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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811343/comparative-genomics-of-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-skin-and-soft-tissue-and-other-extraintestinal-infections
#1
Amit Ranjan, Sabiha Shaik, Nishant Nandanwar, Arif Hussain, Sumeet K Tiwari, Torsten Semmler, Savita Jadhav, Lothar H Wieler, Munirul Alam, Rita R Colwell, Niyaz Ahmed
Escherichia coli, an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional and genetic coordinates for ExPEC strains associated with these different types of infections have not proven conclusive...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810631/hyperoside-inhibits-biofilm-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Yixuan Sun, Fengjun Sun, Wei Feng, Xuewen Qiu, Yao Liu, Bo Yang, Yongchuan Chen, Peiyuan Xia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common pathogen in hospital-acquired infection and is readily able to form biofilms. Due to its high antibiotic resistance, traditional antibacterial treatments exert a limited effect on P. aeruginosa biofilm infections. It has been indicated that hyperoside inhibits P. aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1) biofilm formation without affecting growth. Therefore, the current study examined the biofilm formation and quorum sensing (QS) system of PAO1 in the presence of hyperoside. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis demonstrated that hyperoside significantly inhibited biofilm formation...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809644/-endoprosthesis-infections-guidelines-for-antibiotic-therapy-common-guidelines-of-the-czech-society-for-orthopaedics-and-traumatology-and-the-society-for-infectious-diseases-of-the-czech-medical-association-of-j-e-purkyn%C3%A4
#3
D Musil, M Balejová, M Horníková, A Chrdle, N Mallátová, O Nyč, V Chmelík, J Gallo, D Jahoda, J Stehlík
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study aims to articulate regional guidelines for curative and suppressive antibiotic therapy of total joint replacement infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS When developing the standard, used as source materials were the published foreign guidelines for antibiotic therapy of prosthetic joint infections, the analysis of resistance of bacterial strains conducted in the Hospital in České Budějovice, a.s. and the assessment of strain resistance for the Czech Republic published by the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net)...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808327/spontaneous-detachment-of-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-by-synergistic-effect-between-zwitterion-and-sugar-alcohol
#4
Jong Hyun Lim, Sang-Hun Song, Hyun-Sub Park, Jeong Rae Lee, Sang-Min Lee
A biofilm, a community of microorganisms, is highly resistant to antibiotics, resulting in massive losses in various areas. We herein present a strategy to remove Streptococcus mutans biofilms through a spontaneous exfoliation by the synergistic effect between zwitterion and sugar alcohols. It is assumed that the anionic site of zwitterion can be coupled with sugar alcohols and the cationic site remains in the state of lacking electrons. The cationic site allows the complexes to be delivered to negatively charged exopolysaccharides of biofilms...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807017/the-urinary-microbiota-of-men-and-women-and-its-changes-in-women-during-bacterial-vaginosis-and-antibiotic-treatment
#5
Cornelia Gottschick, Zhi-Luo Deng, Marius Vital, Clarissa Masur, Christoph Abels, Dietmar H Pieper, Irene Wagner-Döbler
BACKGROUND: The urinary microbiota is similarly complex as the vaginal and penile microbiota, yet its role as a reservoir for pathogens and for recurrent polymicrobial biofilm diseases like bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not clear. RESULTS: Here, we analysed the urinary microbiota of healthy men and women and compared it with that of women during BV and after antibiotic treatment using next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 regions. Eight different community types, so called urotypes (UT), were identified in healthy humans, all of which were shared between men and women, except UT 7, dominated in relative abundance by Lactobacillus crispatus, which was found in healthy women only...
August 14, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806528/surface-adaptive-gold-nanoparticles-with-effective-adherence-and-enhanced-photothermal-ablation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm
#6
Dengfeng Hu, Huan Li, Bailiang Wang, Zi Ye, Wenxi Lei, Fan Jia, Qiao Jin, Ke-Feng Ren, Jian Ji
Biofilms which contribute to the persistent bacterial infections pose serious threats to global public health, mainly due to their resistance to antibiotics penetration and escaping innate immune attacks by phagocytes. Here, we report a kind of surface-adaptive gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibiting (1) self-adaptive target to the acidic microenvironment of biofilm, (2) enhanced photothermal ablation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation and (3) no damage to the healthy tissues around biofilm...
August 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803607/effects-of-scutellaria-baicalensis-on-activity-and-biofilm-formation-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#7
Wei Chen, Bei Li, Shuai Li, Yi-Wen Ou, Qin Ou
Objective To explore the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis on activity and biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp).Methods The broth and agar dilution Methods were carried out to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Scutellaria baicalensis for TW518. VITEK-32 system was used to assay TW518 susceptibility to antibiotics. Kp biofilms were formed in vitro and stained with BacLight Live/Dead stain. The class integron geneⅠ1 mRNA expression was analyzed with RT-PCR...
September 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797969/bioactive-mesoporous-silica-nanostructures-with-anti-microbial-and-anti-biofilm-properties
#8
Paul Cătălin Balaure, Bianca Boarca, Roxana Cristina Popescu, Diana Savu, Roxana Trusca, Bogdan Ștefan Vasile, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu, Alina Maria Holban, Alexandra Bolocan, Ecaterina Andronescu
The increasing rate of antibiotic resistant bacteria associated with nosocomial infections in severely ill patients has urged the need for new antibacterial therapies. Nanostructured materials represent emerging innovative approaches to controlled delivery of different antimicrobial drugs. Delivery systems encapsulating natural compounds with antibacterial effects, such as essential oils have shown a great potential. Herein we report the development of SiO2 mesoporous nanosystems loaded with eucalyptus (EUC), orange (ORA), and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797964/enhancing-biodegradation-of-c16-alkyl-quaternary-ammonium-compounds-using-an-oxygen-based-membrane-biofilm-reactor
#9
YenJung Sean Lai, Aura Ontiveros-Valencia, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Yun Zhou, Evelyn Miranda, Juan Maldonado, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Bruce E Rittmann
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) (e.g., hexadecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide, CTAB) are emerging contaminants with widespread use as surfactants and disinfectants. Because the initial step of QAC biodegradation is mono-oxygenation, QAC degraders require O2, but normal aeration leads to serious foaming. Here, we developed and tested an oxygen-based membrane biofilm reactor (O2-MBfR) that delivers O2 by diffusion through the walls of hollow-membranes to a biofilm accumulating on the outer surface of membranes...
July 2, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795230/improved-multiplex-pcr-primers-for-rapid-identification-of-coagulase-negative-staphylococci
#10
Jonguk Kim, Jisoo Hong, Jeong-A Lim, Sunggi Heu, Eunjung Roh
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are opportunistic pathogens that are currently emerging as causative agents of human disease. Though CNS are widespread in the clinic and food, their precise identification at species level is important. Here, using 16S rRNA sequencing, 55 staphylococcal isolates were identified as S. capitis, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. pasteuri, S. saprophyticus, S. warneri, and S. xylosus. Although 16S rRNA sequencing is universally accepted as a standard for bacterial identification, the method did not effectively discriminate closely related species, and additional DNA sequencing was required...
August 9, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794175/a-comparative-genomics-study-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-from-orthopedic-device-related-infections-correlated-with-patient-outcome
#11
Virginia Post, Llinos G Harris, Mario Morgenstern, Leonardos Mageiros, Matthew D Hitchings, Guillaume Méric, Ben Pascoe, Samuel K Sheppard, R Geoff Richards, T Fintan Moriarty
Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen causing orthopedic device-related infections (ODRIs). This study investigated the association of genome variation and phenotypic features of the infecting S. epidermidis isolate with the clinical outcome of the infected patient. S. epidermidis isolates were collected from 104 patients with ODRI. Their clinical outcome was evaluated, after an average of 26 months, as either "cured" or "not cured". The isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792642/wastewater-pollution-differently-affects-the-antibiotic-resistance-gene-pool-and-biofilm-bacterial-communities-across-streambed-compartments
#12
Jèssica Subirats, Xavier Triadó-Margarit, Ladislav Mandaric, Vicenç Acuña, José Luis Balcázar, Sergi Sabater, Carles M Borrego
Wastewater discharges introduce antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) into surface waters. Both inputs directly affect the streambed resistome, either by exerting a selective pressure that favor the proliferation of resistant phenotypes or by enriching the resident communities with wastewater-associated ARB. Here, we investigated the impact of raw and treated urban wastewater discharges on epilithic (growing on rocks) and epipsammic (growing on sandy substrata) streambed biofilms. The effects were assessed by comparing control and impact sites i) on the composition of bacterial communities; ii) on the abundance of twelve antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) encoding resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, macrolides and vancomycin, as well as the class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1); and iii) on the occurrence of wastewater-associated bacteria, including putative pathogens, and their potential linkage to target ARGs...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792235/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-irradiation-with-visible-light-on-oral-bacteria-in-vitro-a-systematic-review
#13
Andreas Pummer, Helge Knüttel, Karl-Anton Hiller, Wolfgang Buchalla, Fabian Cieplik, Tim Maisch
AIM: Resistances to antibiotics employed for treatment of infectious diseases have increased to alarming numbers making it more and more difficult to treat diseases caused by microorganisms resistant to common antibiotics. Consequently, novel methods for successful inactivation of pathogens are required. In this instance, one alternative could be application of light for treatment of topical infections. Antimicrobial properties of UV light are well documented, but due to its DNA-damaging properties use for medical purposes is limited...
August 9, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791256/in-vivo-host-pathogen-interaction-as-revealed-by-global-proteomic-profiling-of-zebrafish-larvae
#14
Francisco Díaz-Pascual, Javiera Ortíz-Severín, Macarena A Varas, Miguel L Allende, Francisco P Chávez
The outcome of a host-pathogen interaction is determined by the conditions of the host, the pathogen, and the environment. Although numerous proteomic studies of in vitro-grown microbial pathogens have been performed, in vivo proteomic approaches are still rare. In addition, increasing evidence supports that in vitro studies inadequately reflect in vivo conditions. Choosing the proper host is essential to detect the expression of proteins from the pathogen in vivo. Numerous studies have demonstrated the suitability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model to in vivo studies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790407/employing-high-frequency-alternating-magnetic-fields-for-the-non-invasive-treatment-of-prosthetic-joint-infections
#15
Rajiv Chopra, Sumbul Shaikh, Yonatan Chatzinoff, Imalka Munaweera, Bingbing Cheng, Seth M Daly, Yin Xi, Chenchen Bing, Dennis Burns, David E Greenberg
Treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) usually requires surgical replacement of the infected joint and weeks of antibiotic therapy, due to the formation of biofilm. We introduce a non-invasive method for thermal destruction of biofilm on metallic implants using high-frequency (>100 kHz) alternating magnetic fields (AMF). In vitro investigations demonstrate a >5-log reduction in bacterial counts after 5 minutes of AMF exposure. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy confirm removal of biofilm matrix components within 1 minute of AMF exposure, and combination studies of antibiotics and AMF demonstrate a 5-log increase in the sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790301/an-early-mechanical-coupling-of-planktonic-bacteria-in-dilute-suspensions
#16
Simon Sretenovic, Biljana Stojković, Iztok Dogsa, Rok Kostanjšek, Igor Poberaj, David Stopar
It is generally accepted that planktonic bacteria in dilute suspensions are not mechanically coupled and do not show correlated motion. The mechanical coupling of cells is a trait that develops upon transition into a biofilm, a microbial community of self-aggregated bacterial cells. Here we employ optical tweezers to show that bacteria in dilute suspensions are mechanically coupled and show long-range correlated motion. The strength of the coupling increases with the growth of liquid bacterial culture. The matrix responsible for the mechanical coupling is composed of cell debris and extracellular polymer material...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782933/new-insights-into-antibiofilm-effect-of-a-nano-sized-zno-coating-against-the-pathogenic-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Marta M Alves, Ons Bouchami, Ana Tavares, Laura Córdoba, Catarina Ferreira Santos, Maria Miragaia, Maria de Fatima Montemor
ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) are arising as promising novel antibiotics towards device-related infections. The surface functionalization of Zn, a novel resorbable biomaterial, with ZnO NPs could present an effective solution to overcome such threat. In this sense, the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of nano and micro-sized ZnO coatings was studied against clinically relevant bacteria - methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The bacterial viability of planktonic and biofilm cells together with the corresponding biofilms structures revealed that only the nano-sized ZnO coating had an antibiofilm effect...
August 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782813/incorporating-lsrk-ai-2-quorum-quenching-capability-in-a-functionalized-biopolymer-capsule
#18
Melissa K Rhoads, Pricila Hauk, Jessica Terrell, Chen-Yu Tsao, Hyuntaek Oh, Srinivasa R Raghavan, Sheref S Mansy, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
Antibacterial resistance is an issue of increasing severity as current antibiotics are losing their effectiveness and fewer antibiotics are being developed. New methods for combating bacterial virulence are required. Modulating molecular communication among bacteria can alter phenotype, including attachment to epithelia, biofilm formation and even toxin production. Intercepting and modulating communication networks provide a means to attenuate virulence without directly interacting with the bacteria of interest...
August 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773992/influence-of-amphibian-antimicrobial-peptides-and-short-lipopeptides-on-bacterial-biofilms-formed-on-contact-lenses
#19
Magdalena Maciejewska, Marta Bauer, Damian Neubauer, Wojciech Kamysz, Malgorzata Dawgul
The widespread use of contact lenses is associated with several complications, including ocular biofilm-related infections. They are very difficult to manage with standard antimicrobial therapies, because bacterial growth in a biofilm is associated with an increased antibiotic resistance. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in eradication of bacterial biofilms formed on commercially available contact lenses. AMPs were synthesized according to Fmoc/tBu chemistry using the solid-phase method...
October 26, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771593/a-novel-small-rna-is-important-for-biofilm-formation-and-pathogenicity-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Patrick K Taylor, Antonius T M Van Kessel, Antonio Colavita, Robert E W Hancock, Thien-Fah Mah
The regulation of biofilm development requires multiple mechanisms and pathways, but it is not fully understood how these are integrated. Small RNA post-transcriptional regulators are a strong candidate as a regulatory mechanism of biofilm formation. More than 200 small RNAs in the P. aeruginosa genome have been characterized in the literature to date; however, little is known about their biological roles in the cell. Here we describe the identification of the novel regulatory small RNA, SrbA. This locus was up-regulated 45-fold in P...
2017: PloS One
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