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antibiotics and cements

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089125/long-term-outcomes-of-permanent-cement-spacers-in-the-infected-foot
#1
Tammer Elmarsafi, Noah G Oliver, John S Steinberg, Karen K Evans, Christopher E Attinger, Paul J Kim
When osteomyelitis occurs in the infected foot, cement spacers have been used as a limb salvage tool. The aim of the present study was to assess the longevity and outcomes in high-risk, low-demand patients who have undergone resection of bone and subsequent placement of permanent antibiotic-eluting cement spacers in the foot. A retrospective review case series of 30 patients who had undergone placement of a permanent antibiotic-eluting cement spacer in the foot were evaluated for retention, spacer exchange, removal, amputation, and functional status...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087408/effects-of-loading-concentration-blood-and-synovial-fluid-on-antibiotic-release-and-anti-biofilm-activity-of-bone-cement-beads
#2
Devendra H Dusane, Scott M Diamond, Cory S Knecht, Nicholas R Farrar, Casey W Peters, Robert P Howlin, Matthew C Swearingen, Jason H Calhoun, Roger D Plaut, Tanya M Nocera, Jeffrey F Granger, Paul Stoodley
Antibiotic loaded cement beads are commonly used for the treatment of biofilm related orthopaedic periprosthetic infections; however the effects of antibiotic loading and exposure of beads to body fluids on release kinetics are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of (i) antibiotic loading density (ii) loading amount (iii) material type and (iv) exposure to body fluids (blood or synovial fluid) on release kinetics and efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and lawn biofilm bacteria...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057476/operative-treatment-of-early-infection-after-internal-fixation-of-limb-fractures-exclusive-of-severe-open-fractures
#3
REVIEW
P Bonnevialle
Early infection after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of a limb bone is defined as bacteriologically documented, deep and/or superficial surgical-site infection (SSI) diagnosed within 6months after the surgical procedure. This interval is arbitrarily considered sufficient to obtain fracture healing. The treatment of early infection after ORIF should be decided by a multidisciplinary team. The principles are the same as for revision arthroplasty. Superficial SSIs should be differentiated from deep SSIs, based on the results of bacteriological specimens collected using flawless technique...
January 2, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053381/a-simple-method-for-fashioning-an-antibiotic-impregnated-cemented-rod-for-intramedullary-placement-in-infected-non-union-of-long-bones
#4
Ajay Bharti, Umesh Kumar Saroj, Vineet Kumar, Sanjay Kumar, Balram Ji Omar
The intramedullary insertion of antibiotic impregnated PMMA rods, beads or nails are widely used and accepted modality of treatment for chronic osteomyelitis of long bones. But at times it becomes difficult to insert and remove these antibiotic delivery systems owing to narrowed medullary canals. Here we present a technique for preparing PMMA rods with diameter ranging from 6 mm to 3 mm. These rods could easily be placed in narrow intramedullary canal of long bones with chronic osteomyelitis or infected non-union...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053260/comparison-of-the-elution-properties-of-commercially-available-gentamicin-and-bone-cement-containing-vancomycin-with-home-made-preparations
#5
N M Frew, T Cannon, T Nichol, T J Smith, I Stockley
AIMS: Vancomycin is commonly added to acrylic bone cement during revision arthroplasty surgery. Proprietary cement preparations containing vancomycin are available, but are significantly more expensive. We investigated whether the elution of antibiotic from 'home-made' cement containing vancomycin was comparable with more expensive commercially available vancomycin impregnated cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 cement discs containing either proprietary CopalG+V; or 'home-made' CopalR+G with vancomycin added by hand, were made...
January 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002924/quantitative-study-on-vancomycin-release-from-cement-in-3-different-formulations-preliminary-results-and-antimicrobial-activity
#6
D Fenga, M Currò, M Rosi, D J Ortolà, A Cantivalli, R Ientile, M A Rosa
The purpose of this study is to investigate the best preparation method of the cement powder mixture, solvent and antibiotic in order to obtain the greatest amount of antibiotic in the joint for the longest time as possible. At time T0 the three samples, packed in a sterile environment in different formulations, were placed in sterile tubes, adding to each one 5 ml of saline phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and put in a stove at 37°C for 24 h. A sample of PBS without cement (T control) was also created. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the incubated liquid with cement was performed along with biochemical analysis with High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993444/two-stage-revisions-for-culture-negative-infected-total-knee-arthroplasties-a-five-year-outcome-in-comparison-with-one-stage-and-two-stage-revisions-for-culture-positive-cases
#7
Heng Li, Ming Ni, Xiang Li, Qingmeng Zhang, Xin Li, Jiying Chen
BACKGROUND: Culture-negative periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is very intractable when dealing with an infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patient. Two-stage revision has been proved to be a reliable solution for PJI patients. Whether it is still credible for culture-negative infected patients remains uncertain. METHODS: Our group retrospectively reviewed all total knee revision patients from January 2003 to January 2014, 145 PJI patients were diagnosed as infection with the PJI diagnostic criteria and 129 patients were successfully followed...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989720/prevention-of-propionibacterium-acnes-biofilm-formation-in-prosthetic-infections-in-vitro
#8
Robert P Howlin, Christopher Winnard, Elizabeth M Angus, Connor J Frapwell, Jeremy S Webb, John J Cooper, Sean S Aiken, Julie Y Bishop, Paul Stoodley
BACKGROUND: The role of Propionibacterium acnes in shoulder arthroplasty and broadly in orthopedic prosthetic infections has historically been underestimated, with biofilm formation identified as a key virulence factor attributed to invasive isolates. With an often indolent clinical course, P acnes infection can be difficult to detect and treat. This study investigates absorbable cements loaded with a broad-spectrum antibiotic combination as an effective preventive strategy to combat P acnes biofilms...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955626/antibiotics-and-antiseptics-for-preventing-infection-in-people-receiving-revision-total-hip-and-knee-prostheses-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
Jeffrey Voigt, Michael Mosier, Rabih Darouiche
BACKGROUND: Infection rates in revision (second and subsequent) major joint arthroplasty continues to be a significant issue with rates 2-3 times those of primary procedures. The effect of antibiotic and antiseptic prophylaxis on outcomes for this type of surgery has not been adequately reviewed. METHODS: A systematic search of the main databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating antibiotics and antiseptics was conducted to evaluate the predetermined endpoints of infection...
December 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941638/bronchiectasis-in-the-last-five-years-new-developments
#10
REVIEW
Jun Keng Khoo, Victoria Venning, Conroy Wong, Lata Jayaram
Bronchiectasis, a chronic lung disease characterised by cough and purulent sputum, recurrent infections, and airway damage, is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. To date, treatment options have been limited to physiotherapy to clear sputum and antibiotics to treat acute infections. Over the last decade, there has been significant progress in understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and microbiology of this disorder. Over the last five years, methods of assessing severity have been developed, the role of macrolide antibiotic therapy in reducing exacerbations cemented, and inhaled antibiotic therapies show promise in the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919578/is-the-commercial-antibiotic-loaded-bone-cement-useful-in-prophylactic-and-cost-saving-after-knee-and-hip-joint-arthroplasty-the-transatlantic-paradox
#11
Pablo Sanz-Ruiz, Jose Antonio Matas-Diez, Mar Sanchez-Somolinos, Manuel Villanueva-Martinez, Javier Vaquero-Martín
BACKGROUND: The use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) has proven to be effective in preventing periprosthetic infection (PPI) after total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the economic benefit of using ALBC routinely remains controversial. METHODS: A total of 2518 patients subjected to THA, partial hip arthroplasty, and TKA between 2009 and 2012 were identified in our prospectively collected registry. Two groups were defined: before (2009-2010) and after the introduction of ALBC (2011-2012)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892627/withdrawn-pulp-management-for-caries-in-adults-maintaining-pulp-vitality
#12
REVIEW
Hiroshi Miyashita, Helen V Worthington, Alison Qualtrough, Alphons Plasschaert
BACKGROUND: There is a range of treatment options for the management of the pulp in extensively decayed teeth. These include direct and indirect pulp capping, pulpotomy or pulpectomy. If the tooth is symptomatic or if there are periapical bone changes, then endodontic treatment is required. However, if the tooth is asymptomatic but the caries is extensive, there is no consensus as to the best method of management. In addition, there has been a recent move towards using alternative materials and methods such as the direct or indirect placement of bonding agents and mineral trioxide aggregate...
28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891409/distal-femur-locking-plate-the-answer-to-all-distal-femoral-fractures
#13
Jagandeep Singh Virk, Sudhir Kumar Garg, Parmanand Gupta, Vivek Jangira, Jagdeep Singh, Sudhir Rana
INTRODUCTION: Good results have been published by researchers with distal femur nail, dynamic condylar screw and even addition of a medial plate to a distal femur locking plate for treating distal femur fractures. By this study, we explore the capability of a distal femur locking plate to counter distal femur fractures of extra- articular, partial or intra- articular nature. Positive results have been published by various groups from all over the world. AIM: To study the functional and radiological outcome of distal femoral fractures in skeletally mature patients treated by open reduction and internal fixation with distal femur locking plate...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886355/acetabular-spacers-in-2-stage-hip-revision-is-it-worth-it-a-single-centre-retrospective-study
#14
Giorgio Burastero, Marco Basso, Giuliana Carrega, Luca Cavagnaro, Francesco Chiarlone, Carlo Salomone, Gabriele Papa, Lamberto Felli
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to evaluate an acetabular antibiotic loaded bone cement spacer in 2-stage revision surgery as a potential approach able to reduce complications during the inter-stage period (i.e. dislocation, acetabular wear), as well as simplify 2-stage hip revision surgery and improve hip biomechanics. METHODS: We performed a retrospective comparative study and evaluated clinical, radiological and surgical data of 71 patients affected by periprosthetic hip infection who were treated with 2-stage exchange...
November 25, 2016: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855203/elution-and-mechanical-strength-of-vancomycin-loaded-bone-cement-in-vitro-study-of-the-influence-of-brand-combination
#15
Sheng-Hsun Lee, Ching-Lung Tai, Szu-Yuan Chen, Chih-Hsiang Chang, Yu-Han Chang, Pang-Hsin Hsieh
Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is widely used in orthopaedic surgery for both prevention and treatment of infection. Little is known about the effect of different brand combinations of antibiotic and bone cement on the elution profile and mechanical strength of ALBC. Standardized specimens that consisted of one of the 4 brands of bone cement and one of the 3 brands of vancomycin were fashioned, producing 12 combinations of ALBC. Two dosages of vancomycin in 40g bone cement were used to represent the high (4g vancomycin) and low (1g vancomycin) dose groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823759/are-antibiotic-nails-effective-in-the-treatment-of-infected-tibial-fractures
#16
Rachel M Reilly, Thomas Robertson, Robert V O'Toole, Theodore T Manson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-impregnated cement nails are used to treat postoperative deep infections after primary intramedullary nail insertion for the treatment of tibial fractures. Few data exist regarding the efficacy of this treatment strategy. We hypothesized that such treatment with antibiotic nails results in a high rate of infection clearance at intermediate follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review at our Level I trauma center. Patients who received intramedullary nails to stabilize tibial fractures (from 2000 to 2011) and subsequently required antibiotic nails to treat deep postoperative infection (n=55) were considered for study inclusion...
December 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803231/the-use-of-high-dose-dual-impregnated-antibiotic-laden-cement-with-hemiarthroplasty-for-the-treatment-of-a-fracture-of-the-hip-the-fractured-hip-infection-trial
#17
A P Sprowson, C Jensen, S Chambers, N R Parsons, N M Aradhyula, I Carluke, D Inman, M R Reed
AIMS: A fracture of the hip is the most common serious orthopaedic injury, and surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most significant complications, resulting in increased mortality, prolonged hospital stay and often the need for further surgery. Our aim was to determine whether high dose dual antibiotic impregnated bone cement decreases the rate of infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A quasi-randomised study of 848 patients with an intracapsular fracture of the hip was conducted in one large teaching hospital on two sites...
November 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798203/analysis-of-linezolid-and-tigecycline-as-candidates-for-local-prophylaxis-via-antibiotic-loaded-bone-cement
#18
T Nichol, T J Smith, R Townsend, I Stockley, R Akid
OBJECTIVES: To assess the Gram-positive-specific antibiotic linezolid and the broad-spectrum antibiotic tigecycline for use in local antibiotic delivery via antibiotic-loaded bone cement. METHODS: Linezolid and tigecycline were added to Biomet bone cement at varying concentrations. Antibiotic elution over 1 week was quantified by HPLC-MS. The effect of wear on elution over 51 h was determined using a modified TE-66 wear tester. Eluted antibiotics were used to determine the MICs for a panel of clinically relevant bacteria...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790583/comparative-assessment-of-antimicrobial-efficacy-of-different-antibiotic-coated-gutta-percha-cones-on-enterococcus-faecalis-an-invitro-study
#19
Vardhaman Mulchand Jain, Gundabaktha Nagappa Karibasappa, Arun Suresh Dodamani, Prashanth Kumar Vishwakarma, Gaurao Vasant Mali
INTRODUCTION: The major goal of endodontic treatment is to eliminate bacteria from the root canals and prevent re-infection. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) has been attributed to be the most common organism for the endodontic treatment failures. The choice of endodontic material that have high antimicrobial efficacy can help in decreasing/avoiding growth of micro-organisms and facilitate the success rate of treatment. AIM: The present study was designed with an aim to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotic coated gutta-percha cones on E...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770338/alteration-of-inflammatory-cytokine-production-in-primary-total-knee-arthroplasty-using-antibiotic-loaded-bone-cement
#20
Vajara Wilairatana, Peerasit Sinlapavilawan, Sittisak Honsawek, Noppachart Limpaphayom
BACKGROUND: The aim was to compare serum levels of interleukin-6 (SIL6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and joint fluid IL-6 (JIL-6) level between total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that used bone cement (BC group) and antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC group). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients (40 TKAs) with a mean age of 69.6 years were non-randomly assigned to the BC or ALBC groups. Samples of SIL6, ESR, and CRP were collected at baseline and at 24 h, 72 h, and 4 weeks after surgery...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Official Journal of the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
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