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Bio containment

Somayeh Sadighian, Kobra Rostamizadeh, Mehrdad Hamidi, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Hassan Hosseini-Monfared
This study aimed to evaluate bio-safety of magnetic chitosan nanogels as dual triggered drug carrier for doxorubicin through analysis of mitochondrial function. In the present study, chitosan/TPP nanogels containing magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared according to the ionotropic gelation method as novel pH-sensitive magnetic nanogels. The NPs showed outstanding entrapment efficiency for doxorubicin (76.6%) with a sustained and high extent of drug release in the acidic media (pH=5-7) compared to the neutral media...
June 19, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Nadarajan Saravanan Prabhu, Hyungdon Yun
Photo-induced covalent crosslinking has emerged as the powerful strategy for analyzing and characterizing the protein-protein interaction and mapping protein 3D conformations. In the last decades, a number of photocrosslinking amino acids have been reported but only a few have been efficiently utilized for photocrosslinking purposes. Recently, incorporation of diazirine containing photoactivatable analogs such as photo-methionine, photo-leucine, photo-isoleucine and photo-lysine into target proteins were accomplished in live cells (Human A549cells, HEK 293) by depleting corresponding natural amino acid and supplementing these analogs in the medium...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
I C Ribeiro, C C Leclercq, N Simões, A Toureiro, I Duarte, J B Freire, M M Chaves, J Renaut, C Pinheiro
Proteins and peptides able to resist gastrointestinal digestion and reach the intestinal mucosa have the potential to influence human health. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seed proteins are able to resist cooking (86.9% total protein) and/or in vitro simulated human digestion (15.9% total protein resists soaking, cooking and digestion with pepsin and pancreatin). To identify and characterize proteins resisting digestion we made use of different MS methodologies. The efficiency of several proteases (trypsin, AspN, chymotrypsin and LysC) was tested, and two technologies were employed (MALDI-TOF-TOF and LC-nESI-MS/MS)...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
Fang Wang, S S Jyothirmayee Aravind, Hao Wu, Joseph Forys, Venkat Venkataraman, Kandalam Ramanujachary, Xiao Hu
Green graphene materials prepared by photoreduction of graphite oxide were first time blended with aqueous-based silk fibroin proteins to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of silk biomaterials, and their nanocomposite interaction mechanism was illustrated. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the complete exfoliation of graphite oxide to graphene in presence of focused pulses of solar radiation. By varying the concentration of graphene (0.1wt% to 10wt%), a series of free standing graphene-silk films were prepared and were systematically characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation measurements...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Yin Zhang, Zhenning Wu, Yan Shu, Fei Wang, Weijing Cao, Wenhui Li
A novel bioactive vaterite-containing tricalcium silicate bone cement (V5) was successfully synthesized through self hydration and carbonization, by introducing CO2 into the hydration process of Ca3SiO5 (C3S). The purpose of this work is to reduce the adverse effect of the hydration products Ca(OH)2 on the C3S bone cement, and improve further the bioactivity of the C3S bone cement. XRD and FT-IR analysis indicated that vaterite was successfully formed in tricalcium silicate bone cement. The in vitro bioactivity of V5 was investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various periods (1, 3, 7days), in addition to setting time, compressive strength and cell behavior...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Pornpen Sae-Ung, Kristopher W Kolewe, Ying Bai, Eric W Rice, Jessica D Schiffman, Todd Emrick, Voravee P Hoven
In this study, we have fabricated robust patterned surfaces that contain biocompatible and antifouling stripes, which cause microorganisms to consolidate into bare silicon spaces. Copolymers of methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and a methacrylate-substituted dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) were spin-coated onto silicon substrates. The MPC units contributed biocompatibility and antifouling properties, while the DHLA units enabled crosslinking and the formation of robust thin films. Photolithography enabled the formation of 200 µm wide poly(MPC-DHLA) stripped patterns that were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and rhodamine 6G staining...
June 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ekaterina Gerasimov, Alex Zelikovsky, Ion Măndoiu, Yurij Ionov
BACKGROUND: For fighting cancer, earlier detection is crucial. Circulating auto-antibodies produced by the patient's own immune system after exposure to cancer proteins are promising bio-markers for the early detection of cancer. Since an antibody recognizes not the whole antigen but 4-7 critical amino acids within the antigenic determinant (epitope), the whole proteome can be represented by a random peptide phage display library. This opens the possibility to develop an early cancer detection test based on a set of peptide sequences identified by comparing cancer patients' and healthy donors' global peptide profiles of antibody specificities...
June 7, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
Chao Huang, Mu-Tan Luo, Xue-Fang Chen, Gao-Xiang Qi, Lian Xiong, Xiao-Qing Lin, Can Wang, Hai-Long Li, Xin-De Chen
BACKGROUND: Microbial oil is one important bio-product for its important function in energy, chemical, and food industry. Finding suitable substrates is one key issue for its industrial application. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates can be utilized by oleaginous microorganisms with two different bio-pathways ("de novo" lipid fermentation and "ex novo" lipid fermentation). To date, most of the research on lipid fermentation has focused mainly on only one fermentation pathway and little work was carried out on both "de novo" and "ex novo" lipid fermentation simultaneously; thus, the advantages of both lipid fermentation cannot be fulfilled comprehensively...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Fatma Pir Cakmak, Christine D Keating
Natural clay particles have been hypothesized as catalysts on the early Earth, potentially facilitating the formation of early organic (bio) molecules. Association of clay particles with droplets formed by liquid-liquid phase separation could provide a physical mechanism for compartmentalization of inorganic catalysts in primitive protocells. Here we explore the distribution of natural clay mineral particles in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)/dextran (Dx) aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS). We compared the three main types of natural clay: kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite, all of which are aluminosilicates of similar composition and surface charge...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Lien D'Olieslaeger, Yasmine Braeken, Srujan Cheruku, Joeri Smits, Marcel Ameloot, Dirk Vanderzande, Wouter Maes, Anitha Ethirajan
Conjugated polymers are versatile bio-imaging probes as their optical properties can be readily fine-tuned. In this manuscript, fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles are fabricated using three different poly(p-phenylene ethynylene) (PPE) derivatives. The polymers have the same backbone but carry different side chains, i.e. regular octyloxy substituents, half of the octyloxy chains azide terminated, or azide functionalized tetraethylene glycol (TEG) moieties. The azide groups are specifically chosen to allow coupling of (bio)molecules to the surface of the particles using straightforward azide-alkyne click reactions, enabling different bioconjugation and targeting strategies...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Ji Tae Kim, Udit Choudhury, Hyeon-Ho Jeong, Peer Fischer
Nanodiamonds are emerging as nanoscale quantum probes for bio-sensing and imaging. This necessitates the development of new methods to accurately manipulate their position and orientation in aqueous solutions. The realization of an "active" nanodiamond (ND) swimmer in fluids, composed of a ND crystal containing nitrogen vacancy centers and a light-driven self-thermophoretic micromotor, is reported. The swimmer is propelled by a local temperature gradient created by laser illumination on its metal-coated side...
June 12, 2017: Advanced Materials
Rui Shi, Hao Li, Enhui Wu, Lipeng Xiong, Rui Lv, Ruochen Guo, Yang Liu, Guoqiang Xu, Zhenhui Kang, Jian Liu
The research field in enzyme-based biotechnology urgently requires the discovery of new materials and methods with high-performance. Here we report that highly crystalline graphite dots (GDs) can modulate enzyme activities, and simultaneously allow for real-time measurements on enzyme kinetics in combination with mass spectrometry (MS). A well-defined modulation of lipolytic activities from inhibition to enhancement can be realized by selectively coupling lipase enzymes with GDs containing specific functional groups on the surface...
June 12, 2017: Nanoscale
Meng Chen, Ling Zhang, Mingxia Gao, Xiangmin Zhang
A novel, high-sensitivity, biocompatible SERS tag with core-shell structure based on gold nanoparticles containing alkynyl molecule core -silver nanoparticle satellites shell was fabricated for the first time to be used for live cancer cells Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) imaging. (E)-2-((4-(phenylethynyl)benzylidene) amino) ethanethiol (PBAT) synthesized facilely in our lab is the Raman-silence region reporter which is advantage for bioorthogonal SERS cell imaging. In order to enhance the intensity of the Raman tags for live cancer cell imaging, a series of news measures have been adopted...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
Chen Song, Xiaoling Liu, Yonghui Song, Ruixia Liu, Hongjie Gao, Lu Han, Jianfeng Peng
Elimination of black-stinking water contamination has been listed as an urgent task in the Water pollution prevention action plan promulgated by State Council of China. However, the key blackening and stinking pollutants and their sources are still unclear. In this study, water quality of a black-stinking urban river in Beijing, Dongsha River, was evaluated firstly; then the distribution of the blackening and stinking pollutants was investigated, and the key pollutants and their potential sources were identified; and finally, the health risk of those pollutants was assessed...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Haosheng Chen, Jia Man, Zhongnan Li, Jiang Li
Fluids containing high concentration polymers, sols, nanoparticles, etc., usually have high viscosities, and high-viscosity fluids are difficult to be encapsulated into uniform droplets. Here we report a surface-controlled breakup method to generate droplets directly from various aqueous and nonaqueous fluids with viscosities of 1.0 to 11.9 Pa s and a dispersed-to-continuous viscosity ratio up to 1000, whereas the volume fraction of droplets up to 50% can be achieved. It provides a straightforward method to encapsulate high viscosity fluids, in a well-controlled manner in the rapid developing droplet-based applications, including materials synthesis, drug delivery, cell assay, bioengineering, etc...
June 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zezhong Yang, Jixing Xia, Huipeng Pan, Cheng Gong, Wen Xie, Zhaojiang Guo, Huixin Zheng, Xin Yang, Fengshan Yang, Qingjun Wu, Shaoli Wang, Youjun Zhang
Sugar transporters (STs) play pivotal roles in the growth, development, and stress responses of phloem-sucking insects, such as the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. In this study, 137 sugar transporters (STs) were identified based on analysis of the genome and transcriptome of B. tabaci MEAM1. B. tabaci MEAM1 encodes a larger number of STs than other selected insects. Phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis showed that the 137 STs formed three expanded clades and that the genes in Sternorrhyncha expanded clades had accelerated rates of evolution...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Fuminori Kato, Motoki Nakamura, Motoyuki Sugai
Recent advances in fluorescent protein technology provide a wide variety of biological imaging applications; however current tools for bio-imaging in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus has necessitated further developments for fluorescence intensity and for a multicolor palette of fluorescent proteins. To enhance the expression of multicolor fluorescent proteins in clinical S. aureus strains, we developed new fluorescent protein expression vectors, containing the blaZ/sodp promoter consisting of the β-lactamase gene (blaZ) promoter and the ribosome binding site (RBS) of superoxide dismutase gene (sod)...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Aleksandra E Sikora, Robert H Mills, Jacob V Weber, Adel Hamza, Bryan W Passow, Andrew Romaine, Zachary A Williamson, Robert W Reed, Ryszard A Zielke, Konstantin V Korotkov
Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea, which is highly prevalent worldwide and has a major impact on reproductive and neonatal health. The "superbug" status of N. gonorrhoeae necessitates development of drugs with different mechanisms of action. Here, we focused on targeting the nitrite reductase AniA, which is a pivotal component of N. gonorrhoeae anaerobic respiration and biofilm formation. Our studies showed that gonococci expressing AniA containing altered catalytic residues, D137A and H280A, failed to grow under anaerobic conditions demonstrating that the nitrite reductase function is essential...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Xiuli Han, Yongqing Yang, Yujiao Wu, Xiaohui Liu, Xiaoguang Lei, Yan Guo
Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase is essential for plant growth and development. Various environmental stimuli regulate its activity, a process that involves many protein cofactors. However, whether endogenous small molecules play a role in this regulation remains unknown. Here, we describe a bio-guided isolation method to identify endogenous small molecules that regulate PM H+-ATPase activity. We obtained crude extracts from Arabidopsis seedlings with or without salt treatment and then purified them into fractions based on polarity and molecular mass by repeated column chromatography...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Huihui Chen, Cheng Zhang, Yue Rao, Yuhang Jing, Gang Luo, Shicheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) has been well studied for the bio-oil production from biomass. However, a large amount of wastewater with high organic content is also produced during the HTL process. Therefore, the present study investigated the methane potentials of hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (HTLWW) obtained from HTL of rice straw at different temperatures (170-320 °C) and residence times (0.5-4 h). The characteristics (e.g., total organic content, organic species, molecular size distribution, etc...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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