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Bio containment

G Kabir, A T Mohd Din, B H Hameed
The pyrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF) was catalyzed with a steel slag-derived zeolite (FAU-SL) in a slow-heating fixed-bed reactor at 450 °C, 550 °C, and 600 °C. The catalytic pyrolysis of OPMF produced a maximum yield of 47 wt% bio-oil at 550 °C, and the crude pyrolysis vapor (CPV) of this process yielded crude pyrolysis oil with broad distribution of bulky oxygenated organic compounds. The bio-oil composition produced at 550 °C contained mainly light and stable acid-rich carbonyls at a relative abundance of 48...
September 28, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Changfei Gao, Lifen Liu, Fenglin Yang
A novel bio-electrochemical system (BES) was developed by integrating micro-electrolysis/electro-flocculation from attaching a sacrificing Al anode to the bio-anode, it effectively treated high load wastewater with energy recovery (maximum power density of 365.1 mW/m(3) and a maximum cell voltage of 0.97 V), and achieving high removals of COD (>99.4%), NH4(+)-N (>98.7%) and TP (>98.6%). The anode chamber contains microbes, activated carbon (AC)/graphite granules and Al anode. It was separated from the cathode chamber containing bifunctional catalytic and filtration membrane cathode (loaded with Fe/Mn/C/F/O catalyst) by a multi-medium chamber (MMC) filled with manganese sand and activated carbon granules, which replaced expensive PEM and reduced cost...
October 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Ling Chong Wang, Liu Qing Di, Jun Song Li, Li Hong Hu, Jian Ming Cheng, Hao Wu
Over the past decades, numerous Mollusca species have received more attention in development and utilization as valuable bio-resources. Many efforts have been focused on investigating mollusk polysaccharides because of their rich content, ease of extraction, diversified sorts, specific structure, various biofunctions and potent activities. To date, many mollusks, especially species of gastropods, bivalves, or cephalopods, have been reported containing polysaccharide compounds in tissues with abundant amount, and most of polysaccharides are obtainable through combining techniques of extraction, separation and purification...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Zhao Guo, Shuang Zhu, Yuan Yong, Xiao Zhang, Xinghua Dong, Jiangfeng Du, Jiani Xie, Qing Wang, Zhanjun Gu, Yuliang Zhao
Developing an effective theranostic nanoplatform remains a great challenge for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Here, BiOI@Bi2 S3 @BSA (bovine serum albumin) semiconductor heterojunction nanoparticles (SHNPs) for triple-combination radio/photodynamic/photothermal cancer therapy and multimodal computed tomography/photoacoustic (CT/PA) bioimaging are reported. On the one hand, SHNPs possess strong X-ray attenuation capability since they contain high-Z elements, and thus they are anticipated to be a very competent candidate as radio-sensitizing materials for radiotherapy enhancement...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
J M Castañeda-Gill, A P Ranjan, J K Vishwanatha
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive, grade IV brain tumor that develops from astrocytes located within the cerebrum, resulting in poor prognosis and survival rates following an accepted treatment regimen of surgery, radiation, and temozolomide. Thus, development of new therapeutics is necessary. During the last two decades, methylene blue (MB) has received increased attention as a potential neurotherapeutic due to its duality in brain cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. While MB is capable of easily permeating the blood-brain barrier, its therapeutic concentrations in GBM are known to induce off-target cytotoxicity and thus, another mode of drug delivery must be considered...
August 2017: Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Suman Singh, Kirtiraj K Gaikwad, Youn Suk Lee
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films containing seaweed extracted cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) (5% w/v) and 5, 10, and 20% (w/v) basil leaves extract (BE) were prepared using the solvent casting method, and their physical properties, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activity were analyzed. The addition of 5% (w/v) CNC to PVA improved the tensile strength and water vapor permeability. Addition of BE to film the antioxidant activity and antimicrobial properties of the films were enhanced. Further, increasing the amount of BE slightly affected the color of the bio-nanocomposites...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Maxat Kulmanov, Mohammed Asif Khan, Robert Hoehndorf
Motivation: A large number of protein sequences are becoming available through the application of novel high-throughput sequencing technologies. Experimental functional characterization of these proteins is time-consuming and expensive, and is often only done rigorously for few selected model organisms. Computational function prediction approaches have been suggested to fill this gap. The functions of proteins are classified using the Gene Ontology (GO), which contains over 40,000 classes...
September 28, 2017: Bioinformatics
Ralf Smeets, Clarissa Precht, Michael Hahn, Ole Jung, Philip Hartjen, Max Heiland, Alexander Gröbe, Marzellus Große Holthaus, Henning Hanken
PURPOSE: To test the antimicrobial properties, surface topography, reaction of surrounding tissue (biocompatibility), and osseointegration of ultrathin implant surfaces containing polysiloxane and nanoscaled silver particles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Implants with polysiloxane coating and nanoscaled silver particles (Ag/SiOxCy; HyProtect, Bio-Gate) were compared with implants with polysiloxane coating alone and with noncoated (grit-blasted and acid-etched) implants...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Sohair I Abou-Elela, Mohamed S Hellal, Olfat H Aly, Salah A Abo-Elenin
This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a novel pilot-scale passively aerated biological filter (PABF) as a low energy consumption system for the treatment of municipal wastewater. It consists of four similar compartments, each containing 40% of a non-woven polyester fabric as a bio-bed. The PABF was fed with primary treated wastewater under a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5 hr and a hydraulic loading rate of 5.5 m(2)/m(3)/d. The effect of media depth, HRT, dissolved oxygen (DO) and surface area of the media on the removal efficiency of pollutants was investigated...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
Marc Bayliss, Matthew I Donaldson, Sergey A Nepogodiev, Giulia Pergolizzi, Andrew E Scott, Nicholas J Harmer, Robert A Field, Joann L Prior
Burkholderia pseudomallei and its close relative B. mallei are human pathogens that are classified as Tier 1 bio-threat agents. Both organisms have previously been shown to constitutively produce a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that is both a virulence determinant and protective antigen. Extraction and purification of CPS for use as a potential vaccine candidate requires containment level 3 laboratories which is expensive and time-consuming. B. thailandensis strain E555 is closely related to B. pseudomallei and B...
September 21, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
Bhat Mohd Skinder, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Abdul Hamid Wani
The present investigation was carried out to review and highlight the potential phytochemicals and medicinal phenomena of the critically endangered medicinal plant, Gentiana kurroo Royle of the western and north-western Himalayas. The medicinal plant is heavily exploited for root and rhizome. Due to its endemic nature and the high rate of exploitation from its natural habitat, this species had become critically endangered. The phytochemical screening of the plant revealed that the plant contains some vital phyto-constituents (iridoids, xanthones, C-glucoxanthone mangiferin, and C-glucoflavones) that have a medicinal value for various acute and chronic diseases...
October 12, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Wessam Hassanein, Arielle Cimeno, Avraham Werdesheim, Bryan Buckingham, Joshua Harrison, Mehmet C Uluer, Ali Khalifeh, Carlos Rivera-Pratts, Stephen Klepfer, Jhade D Woodall, Urmil Dhru, Elliot Bromberg, Dawn Parsell, Cinthia Drachenberg, Rolf N Barth, John C LaMattina
Organ scaffold bioengineering is currently limited by the inability to effectively repopulate the scaffold with appropriately distributed functional cells. We examined the feasibility of a decellularized liver scaffold to support the growth and function of multilineage allogenic cells derived from either adult or neonatal liver cells. Cell slurries from neonatal and adult rat livers containing hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and endothelial cells were introduced into decellularized adult rat liver scaffolds via the bile duct...
October 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Frederick M Lang, Anwar Hossain, Joy Gumin, Eric N Momin, Yuzaburo Shimizu, Dan Ledbetter, Tal Shahar, Shinji Yamashita, Brittany Parker-Kerrigan, Juan Fueyo, Raymond Sawaya, Frederick F Lang
Background: MicroRNAs (miRs) are promising new therapeutics for glioblastoma. However, which miRs are most effective against glioblastomas and how these miRs should be delivered are major unanswered problems. Methods: To identify potent anti-glioma miRs, we selected eight miRs based on a literature search and screened them against a panel of glioma stem cell lines (GSCs), representing all TCGA-defined glioblastoma subtypes. To address delivery, we tested the hypothesis that ex vivo-cultured bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can package miRs into exosomes and that these engineered exosomes can systemically deliver antiglioma miRs to glioblastomas...
August 14, 2017: Neuro-oncology
Rodrigo Loyola-Sepúlveda, Marcos O Salamanca, Felipe Gutiérrez-Baeza, Claudia M Figueroa Sn M, Cristian V Chandia, Claudio Bravo-Linares, Stephen M Mudge
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDF) are widely distributed in the environment. The diverse production processes that form these compounds lead to a range of chemical signatures although weathering may cause changes to these signature over time and with increasing distance from their origin. Chemical signatures in sediments based on 17 PCDD/Fs were developed in Concepcion, a Chilean city in the middle of a complex hydrological system which contains several small urban freshwater bodies and the River Bio-Bio...
October 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mohit Mehta, Arvind Kumar
There is a significant interest in development of sustainable and integrated process of extraction of essential oils and separation of biopolymers using novel and efficient solvent systems. Herein, Cassia essential oil enriched in Coumarin is extracted from Cinnamomum Cassia bark using a protic ionic liquid, ethylammonium nitrate (EAN) via dissolution and creation of a biphasic system with the help of diethyl ether. The process has been perfected in terms of higher biomass dissolution ability and essential oil yield by addition of aprotic ILs (based on 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium cation [Bmim] and chloride [Cl] or acetate [OAc] anion) to EAN...
October 8, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Hsin-Chieh Tang, Hung-Jin Huang, Cheng-Chun Lee, Calvin Yu Chian Chen
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) appears to play an important role in acute skin inflammation. Subantimicrobial dose of tetracycline has been demonstrated to inhibit the activity of MMP-9 protein. However, long-term use tetracycline will induce side effect. The catalytic site of MMP-9 is located at zinc-binding amino acids, His401, His405 and His411. We attempted to search novel medicine formula as MMP-9 inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database by using in silico studies. We utilized high-throughput virtual screening to find which natural compounds could bind to the zinc-binding site...
September 14, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Priyanka Gupta, Liesbet Geris, Frank P Luyten, Ioannis Papantoniou
The increasing use of microcarrier based suspension bioreactors for scalable expansion of adult progenitor cells in recent years reveals the necessity of such approaches to address bio manufacturing challenges of advanced therapeutic medicinal products. However, the differentiation of progenitor cells within suspension bioreactors for the production of tissue modules is of equal importance but not well investigated. This study reports on the development of a bioreactor based integrated process for expansion and chondrogenic priming of human periosteum derived stem cells (hPDCs) using Cultispher S microcarriers...
October 7, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
Jonathan M Conway, Bennett S McKinley, Nathaniel L Seals, Diana Hernandez, Piyum A Khatibi, Suresh Poudel, Richard J Giannone, Robert L Hettich, Amanda M Williams-Rhaesa, Gina L Lipscomb, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The ability to hydrolyze microcrystalline cellulose is an uncommon feature in the microbial world, but one that can be exploited for conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into bio-based fuels and chemicals. Understanding the physiological and biochemical mechanisms by which microorganisms deconstruct cellulosic material is key to achieving this objective. The Glucan Degradation Locus (GDL) in the genomes of extremely thermophilic Caldicellulosiruptor species encodes polysaccharide lyases (PLs), unique cellulose binding proteins (tāpirins), and putative post-translational modifying enzymes, in addition to multi-domain, multi-functional glycoside hydrolases (GHs), thereby representing an alternative paradigm for plant biomass degradation, as compared to fungal or cellulosomal systems...
October 6, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Christian Latrémouille, Alain Carpentier, Pascal Leprince, Jean-Christian Roussel, Bernard Cholley, Elodie Boissier, Eric Epailly, Antoine Capel, Piet Jansen, David M Smadja
BACKGROUND: The electro-hydraulically actuated Carmat total artificial heart (C-TAH) is designed to replace the heart in patients with end-stage heart failure, either as bridge to transplant or destination therapy. It provides pulsatile flow and contains bio-prosthetic blood contacting materials. A clinical feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the C-TAH safety and performance. METHODS: Hospitalized patients, at imminent risk of death from irreversible biventricular failure despite optimal medical management, and not eligible for transplant or eligible but on extracorporeal life support, were enrolled...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Ovender Singh, Nidhi Tyagi, Marilyn M Olmstead, Kaushik Ghosh
Bio-inspired manganese [Mn(N5Py)(H2O)(CH3OH)](ClO4)2 (1) and iron [Fe(N5Py)(H2O)(ClO4)]ClO4 (2) complexes derived from a pentadentate ligand (N5Py = 2,6-bis((E)-1-phenyl-2-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl)pyridine) framework containing a N5 binding motif were synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic methods. The molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by X-ray crystallography. These complexes were found to be stable under physiological conditions and exhibited an excellent superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity...
October 6, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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