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Bio containment

Benjamin L Jones, Leanne C Cullen-Unsworth, Richard K F Unsworth
Excess nutrients shift the ecological balance of coastal ecosystems, and this eutrophication is an increasing problem across the globe. Nutrient levels may be routinely measured, but monitoring rarely attempts to determine the source of these nutrients, even though bio-indicators are available. Nitrogen stable isotope analysis in biota is one such bio-indicator, but across the British Isles, this is rarely used. In this study, we provide the first quantitative evidence of the anthropogenic drivers of reduced water quality surrounding seagrass meadows throughout the British Isles using the stable nitrogen isotope δ15 N...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sławomira Bering, Jacek Mazur, Krzysztof Tarnowski, Magdalena Janus, Sylwia Mozia, Antoni Waldemar Morawski
Large, laboratory scale biological treatment tests of real industrial wastewater, generated in a large industrial laundry facility, was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015. This research sought to develop laundry wastewater treatment technology which included tests of a two-stage Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR); this had two reactors, was filled with carriers Kaldnes K5 (specific area - 800 m2 /m3 ) and were realized in aerobic condition. Operating on site, in the laundry, reactors were fed actual wastewater from the laundry retention tank...
February 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chen-Hong Ding, Chuan Yin, Shi-Jie Chen, Liang-Zhi Wen, Kai Ding, Shu-Juan Lei, Jin-Pei Liu, Jian Wang, Kai-Xian Chen, Hua-Liang Jiang, Xin Zhang, Cheng Luo, Wei-Fen Xie
BACKGROUND: Our previous study has demonstrated that hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) exerts potent therapeutic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms by which HNF1α reverses HCC malignancy need to be further elucidated. METHODS: lncRNA microarray was performed to identify the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulated by HNF1α. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays were applied to clarify the mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of HNF1α to HNF1A antisense RNA 1 (HNF1A-AS1)...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Luca Rossoni, Reuben Carr, Scott Baxter, Roxann Cortis, Thomas Thorpe, Graham Eastham, Gill Stephens
Bio-production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic C5 sugars usually requires the use of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to produce pyruvate. Unfortunately, the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A results in the loss of 33 % of the carbon as CO2, to the detriment of sustainability and process economics. To improve atom efficiency, we engineered Escherichia coli to utilize d-xylose constitutively using the Weimberg pathway, to allow direct production of 2-oxoglutarate without CO2 loss. After confirming enzyme expression in vitro, the pathway expression was optimized in vivo using a combinatorial approach, by screening a range of constitutive promoters whilst systematically varying the gene order...
February 5, 2018: Microbiology
Vemula Mohana Krishna, T Somanathan, E Manikandan, Kiran Kumar Tadi, S Uvarajan
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are still receiving much attention in bio-sensing applications due to their remarkable properties. In this present research work, fibre-like carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) were successfully fabricated over copper-molybdenum (Cu-Mo) substituted alumina nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique and effectively employed as a neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) sensor. The obtained product was purified and structurally characterized by various techniques such as, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Qilin Yu, Xiaochen Jin, Yaobin Zhang
Sludge cell disruption was generally considered as the rate-limiting step for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Advanced oxidation processes and bio-electro-chemical systems were recently reported to enhance the hydrolysis of WAS and sludge cell disruption, while the cell-breaking processes of these systems remain unclear yet. In this study, an innovative Bio-electro-Fenton system was developed to pretreat the WAS sequentially with cathode Fenton process and anode anaerobic digestion...
February 9, 2018: Water Research
Zuyuan Luo, Siqi Zhang, Jijia Pan, Rui Shi, Hao Liu, Yalin Lyu, Xiao Han, Yan Li, Yue Yang, Zhixiu Xu, Yi Sui, En Luo, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shicheng Wei
The efficacy of stem cell-based bone tissue engineering has been hampered by cell death and limited fate control. A smart cell culture system with the capability of sequentially delivering multiple factors in specific growth stages, like the mechanism of the natural extracellular matrix modulating tissue formation, is attractive for enhancing cell activity and controlling cell fate. Here, a bone forming peptide-1 (BFP-1)-laden mesoporous silica nanoparticles (pep@MSNs) incorporated adhesion peptide, containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) domain, modified alginate hydrogel (RA) system (pep@MSNs-RA) was developed to promote the activity and stimulate osteo-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in sequence...
February 10, 2018: Biomaterials
Olaposi Idowu Omotuyi, Oyekanmi Nash, Olumide Kayode Inyang, Joyce Ogidigo, Ojochenemi Enejoh, Okiemute Okpalefe, Tsuyoshi Hamada
Chromolaena odorata is a major bio-resource in folkloric treatment of diabetes. In the present study, its anti-diabetic component and underlying mechanism were investigated. A library containing 140 phytocompounds previously characterized from C. odorata was generated and docked (Autodock Vina) into homology models of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4, Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor, renal sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLUT)-1/2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins 1&2...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Tahir Rasheed, Muhammad Bilal, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Hongbo Hu, Wei Wang, Xuehong Zhang
Owing to the ever-increasing environmental and health impacts associated with the discharge of dye-based effluents, effective remediation of industrial waste has become a top priority for the industrialists and environmental fraternity, around the world. In this context, plant-based peroxidases represent a suitable bio-remediating agent for the effective treatment of original dyes or dye-based colored wastewater effluents. In the present study, horseradish peroxidase was entrapped on a polyacrylamide gel and investigated its potential for the degradation and detoxification of an azo dye, methyl orange...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yao Li, Jingran Bi, Siqi Wang, Tan Zhang, Xiaomeng Xu, Haitao Wang, Shasha Cheng, Bei-Wei Zhu, Mingqian Tan
Significant wastage of residual liquid food, such as milk, yogurt, and honey, in food container has attracted great attention. In this work, a bio-inspired edible super-hydrophobic interface was fabricated using the FDA-approved and edible honeycomb wax, arabic gum, and gelatin by a simple and low-cost method. The bio-inspired edible super-hydrophobic interface showed multiscale structures, which were similar to that of lotus leaf surface. This bio-inspired edible super-hydrophobic interface displayed high contact angles for a variety of liquid foods and the residue of liquid foods could be effectively reduced using the bio-inspired interface...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
P Bargavi, S Chitra, D Durgalakshmi, P Rajashree, S Balakumar
Bioglass 45S5 (45% SiO2-24.5% NaO-24.5% CaO-6% P2O5) is a unique bioactive material, which is being used for bone and dental substitution. This system has been highly preferred for its osteoconductive and osteoinductive performance. Despite its attractive bioactivity, there are limitations in using this material for orthopedic and dental applications due to its poor processability and mechanical strength. To improve the load-sharing and stress distribution, TiO2 nanoparticles have been introduced into the nanoBioglass (nBG) by sol-gel method...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Nobuo Suga
For echolocation, mustached bats emit velocity-sensitive orientation sounds (pulses) containing a constant-frequency component consisting of four harmonics (CF1-4). They show unique behavior called Doppler-shift compensation for Doppler-shifted echoes and hunting behavior for frequency and amplitude modulated echoes from fluttering insects. Their peripheral auditory system is highly specialized for fine frequency analysis of CF2 (∼61.0 kHz) and detecting echo CF2 from fluttering insects. In their central auditory system, lateral inhibition occurring at multiple levels sharpens V-shaped frequency-tuning curves at the periphery and creates sharp spindle-shaped tuning curves and amplitude tuning...
February 2, 2018: Hearing Research
Shiqi Dong, Yong Zeng, Guangli Wei, Duanyun Si, Changxiao Liu
A simple, sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method for quantitative analysis of human insulin was developed and validated in dog plasma. Insulin glargine was used as the internal standard. After a simple step of solid-phase extraction, the chromatographic separation of human insulin was achieved by using InertSustain Bio C18 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile containing 1% formic acid (A)-water containing 1% formic acid (B). The detection was performed by positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ali Mojtahedin, Jamal Seifdavati, Reza Seyedsharifi
Citrus Limon Oil (CLO) is known as antioxidant resource and contains limonoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of CLO on blood parameters and antioxidant status in Afshari ewes. Six adults Afshari ewes (3-4 years old and 51±5 kg) were randomly allocated to 3×3 Latin square design with three diets in 21 days period. Dietary treatments included:1) control diet, 2) control diet with 200 mg/day CLO, and 3) control diet with 400 mg/day CLO...
January 31, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Manivannan Sethurajan, Eric D van Hullebusch, Yarlagadda V Nancharaiah
Solid metalliferous wastes (sludges, dusts, residues, slags, red mud and tailing wastes) originating from ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgical industries are a serious environmental threat, when waste management practices are not properly followed. Metalliferous wastes generated by metallurgical industries are promising resources for biotechnological extraction of metals. These wastes still contain significant amounts of valuable non-ferrous metals, sometimes precious metals and also rare earth elements. Elemental composition and mineralogy of the metallurgical wastes is dependent on the nature of mining site and composition of primary ores mined...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Olga Kuksenok, Awaneesh Singh, Anna Balazs
Inspired by the adaptive behavior of photo-responsive biological organisms, we use theory and simulation to design polymer gels and composites that can be dynamically reconfigured and driven to move with the application of light. We focus on gels formed from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and functionalized with spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores, which become hydrophobic under blue light in acidic aqueous solution. We demonstrate that these gels can be patterned remotely and reversibly by illuminating the samples through photomasks and thus, "molded" into a variety of shapes with features sizes that are on the sub-mm length scale...
February 6, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ibrahim Abdulqadir, Sagir Gumel Ahmed, Aisha Gwarzo Kuliya, Jamilu Tukur, Aminu Abba Yusuf, Abubakar Umar Musa
CONTEXT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) scourge continues to affect young women within the reproductive age group and pregnancy is a recognized indication for the use antiretroviral (ARV) drugs among HIV-positive women. AIMS: The aim is to determine the combined effect of pregnancy, HIV and ARV drugs on the hematological parameters of the pregnant women. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a comparative cross-sectional study conducted among 70 each of HIV-positive and negative pregnant women...
January 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Yasaman Delaviz, Mitchell A Nascimento, Michael W Laschuk, Timothy W Liu, Meilin Yang, J Paul Santerre
OBJECTIVE: Two leading causes contributing to dental restoration replacement are the marginal breakdown at the composite/dentin interface and secondary caries mediated by bacteria. The objective of the present study was to synthesize oligomers which incorporated enhanced bio-stability but would also be able to generate antimicrobial function if they underwent degradation. METHODS: Stability was incorporated into the oligomers by generating structural features that would physically hinder the availability of hydrolytically sensitive groups in the oligomers...
February 2, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Weimin Chen, Yicheng Xu, Shukai Shi, Yizhong Cao, Minzhi Chen, Xiaoyan Zhou
The presence of non-poplar extracts, cutin, and wax layer in the wheat straw outer surface (WOS) greatly limit its application in bio-composite preparation. In this study, a dielectric-barrier-discharge plasma using water vapor as feeding gas was used to fast modify the WOS. The morphology, free radical concentrations, surface chemical components, and contact angles of WOS before and after plasma modification were investigated. Wheat straw was further prepared into wheat straw-based composites (WSC) and its bonding strength was evaluated by a paper tension meter...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Selvakumar Gopal, Charlotte C Shagol, Yeongyeong Kang, Bong Nam Chung, Seung Gab Han, Sa Tong-Min
AIMS: The propagation of pure cultures of AMF is an essential requirement for their large scale agricultural application and commercialization as biofertilizers. The present study aimed to propagate AMF using the single spore inoculation technique and compare their propagation ability with the known reference spores. METHODS AND RESULTS: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores were collected from the salt-affected Saemangeum reclaimed soil in South Korea. The technique involved inoculation of Sorghum-Sudan grass (Sorghum bicolor L...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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