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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913572/very-low-density-lipoprotein-vldl-induced-signals-mediating-aldosterone-production
#1
Ying-Ying Tsai, William E Rainey, Wendy B Bollag
Aldosterone, secreted by the adrenal zona glomerulosa, enhances sodium retention, thus increasing blood volume and pressure. Excessive production of aldosterone results in high blood pressure, and contributes to cardiovascular and renal disease, stroke, and visual loss. Hypertension is also associated with obesity, which s correlated with other serious health risks as well. Although weight gain is associated with increased blood pressure, the mechanism by which excess fat deposits increase blood pressure remains unclear...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911368/immunohistochemical-analysis-in-the-rat-central-nervous-system-and-peripheral-lymph-node-tissue-sections
#2
Milena Z Adzemovic, Manuel Zeitelhofer, Marianne Leisser, Ulricke Köck, Angela Kury, Tomas Olsson
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) provides highly specific, reliable and attractive protein visualization. Correct performance and interpretation of an IHC-based multicolor labeling is challenging, especially when utilized for assessing interrelations between target proteins in the tissue with a high fat content such as the central nervous system (CNS). Our protocol represents a refinement of the standard immunolabeling technique particularly adjusted for detection of both structural and soluble proteins in the rat CNS and peripheral lymph nodes (LN) affected by neuroinflammation...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911148/effects-of-chronic-estrogen-administration-in-the-ventromedial-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-vmh-on-fat-and-bone-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-rats
#3
Z Zhang, J Liu, A G Veldhuis-Vlug, Y Su, E Foppen, B C J van der Eerden, M Koedam, N Bravenboer, A Kalsbeek, A Boelen, E Fliers, P H Bisschop
Estrogen deficiency after ovariectomy (OVX) results in increased adiposity and bone loss, which can be prevented by systemic 17-β estradiol (E2) replacement. Studies in transgenic mice suggested that in addition to direct actions of estrogen in peripheral tissues, also estrogen signaling in the hypothalamus regulates fat distribution and bone metabolism. We hypothesized that the protective effect of systemic E2 on fat and bone metabolism in the OVX model is partly mediated through the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH)...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910744/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-ppar%C3%AE-a-key-regulator-of-lipid-metabolism-in-avians
#4
Bahman Navidshad, M Royan
Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of the gene expression. Fatty acids upregulate or downregulate the expression of different genes by acting both as agonists or antagonists for nuclear hormone receptors. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes, α, β, and γ, have been recognized. PPARs regulate various target genes with a role in intracellular and extracellular lipid metabolism, mainly those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation...
2016: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908915/-the-hypothalamic-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-receptor-glp-1r-is-sufficient-but-not-necessary-for-the-regulation-of-energy-balance-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-mice
#5
Melissa A Burmeister, Jennifer E Ayala, Hannah Smouse, Adriana Landivar-Rocha, Jacob D Brown, Daniel J Drucker, Doris A Stoffers, Darleen A Sandoval, Randy J Seeley, Julio E Ayala
Pharmacological activation of the hypothalamic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) promotes weight loss and improves glucose tolerance. This demonstrates that the hypothalamic GLP-1R is sufficient but does not show whether it is necessary for the effects of exogenous GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RA) or endogenous GLP-1 on these parameters. To address this, we crossed mice harboring floxed Glp1r alleles to mice expressing Nkx2.1-Cre to knock down Glp1r expression throughout the hypothalamus (GLP-1RKD(ΔNkx2...
December 1, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906881/stem-cells-and-clinical-practice-new-advances-and-challenges-at-the-time-of-emerging-problems-with-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-therapies
#6
Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Kamila Bujko, Wojciech Wojakowski
Humans, like other species that reproduce sexually, originate from a fertilized oocyte (zygote), which is a totipotent stem cell giving rise to an adult organism. During the process of embryogenesis, stem cells at different levels of the developmental hierarchy establish all 3 germ layers and give rise to tissue‑committed stem cells, which are responsible for rejuvenation of a given tissue or organ. The robustness of the stem cell compartment is one of the major factors that directly impact life quality as well as lifespan...
November 10, 2016: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnętrznej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906092/alterations-to-mtorc1-signaling-in-the-skeletal-muscle-differentially-affect-whole-body-metabolism
#7
Maitea Guridi, Barbara Kupr, Klaas Romanino, Shuo Lin, Denis Falcetta, Lionel Tintignac, Markus A Rüegg
BACKGROUND: The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a central node in a network of signaling pathways controlling cell growth and survival. This multiprotein complex integrates external signals and affects different nutrient pathways in various organs. However, it is not clear how alterations of mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle affect whole-body metabolism. RESULTS: We characterized the metabolic phenotype of young and old raptor muscle knock-out (RAmKO) and TSC1 muscle knock-out (TSCmKO) mice, where mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle is inhibited or constitutively activated, respectively...
March 21, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903745/inhibiting-microglia-expansion-prevents-diet-induced-hypothalamic-and-peripheral-inflammation
#8
Caroline André, Omar Guzman-Quevedo, Charlotte Rey, Julie Rémus-Borel, Samantha Clark, Ashley Castellanos-Jankiewicz, Elodie Ladeveze, Thierry Leste-Lasserre, Agnes Nadjar, Djoher Nora Abrous, Sophie Laye, Daniela Cota
Cell proliferation and neuroinflammation in the adult hypothalamus may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we tested whether the intertwining of these two processes has a role in the metabolic changes caused by three weeks of saturated high-fat diet (HFD) consumption.As compared to chow, HFD-fed mice rapidly increased body weight and fat mass, and specifically showed increased microglia number in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus. Microglia expansion required the adequate presence of fats and carbohydrates in the diet, since feeding mice a very high-fat, very low-carbohydrate diet did not affect cell proliferation...
November 30, 2016: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901601/activation-of-estrogen-response-element-independent-er%C3%AE-signaling-protects-female-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Ali Yasrebi, Janelle A Rivera, Elizabeth A Krumm, Jennifer A Yang, Troy A Roepke
17β-estradiol (E2) regulates central and peripheral mechanisms that control energy and glucose homeostasis predominantly through estrogen receptor α (ERα) acting via receptor binding to estrogen response elements (ERE). ERα signaling is also involved in mediating the effects of E2 on diet-induced obesity (DIO), although the roles of ERE-dependent and -independent ERα signaling in ameliorating the effects of DIO remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that ERE-dependent ERα signaling is necessary to ameliorate the effects of DIO...
November 30, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#10
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900261/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-cb1-receptor-system-for-treating-obesity-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#11
Ibrahim Knani, Brian J Earley, Shiran Udi, Alina Nemirovski, Rivka Hadar, Asaad Gammal, Resat Cinar, Harry J Hirsch, Yehuda Pollak, Itai Gross, Talia Eldar-Geva, Daniela P Reyes-Capo, Joan C Han, Andrea M Haqq, Varda Gross-Tsur, Rachel Wevrick, Joseph Tam
OBJECTIVE: Extreme obesity is a core phenotypic feature of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Among numerous metabolic regulators, the endocannabinoid (eCB) system is critically involved in controlling feeding, body weight, and energy metabolism, and a globally acting cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) blockade reverses obesity both in animals and humans. The first-in-class CB1R antagonist rimonabant proved effective in inducing weight loss in adults with PWS. However, it is no longer available for clinical use because of its centrally mediated, neuropsychiatric, adverse effects...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899146/impact-of-visceral-fat-on-gene-expression-profile-in-peripheral-blood-cells-in-obese-japanese-subjects
#12
Yoshinari Obata, Norikazu Maeda, Yuya Yamada, Koji Yamamoto, Seiji Nakamura, Masaya Yamaoka, Yoshimitsu Tanaka, Shigeki Masuda, Hirofumi Nagao, Shiro Fukuda, Yuya Fujishima, Shunbun Kita, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Ken-Ichi Matsubara, Yuji Matsuzawa, Iichiro Shimomura
BACKGROUND: Visceral fat plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The association of visceral fat accumulation with cardio-metabolic diseases has been reported, but the impact of visceral fat on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) on the gene expression profile in peripheral blood cells of obese subjects...
November 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893674/relapsing-remitting-lesions-in-a-woman-with-progressive-hemifacial-atrophy-and-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-case-report
#14
Ying Zhang, Mingqin Zhu, Xiaozhen Li, Jing Miao, Chenchen Duan, Li Cui, Xuefan Yu
INTRODUCTION: Progressive hemifacial atrophy (PHA) is a rare disorder characterized by unilateral facial atrophy affecting the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fat, muscle, and osteocartilagenous structures creating a sunken hemiface appearance.Etiopathogenesis of PHA is poorly understood; no definitive treatment is currently available. CLINICAL FINDINGS: We report a 41-year-old woman with PHA who showed an uncharacteristic "relapsing-remitting" evolution of brain lesions and was seropositive for hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886623/liver-bcatm-transgenic-mouse-model-reveals-the-important-role-of-the-liver-in-maintaining-bcaa-homeostasis
#15
Elitsa A Ananieva, Cynthia G Van Horn, Meghan R Jones, Susan M Hutson
Unlike other amino acids, the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) largely bypass first-pass liver degradation due to a lack of hepatocyte expression of the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm). This sets up interorgan shuttling of BCAAs and liver-skeletal muscle cooperation in BCAA catabolism. To explore whether complete liver catabolism of BCAAs may impact BCAA shuttling in peripheral tissues, the BCATm gene was stably introduced into mouse liver. Two transgenic mouse lines with low and high hepatocyte expression of the BCATm transgene (LivTg-LE and LivTg-HE) were created and used to measure liver and plasma amino acid concentrations and determine whether the first two BCAA enzymatic steps in liver, skeletal muscle, heart and kidney were impacted...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885970/cpt1a-gene-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-as-an-early-biomarker-of-diet-related-metabolic-alterations
#16
Rubén Díaz-Rúa, Andreu Palou, Paula Oliver
BACKGROUND: Research on biomarkers that provide early information about the development of future metabolic alterations is an emerging discipline. Gene expression analysis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is a promising tool to identify subjects at risk of developing diet-related diseases. OBJECTIVE: We analysed PBMC expression of key energy homeostasis-related genes in a time-course analysis in order to find out early markers of metabolic alterations due to sustained intake of high-fat (HF) and high-protein (HP) diets...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879515/atypical-spindle-cell-lipomatous-tumor-clinicopathologic-characterization-of-232-cases-demonstrating-a-morphologic-spectrum
#17
Adrian Mariño-Enriquez, Alessandra F Nascimento, Azra H Ligon, Cherwei Liang, Christopher D M Fletcher
The classification of atypical adipocytic neoplasms with spindle cell features remains challenging. To better define this category of low-grade lipomatous neoplasms, we present herein the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of a large series of 232 atypical spindle cell lipomatous tumors. The lesions affected 140 males and 92 females, at an average age of 54 years (range, 6 to 87 y), clinically presenting as a persistent or enlarging mass with a median size of 5 cm. The anatomic distribution of the tumors was wide, predominating in the limbs and limb girdles (147 cases, 63%), mainly in the hands and feet (17% and 11%, respectively), with equal distribution between subcutaneous and deeper locations...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876639/behavioral-changes-in-male-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet-are-associated-with-il-1%C3%AE-expression-in-specific-brain-regions
#18
Camila P Almeida-Suhett, Alice Graham, Yifan Chen, Patricia Deuster
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is associated with not only increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, but cognitive deficit, depression and anxiety disorders. Obesity also leads to low-grade peripheral inflammation, which plays a major role in the development of metabolic alterations. Previous studies suggest that obesity-associated central inflammation may underlie the development of neuropsychiatric deficits, but further research is needed to clarify this relationship. We used 36 male C57BL/6J mice to investigate whether chronic consumption of a high-fat diet leads to increased expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampus, amygdala and frontal cortex...
November 19, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869712/beneficial-effects-of-pterocarpan-high-soybean-leaf-extract-on-metabolic-syndrome-in-overweight-and-obese-korean-subjects-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Ri Ryu, Tae-Sook Jeong, Ye Jin Kim, Ji-Young Choi, Su-Jung Cho, Eun-Young Kwon, Un Ju Jung, Hyeon-Seon Ji, Dong-Ha Shin, Myung-Sook Choi
Pterocarpans are known to have antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about the changes in transcriptional profiles in response to a pterocarpan-high soybean leaf extract (PT). Therefore, this study investigated the effects of PT on blood glucose and lipid levels, as well as on the inflammation-related gene expression based on a peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) mRNA sequencing analysis in Korean overweight and obese subjects with mild metabolic syndrome. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups and were administered either placebo (starch, 3 g/day) or PT (2 g/day) for 12 weeks...
November 18, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865092/control-of-bone-and-fat-mass-by-oxytocin
#20
Ez-Zoubir Amri, Didier F Pisani
Osteoporosis and overweight/obesity constitute major worldwide public health burdens. Aging is associated with a decrease in hormonal secretion, lean mass and bone mass, and an increase in fat accumulation. It is established that both obesity and osteoporosis are affected by genetic and environmental factors, bone remodeling and adiposity are both regulated through the hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system. Oxytocin (OT), belongs to the pituitary hormone family and regulates the function of peripheral target organs, its circulating levels decreased with age...
November 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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