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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785933/a-comparison-of-peripheral-imaging-technologies-for-bone-and-muscle-quantification-a-review-of-segmentation-techniques
#1
REVIEW
Andy Kin On Wong, Sarah Lynn Manske
Musculoskeletal science has developed many overlapping branches, necessitating specialists from 1 area of focus to often require the expertise in others. In terms of imaging, this means obtaining a comprehensive illustration of bone, muscle, and fat tissues. There is currently a lack of a reliable resource for end users to learn about these tissues' imaging and quantification techniques together. An improved understanding of these tissues has been an important progression toward better prediction of disease outcomes and better elucidation of their interaction with frailty, aging, and metabolic disorders...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784791/steroid-signaling-mediates-nutritional-regulation-of-juvenile-body-growth-via-igf-binding-protein-in-drosophila
#2
Gang Jun Lee, Gangsik Han, Hyun Myoung Yun, Jin Ju Lim, Sujin Noh, Jaegeun Lee, Seogang Hyun
Nutritional condition during the juvenile growth period considerably affects final adult size. The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS)/target of rapamycin (TOR) nutrient-sensing pathway is known to regulate growth and metabolism in response to nutritional conditions. However, there is limited information on how endocrine pathways communicate nutritional information to different metabolic organs to regulate organismal growth. Here, we show that Imaginal morphogenesis protein-Late 2 (Imp-L2), a Drosophila homolog of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), plays a key role in the nutritional control of organismal growth...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779155/prioritising-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-causal-inference-through-genetic-approaches
#3
REVIEW
Laura B L Wittemans, Luca A Lotta, Claudia Langenberg
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Causality has been demonstrated for few of the many putative risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) emerging from observational epidemiology. Genetic approaches are increasingly being used to infer causality, and in this review, we discuss how genetic discoveries have shaped our understanding of the causal role of factors associated with T2D. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic discoveries have led to the identification of novel potential aetiological factors of T2D, including the protective role of peripheral fat storage capacity and specific metabolic pathways, such as the branched-chain amino acid breakdown...
May 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777107/differentiation-of-periapical-granulomas-and-cysts-by-using-dental-mri-a-pilot-study
#4
Alexander Juerchott, Thorsten Pfefferle, Christa Flechtenmacher, Johannes Mente, Martin Bendszus, Sabine Heiland, Tim Hilgenfeld
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate whether periapical granulomas can be differentiated from periapical cysts in vivo by using dental magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to apicoectomy, 11 patients with radiographically confirmed periapical lesions underwent dental MRI, including fat-saturated T2-weighted (T2wFS) images, non-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images with and without fat saturation (T1w/T1wFS), and contrast-enhanced fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1wFS+C) images. Two independent observers performed structured image analysis of MRI datasets twice...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774385/effects-of-dietary-intake-patterns-from-1-to-4-years-on-bmi-z-score-and-body-shape-at-age-of-6-years-a-prospective-birth-cohort-study-from-brazil
#5
Leonardo Pozza Santos, Ken K Ong, Ina S Santos, Alicia Matijasevich, Aluísio J D Barros
PURPOSE: To assess the association between dietary intake patterns from 1 to 4 years and BMI and body shape at age of 6 years. METHODS: This longitudinal study was based on 3374 Brazilian children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. We used previously described dietary patterns from 1 to 4 years as the main exposure. We defined body shape using scores for corpulence (a recently described body shape component measured by Photonic Scanner), and trunk and gynoid fat mass percentage from DXA...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774307/bethlem-myopathy-in-a-portuguese-patient-case-report
#6
Ana Inês Martins, Cristin Maarque, Jorge Pinto-Basto, Luis Negrão
Mutations of the encoding genes of collagen VI (COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 ), are responsible for two classical phenotypes (with a wide range of severity), the Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and the Bethlem myopathy (BM). We present a male patient of 49 years old, with symptoms of muscle weakness beginning in childhood and of very slowly progression. At the age of 42, the neurological examination revealed proximal lower limb muscle weakness and contractures of fingers flexors muscles, positive Gowers manoeuvre and a waddling gait...
September 2017: Acta Myologica: Myopathies and Cardiomyopathies: Official Journal of the Mediterranean Society of Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772342/is-local-or-central-adiposity-more-strongly-associated-with-incident-knee-osteoarthritis-than-the-body-mass-index-in-men-or-women
#7
Adam G Culvenor, David T Felson, Wolfgang Wirth, Torben Dannhauer, Felix Eckstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether central (abdominal) or peripheral (thigh) adiposity measures are associated with incident radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA) independent of body mass index (BMI) and whether their relation to RKOA was stronger than that of BMI. DESIGN: 161 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (62% female) with incident RKOA (Kellgren/Lawrence grade 0/1 at baseline, developing an osteophyte and joint space narrowing grade ≥1 by year-4) were matched to 186 controls (58% female) without incident RKOA...
May 14, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770778/apolipoprotein-e-in-diet-induced-obesity-a-paradigm-shift-from-conventional-perception
#8
Kyriakos E Kypreos, Eleni A Karavia, Caterina Constantinou, Aikaterini Hatziri, Christina Kalogeropoulou, Eva Xepapadaki, Evangelia Zvintzou
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a major protein component of peripheral and brain lipoprotein transport systems. APOE in peripheral circulation does not cross blood brain barrier or blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier. As a result, peripheral APOE expression does not affect brain APOE levels and vice versa. Numerous epidemiological studies suggest a key role of peripherally expressed APOE in the development and progression of coronary heart disease while brain APOE has been associated with dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770587/an-unusual-case-of-pulmonary-hamartoma-with-predominant-bronchial-mucous-glands-in-the-peripheral-lung
#9
Rin Yamada, Akiko Tonooka, Shin-Ichiro Horiguchi, Toru Motoi, Horio Hirotoshi, Tsunekazu Hishima
Pulmonary hamartoma (PH) is the most common benign lung tumor, comprising various amounts of mescenchymal components with entrapped epithelial components. We describe an unusual case of PH in the left lower lung lobe of a 60-year-old female. The tumor was 9 × 9 mm in size, light brown, weakly glistening, and microscopically found to be composed of well-developed epithelial and mesenchymal components without atypia. Both components were intermingled but without apparent transition. Epithelial components were occupied by predominant bronchial mucous glands...
May 16, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763913/intraventricular-injection-of-lkb1-inhibits-the-formation-of-diet-induced-obesity-in-rats-by-activating-the-ampk-pomc-neurons-sympathetic-nervous-system-axis
#10
Pengjiao Xi, Jianying Du, Huimin Liang, Jie Han, Zhaoxia Wu, Haomin Wang, Lu He, Qiming Wang, Haize Ge, Yongmei Li, Jie Xue, Derun Tian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Peripheral LKB1 inhibits white fat generation, but the effect of central LKB1 on diet-induced obesity (DIO) is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether LKB1 over-expression in the hypothalamus can inhibit the development of obesity. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and placed in a stereotaxic apparatus. LKB1-AAV-EGFP (2.0 × 108 or 2.0 × 1010 vector genomes) or Control-AAV-EGFP (2...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763602/a-ketogenic-diet-reduces-metabolic-syndrome-induced-allodynia-and-promotes-peripheral-nerve-growth-in-mice
#11
Michael A Cooper, Blaise W Menta, Consuelo Perez-Sanchez, Megan M Jack, Zair W Khan, Janelle M Ryals, Michelle Winter, Douglas E Wright
Current experiments investigated whether a ketogenic diet impacts neuropathy associated with obesity and prediabetes. Mice challenged with a ketogenic diet were compared to mice fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet plus exercise. Additionally, an intervention switching to a ketogenic diet following 8 weeks of high-fat diet was performed to compare how a control diet, exercise, or a ketogenic diet affects metabolic syndrome-induced neural complications. When challenged with a ketogenic diet, mice had reduced bodyweight and fat mass compared to high-fat-fed mice, and were similar to exercised, high-fat-fed mice...
May 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763369/adipose-y5r-mrna-is-higher-in-obese-than-non-obese-humans-and-is-correlated-with-obesity-parameters
#12
Saimai Chatree, Chantacha Sitticharoon, Pailin Maikaew, Panapat Uawithya, Supornpim Chearskul
Neuropeptide Y is mainly expressed in the central nervous system to regulate food intake via its receptors, Y receptors, and in various peripheral tissues including adipose tissue. The objectives of this study were to compare Y5R mRNA and adipocyte parameters consisting of area, width, height, and perimeter either between obese and non-obese subjects or between subcutaneous and visceral fat as well as to compare between NPY, Y1R, Y2R, and Y5R mRNA expressions in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. In subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues, Y5R was greater in obese than in non-obese humans (both P < 0...
May 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760179/time-restricted-feeding-prevents-ablation-of-diurnal-rhythms-in-gastric-vagal-afferent-mechanosensitivity-observed-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#13
Stephen J Kentish, George Hatzinikolas, Hui Li, Claudine A Frisby, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Mechanosensitive gastric vagal afferents (GVAs) are involved in the regulation of food intake. GVAs exhibit diurnal rhythmicity in their response to food related stimuli allowing time of day specific satiety signalling. This diurnal rhythmicity is ablated in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Time restricted feeding (TRF) has a strong influence on peripheral clocks. This study aimed to determine whether diurnal patterns in GVA mechanosensitivity are entrained by TRF.Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice (N=256) were fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or HFD for 12wks...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759109/hypocholesterolaemic-effect-of-whole-grain-highland-hull-less-barley-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#14
Xuejuan Xia, Guannan Li, Jiaxin Song, Jiong Zheng, Jianquan Kan
Whole-grain highland hull-less barley (WHLB) contains high amounts of bioactive compounds that potentially exhibit cholesterol-lowering effects. This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic effect of WHLB. A total of seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the normal control diet, high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD containing low or high dose (10 or 48·95 %) of WHLB. High dose of WHLB significantly decreased the organ indexes of liver and abdominal fat and lipid levels of plasma and liver in HFD rats...
May 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758361/bone-accrual-in-oligo-amenorrheic-athletes-eumenorrheic-athletes-and-non-athletes
#15
Vibha Singhal, Karen Campoverde Reyes, Brooke Pfister, Kathryn Ackerman, Meghan Slattery, Katherine Cooper, Alexander Toth, Nupur Gupta, Mark Goldstein, Kamryn Eddy, Madhusmita Misra
BACKGROUND: Mechanical loading improves bone mineral density (BMD) and strength while decreasing fracture risk. Cross-sectional studies show that exercise advantage is lost in oligo-amenorrheic athletes (OA). Longitudinal studies examining the opposing effects of exercise and hypogonadism on bone are lacking in adolescents/young adults. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate differences in bone accrual over 12 months in OA, eumenorrheic athletes (EA) and non-athletes (NA). We hypothesized that bone accrual would be lower in OA than EA and NA, with differences most pronounced at non-weight bearing trabecular sites...
May 11, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755411/time-of-day-effects-on-metabolic-and-clock-related-adjustments-to-cold
#16
Frederico Sander Mansur Machado, Zhi Zhang, Yan Su, Paul de Goede, Remi Jansen, Ewout Foppen, Cândido Celso Coimbra, Andries Kalsbeek
Background: Daily cyclic changes in environmental conditions are key signals for anticipatory and adaptive adjustments of most living species, including mammals. Lower ambient temperature stimulates the thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle. Given that the molecular components of the endogenous biological clock interact with thermal and metabolic mechanisms directly involved in the defense of body temperature, the present study evaluated the differential homeostatic responses to a cold stimulus at distinct time-windows of the light/dark-cycle...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750060/fascial-preadipocytes-another-missing-piece-of-the-puzzle-to-understand-fibromyalgia
#17
Bruno Bordoni, Fabiola Marelli, Bruno Morabito, Francesca Cavallaro, David Lintonbon
Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is a chronic condition causing pain, affecting approximately 0.5%-6% of the developed countries' population, and on average, 2% of the worldwide population. Despite the large amount of scientific literature available, the FM etiology is still uncertain. The diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation and the severity of the symptomatology. Several studies pointed out pathological alterations within the central nervous system, suggesting that FM could originate from a central sensitization of the pain processing centers...
2018: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750001/effect-of-combined-dyslipidemia-and-hyperglycemia-on-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-wbn-kob-rats
#18
Kiyokazu Ozaki, Yui Terayama, Tetsuro Matsuura, Isao Narama
Clinical and experimental research have suggested that dyslipidemia aggravates diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However, whether dyslipidemia is a risk factor for DPN remains unclear. To investigate the effect of dyslipidemia on DPN, morphological features of peripheral nerves were analyzed in diabetic rats treated with a high-fat diet (HFD). Male rats were divided into four groups: nondiabetic rats (N), alloxan-induced diabetic rats (AL), diabetic rats treated with an HFD (AH), and nondiabetic rats treated with an HFD (HF)...
April 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747346/-phenotype-and-mechanism-of-inducible-ppp2r1a-knockout-mouse-model
#19
J L Fan, F P Wang, S Wang, X L Liu, X N Wu, W Chen, L P Chen, W X Li
Objective: Investigate the effects of inducible ppp2r1a knockout on main physiological function in adult mice and study the mechanism. Methods: Ppp2r1a(flox/flox) mice and CAGG-CreER mice were hybridized to obtain 20 CAGG-CreER ppp2r1a(flox/flox) and 20 mice in homozygous group. Two groups of mice were divided into 4 groups respectively, finally we got 8 groups with 5 mice in each group. Tamoxifen was injected intraperitoneally to acquire inducible ppp2r1a knockout mice. The knockout efficiency of PP2A Aα in vital organs was measured by Western blot...
May 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744298/the-involvement-of-4-1bb-4-1bbl-signaling-in-glial-cell-mediated-hypothalamic-inflammation-in-obesity
#20
Jiye Kim, Yoon-Hee Kwon, Chu-Sook Kim, Thai H Tu, Byung-Sam Kim, Yeonsoo Joe, Hun T Chung, Tsuyoshi Goto, Teruo Kawada, Taesun Park, Myung-Sook Choi, Min-Seon Kim, Rina Yu
Obesity-induced inflammation occurs not only in peripheral tissues but also in areas of the central nervous system. Glial cells such as astrocytes and microglia play crucial roles in obesity-related hypothalamic inflammation, leading to the derangement of energy metabolism and neurodegenerative pathologies. Here, we show that the interaction of 4-1BB/4-1BBL between lipid-laden astrocytes/microglia promotes hypothalamic inflammation in obesity. Stimulation of 4-1BB, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily, and/or its ligand 4-1BBL on astrocytes and/or microglia with a specific agonist resulted in activation of the inflammatory signaling pathway and enhanced production of inflammatory mediators...
May 2018: FEBS Open Bio
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