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Bio containment

Liang Luo, Ting Song, Haoqiang Wang, Qunhui Yuan, Shenghai Zhou
Inspired by low toxicity and good biocompatibility of biomass derived quantum dot (QD), we herein developed a cytosine derived quantum dot, namely cyt-dot, via a one-step hydrothermal synthesis. The as-prepared cyt-dot emits blue fluorescence (FL) containing abundant oxygen (20.6at.%) and nitrogen (24.1at.%) contents. The cyt-dot based sensing platform shows exclusive selectivity for Hg(II) while being insensitive towards Fe(III) and Ag(I), which are important interference that usually cannot be ruled out. The detection limit for Hg(II) is of 11nM, which is very close to the guideline value of 10nM allowed by the U...
November 22, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Edita Voitechovič, Anton Korepanov, Dmitry Kirsanov, Andrey Legin
Quantification of proteins is a key biochemical assay in molecular biology, biotechnology, medicine and pharmacology. Protein quantification protocols can be based on spectrophotometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, mass spectrometry or quantitative immunoblotting depending on analyte. In case of immobilized protein these methods require suitable sample preparation. Thus, sophisticated analysis becomes even more complex, expensive and time-consuming. Such drawbacks are highly undesirable in industry. In this study we propose a new approach for evaluation of immobilized protein concentration based on application of bio-assisted potentiometric multisensor system...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Angie C Umaña, Satoko Iwahori, Robert F Kalejta
Viral cyclin-dependent kinases (v-Cdks) functionally emulate their cellular Cdk counterparts. Such viral mimicry is an established phenomenon that we extend here through chemical genetics. Kinases contain gatekeeper residues that limit the size of molecules that can be accommodated within the enzyme active site. Mutating gatekeeper residues to smaller amino acids allows larger molecules access to the active site. Such mutants can utilize bio-orthoganol ATPs for phosphate transfer and are inhibited by compounds ineffective against the wild type protein, and thus are referred to as analog-sensitive (AS) kinases...
December 7, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
Myoung-Eun Lee, Jin Hee Park, Jae Woo Chung
Ginkgo trees are common street trees in Korea, and the large amounts of leaves that fall onto the streets annually need to be cleaned and treated. Therefore, fallen gingko leaves have been used as a raw material to produce biochar for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Gingko-leaf-derived biochar was produced under various carbonization temperatures and times. This study evaluated the physicochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of gingko-leaf-derived biochar samples produced under different carbonization conditions regarding Pb(II) and Cu(II)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Claude Piguet, Lucille Babel, Karine Baudet, Thi Nu Y Hoang, Homayoun Nozary
Since its identification as an independent topic after the first world war, the chemistry of (bio)polymers and macromolecules rapidly benefited from intense synthetic activities driven by contributors focussing on formulation and structural aspects. Satisfying rationalization and predictions concerning polymer organization, stability and reactivity were however delayed until the late fifties, when physical chemists set the basis of an adapted thermodynamic modelling. The recent emergence of metal-containing (bio)organic polymers (i...
December 6, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dianchen Lu, M Ramzan, Naeem Ullah, Jae Dong Chung, Umer Farooq
A numerical investigation of steady three dimensional nanofluid flow carrying effects of gyrotactic microorganism with anisotropic slip condition along a moving plate near a stagnation point is conducted. Additionally, influences of Arrhenius activation energy, joule heating accompanying binary chemical reaction and viscous dissipation are also taken into account. A system of nonlinear differential equations obtained from boundary layer partial differential equations is found by utilization of apposite transformations...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
Liping Wei, Wenrong Yan, Derek Ho
Fluorescence spectroscopy has become a prominent research tool with wide applications in medical diagnostics and bio-imaging. However, the realization of combined high-performance, portable, and low-cost spectroscopic sensors still remains a challenge, which has limited the technique to the laboratories. A fluorescence lifetime measurement seeks to obtain the characteristic lifetime from the fluorescence decay profile. Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and time-gated techniques are two key variations of time-resolved measurements...
December 4, 2017: Sensors
Tesfalem Geremariam Welearegay, Umut Cindemir, Lars Österlund, Radu Ionescu
Here we report for the first time the fabrication of ligand functionalised ultrapure monodispersed metal nanoparticles (Au, Cu, and Pt) from their pure metal precursors using the Advanced Gas Deposition technique. The experimental conditions during nanoparticles formation were adjusted in order to obtain ultrafine isolated nanoparticles on different substrates. The morphology and surface analysis of the as-deposited metal nanoparticles were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, which demonstrated the formation of highly ordered pure crystalline nanoparticles with a relatively uniform size distribution of ~10 nm (Au), ~ 4 nm (Cu) and ~ 3 nm (Pt), respectively...
December 5, 2017: Nanotechnology
Tanveer A Tabish, Shaowei Zhang, Paul G Winyard
Graphene has a promising future in applications such as disease diagnosis, cancer therapy, drug/gene delivery, bio-imaging and antibacterial approaches owing to graphene's unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties alongside minimal toxicity to normal cells, and photo-stability. However, these unique features and bioavailability of graphene are fraught with uncertainties and concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in the physicochemical properties of graphene affect biological responses including reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...
November 22, 2017: Redox Biology
Wei Wang, Xingyu Liu, Kerui Li, Tielong Li
Dehalococcoides spp. were extensively studied and applied to in-situ trichloroethylene (TCE) remediation since it is the only genus that can reduce TCE to harmless ethene completely. However, this technology was hindered because of the requirement of electron donor (i.e. hydrogen or fermentable organic substrate). Considering the spontaneous electric field and in-situ hydrogen production capacity of tourmaline, this mineral was used as an environmental-friendly bio-promoter for dechlorinating mixed culture containing Dehalococcoides spp...
November 20, 2017: Chemosphere
Stéphane Torelli, Charlène Esmieu, Maylis Orio, Jordan Mangue, Jacques Pécaut, Stéphane Ménage
We demonstrate, based on experimental and theoretical evidences, that the isolated [2(CH3CN)2]2+ complex prepared in CH3CN and containing a mixed-valent {Cu2II,IS} core evolves towards a new [2(CH3CN)3]2+ species upon solvation in CH3CN. Unlike its type III structural analog [2(H2O)(OTf)]+ active toward N2O reduction, this new type I compound is inactive. This outcome opens new perspectives for a rational for N2O activation using bio-inspired Cu/S complexes, especially on the role of the valence localization/delocalization and the Cu-Cu bond on the reactivity...
November 28, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chin Fhong Soon, Kian Sek Tee, Soon Chuan Wong, Nafarizal Nayan, Sargunan Sundra, Mohd Khairul Ahmad, Farshid Sefat, Naznin Sultana, Mansour Youseffi
Growing three dimensional (3D) cells is an emerging research in tissue engineering. Biophysical properties of the 3D cells regulate the cells growth, drug diffusion dynamics and gene expressions. Scaffold based or scaffoldless techniques for 3D cell cultures are rarely being compared in terms of the physical features of the microtissues produced. The biophysical properties of the microtissues cultured using scaffold based microencapsulation by flicking and scaffoldless liquid crystal (LC) based techniques were characterized...
November 30, 2017: Cytotechnology
Veronica Diaz-Rodriguez, Erh-Ting Hsu, Elena Ganusova, Elena Werst, Jeffrey Marvin Becker, Christine A Hrycyna, Mark D Distefano
Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification that involves the addition of one or two isoprenoid groups to the C-terminus of selected proteins using either farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Three crucial enzymatic steps are involved in the processing of prenylated proteins to yield the final mature product. The farnesylated dodecapeptide, a-factor, is particularly useful for studies of protein prenylation because it requires the identical three step process to generate the same C-terminal farnesylated cysteine methyl ester substructure present in larger farnesylated proteins...
November 30, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Muhammad Mukhtiar, Syed Umer Jan, Ihsan Ullah, Abid Hussain, Izhar Ullah, Rahman Gul, Essa Ali, Abdul Jabbar, Zulfiqar Hussan Kuthu, Muhammad Wasim, Muhammad Farid Khan
Thiol groups are extensively present across biological systems being found in range of small molecules (e.g. Glutathione, Homo-cysteine) and proteins (e.g. albumin, haemo-globin). Albumin is considered to be a major thiol containing protein present in circulating Plasma. Albumin contains a single thiolate group located at cysteine-34(cys-34) at its active site. Albumin also binds a wide variety of metals and metals complexes at various sites around the protein. Usually heavy metals are preferentially attached with the thiol group of albumin...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nadia Boufaied, Claire Nash, Annie Rochette, Anthony Smith, Brigid Orr, O Cathal Grace, Yu Chang Wang, Dunarel Badescu, Jiannis Ragoussis, Axel A Thomson
Prostate organogenesis involves epithelial growth controlled by inductive signalling from specialised mesenchymal subsets. To identify pathways active in mesenchyme we used tissue and single cell transcriptomics to define mesenchymal subsets and subset-specific transcript expression. We documented transcript expression using Tag-seq and RNA-seq in female rat Ventral Mesenchymal Pad (VMP) as well as adjacent urethra comprised of smooth muscle and peri-urethral mesenchyme. Transcripts enriched in female VMP were identified with Tag-seq of microdissected tissue, RNA-seq of cell populations, and single cells...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel L Gall, Wayne S Kontur, Wu Lan, Hoon Kim, Yanding Li, John Ralph, Timothy J Donohue, Daniel R Noguera
New environmentally sound technologies are needed to derive valuable compounds from renewable resources. Lignin, an abundant polymer in terrestrial plants comprised predominantly of guaiacyl and syringyl monoaromatic phenylpropanoid units, is a potential natural source of aromatic compounds. In addition, the plant secondary metabolite, tricin, is a recently discovered and moderately abundant flavonoid in grasses. The most prevalent inter-unit linkage between guaiacyl, syringyl, and tricin units is the β-ether linkage...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Lauren N Ko, Daniela Kroshinsky, Peter C Schalock
BACKGROUND: The use of metal-containing bio-devices is becoming increasingly common. Self-reported history of dermatitis with metal exposure is not established as being predictive for metal allergy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of two screening questions addressing metal allergy. METHODS: At Massachusetts General Hospital Contact Dermatitis Clinic, 2132 consecutive patients were asked either 'Do you get rashes when jewellery touches your skin' (Q1; N = 1816) or 'Do you get rashes when metal touches your skin?' (Q2; N = 316) before being patch tested...
November 27, 2017: Contact Dermatitis
Nirod Kumar Sarangi, Roobala C, Jaydeep Kumar Basu
Dynamic heterogeneity (DH) at nanoscale due to lipid-lipid and/or lipid-protein interactions in cell membranes plays a crucial role in determining a broad range of important cell functions. In cell membranes, the dimensions of these nanodomains have been postulated to be in the order of 10's of nm and transient in nature. While the structural features of membranes have been studied in detail, little is known about their dynamical characteristics due to paucity of techniques which can probe nanoscale phenomena with simultaneous high temporal resolution...
November 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Carol-Anne Villeneuve, Geneviève Marchand, Marie Gardette, Jacques Lavoie, Eve Neesham-Grenon, Denis Bégin, Maximilien Debia
Biological degreasing stations (BDSs) are used by mechanics. These BDSs use a water-based solution with a microbial degradation process. Occupational exposure during the use of BDSs has not been reported and few studies have identified the bacteria present. The objectives were to measure the concentration of microorganisms during BDSs' use and monitor the bacterial community in the liquid over time. Five mechanical workshops were studied. Six 30-min samples were taken at each workshop over one year. Bioaerosols in the ambient air samples were collected with Andersen impactors near the BDS Bioaerosols in the workers' breathing zone (WBZ) were collected on filters...
November 21, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Cen Li, Wei Xu, Shengqi Chu, Zhiyuan Zheng, Yuancan Xiao, Linshuai Li, Hongtai Bi, Lixin Wei
Zuotai, a famous Tibetan medicinal mixture containing β-HgS, has been used to combine with herbal remedies for treating diseases for more than 1 300 years. The target organ for inorganic mercury toxicity is generally considered to be the kidney. Therefore, it is crucial to reveal the chemical speciation, spatial distribution and potential nephrotoxicity of mercury from Zuotai in kidney. To date, this remains poorly understood. We used X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) imaging based on synchrotron radiation to study mercury chemical forms and mercury special distribution in kidney after mice were treated orally with Zuotai, β-HgS or HgCl2...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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