-matched refined-grain diet. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover trial of 14 moderately obese adults (Age, 38±2 yrs.; BMI, 34.0±1.1kg/m2). Insulin resistance and glucose metabolism was assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test combined with isotopic tracers of [6,6-2H2]-glucose and [U-13C]-glucose, and indirect calorimetry...
January 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300902/peripheral-endocannabinoids-associated-with-energy-expenditure-in-native-americans-of-southwestern-heritage
#12
Sascha Heinitz, Alessio Basolo, Paolo Piaggi, Daniele Piomelli, Reiner Jumpertz von Schwartzenberg, Jonathan Krakoff
Context: The endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and the related acylethanolamide oleoylethanolamide (OEA) have been implicated in energy expenditure (EE)-regulation and metabolic diseases. Muscle (fat-free mass, FFM) and fat (fat mass, FM) are metabolically active compartments and main determinants of EE. Objective: To assess whether human muscle, adipose, and plasma endocannabinoids correlate with EE. Design: Muscle, adipose, and plasma AEA, 2-AG, and OEA concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295516/impact-of-consuming-extra-virgin-olive-oil-or-nuts-within-a-mediterranean-diet-on-dna-methylation-in-peripheral-white-blood-cells-within-the-predimed-navarra-randomized-controlled-trial-a-role-for-dietary-lipids
#13
Ana Arpón, Fermín I Milagro, Cristina Razquin, Dolores Corella, Ramón Estruch, Montserrat Fitó, Amelia Marti, Miguel A Martínez-González, Emilio Ros, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, José-Ignacio Riezu-Boj, J Alfredo Martínez
DNA methylation could be reversible and mouldable by environmental factors, such as dietary exposures. The objective was to analyse whether an intervention with two Mediterranean diets, one rich in extra-virgin olive oil (MedDiet + EVOO) and the other one in nuts (MedDiet + nuts), was influencing the methylation status of peripheral white blood cells (PWBCs) genes. A subset of 36 representative individuals were selected within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED-Navarra) trial, with three intervention groups in high cardiovascular risk volunteers: MedDiet + EVOO, MedDiet + nuts, and a low-fat control group...
December 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290566/play-it-again-sam-macrophages-control-peripheral-fat-metabolism
#14
Kevin A Guttenplan, Shane A Liddelow
Macrophages and other immune cells are increasingly recognized to have unique and nontraditional functions in various tissues of the body. In a recent issue of Nature Medicine, Pirzgalska et al. [1] characterized a unique set of tissue-specialized macrophages that modulate the connection between the nervous system and subcutaneous fat.
December 28, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289610/body-composition-serum-lipid-levels-and-transcriptomic-characterization-in-the-adipose-tissue-of-male-pigs-in-response-to-sex-hormone-deficiency
#15
Yuchang Yao, Hongying Ma, Keliang Wu, Yonggang Shao, Wenpeng Han, Zhaowei Cai, Ningying Xu, Meiyu Qi, Chunjiang Zhao, Changxin Wu
It is known that the male hypogonadism plays an important role in regulating adipose metabolism. In the present study, fifteen pairs of full male sibs were divided into a castrated group and an intact group with a paired experiment design. The pigs were slaughtered at an age of 175days. The carcass characteristics and fat deposit of the studied animal were measured, and the hormone and serum lipid levels of the peripheral blood samples were determined, and the differentially expressed genes of the back fat between the two groups were screened with porcine genome array...
December 28, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287786/leptin-treatment-prevents-long-term-abnormalities-in-cognition-seizure-threshold-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-znt3-cb-d28k-expression-in-a-rat-developmental-twist-seizure-model
#16
Hong Ni, Su-Hong Chen, Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin
The mechanism of linking neonatal seizures with long-term brain damage is unclear, and there is no effective drug to block this long-term pathological process. Recently, the fat-derived hormone leptin has been appreciated for its neuroprotective function in neurodegenerative processes, although less is known about the effects of leptin on neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. Here, we developed a "twist" seizure model by coupling pilocarpine-induced neonatal status epilepticus (SE) with later exposure to penicillin to test whether leptin treatment immediately after neonatal SE would exert neuroprotective effects on cognition, seizure threshold and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting, as well if leptin had any influence on the expression of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) and calcium homeostasis-related CB-D28k in the hippocampus...
December 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286436/stromal-vascular-fraction-enriched-fat-grafting-for-the-treatment-of-symptomatic-end-neuromata
#17
Simon Zimmermann, Richard M Fakin, Thomas Giesen, Pietro Giovanoli, Maurizio Calcagni
The purpose of this study was to methodically illustrate and highlight the crucial steps of stromal vascular fraction (SVF)-enriched fat grafting as a novel treatment of symptomatic end-neuromata of peripheral sensory nerves, and in this study, specifically of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN). Despite a multitude of existing treatments, persistent postoperative pain and common pain relapse are still very common, independent of the procedure assessed. The neuroma is microsurgically excised accordingly to standardized protocol...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286303/disturbed-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#18
REVIEW
Ali Saeed, Robin P F Dullaart, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
December 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277040/associations-of-components-of-sarcopenic-obesity-with-bone-health-and-balance-in-older-adults
#19
David Scott, Catherine Shore-Lorenti, Lachlan McMillan, Jakub Mesinovic, Ross A Clark, Alan Hayes, Kerrie M Sanders, Gustavo Duque, Peter R Ebeling
OBJECTIVES: To determine characteristics of sarcopenic obesity that are independently associated with bone health and balance in older adults. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 168 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 67.7 ± 8.4 years; 55% women). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Appendicular lean mass (ALM), whole-body areal BMD (aBMD) and body fat percentage were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessed muscle density and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), area, thickness, and strength-strain index (SSI) at 66% tibial length...
December 16, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248776/spinal-epidural-cavernous-hemangioma-a-clinical-series-of-seven-patients
#20
Chuanping Gao, Wenjian Xu, Ji Qing Lian, Duan Feng, Jiu Fa Cui, Hua Liu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the imaging characteristics of spinal epidural cavernous hemangiomas (ECH) and improve the understanding of this rare disease. METHODS: This retrospective study included seven cases of ECH, confirmed with surgical pathology and imaging. All patients underwent computed tomographic and conventional magnetic resonance imaging. One of the seven patients underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. RESULTS: The ECH originated from vertebrae with coarsened trabeculae in five patients...
December 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
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