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biofilm antibiotic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550056/biofilm-formation-potential-of-heat-resistant-escherichia-coli-dairy-isolates-and-complete-genome-of-mdr-heat-resistant-strain-fam21845
#1
Roger Marti, Michael Schmid, Sandra Kulli, Kerstin Schneeberger, Javorka Naskova, Susanne Knøchel, Christian H Ahrens, Jörg Hummerjohann
We tested the biofilm formation potential of 30 heat resistant and six heat sensitive E. coli dairy isolates. The production of curli and cellulose, static biofilm formation on polystyrene (PS) and stainless steel, formation of biofilm under dynamic conditions (Bioflux), and initial adhesion rates (IAR) were evaluated. Biofilm formation varied greatly between strains, media and assay. Our results highlight the importance of the experimental setup to determine biofilm formation under conditions of interest, as correlation between different assays was often not given...
May 26, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549926/comparison-of-biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-human-and-environmental-isolates
#2
Sayyad Gholami, Mohammad Tabatabaei, Nasrollah Sohrabi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen especially in patients with underlying diseases such as cyctic fibrosis and has been established as a model organism to study bacterial biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to compare the biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in human and environmental P. aeruginosa isolates. Numbers of positive samples for algD and algU genes in human samples were 98% and the positive samples for algD and algU genes in the environmental samples were 80% and 70%, respectively...
May 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543707/viable-bacteria-persist-on-antibiotic-spacers-following-two-stage-revision-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#3
Dongzhu Ma, Robert M Q Shanks, Charles M Davis, David W Craft, Thomas K Wood, Brian R Hamlin, Kenneth L Urish
Treatment in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains challenging. The failure rate of two-stage revision and irrigation and debridement with component retention in PJI suggests that biofilm cells have a high tolerance to antibiotic chemotherapy. Previous work has demonstrated that biofilm cells have high antibiotic tolerance in vitro, but there is little clinical evidence to support these observations. The aim of this study was to determine if retrieved antibiotic spacers from two-stage revision total knee arthroplasty for PJI have evidence of remaining viable bacteria...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543702/microencapsulation-of-rifampicin-a-technique-to-preserve-the-mechanical-properties-of-bone-cement
#4
P Sanz-Ruiz, E Carbó-Laso, J C Del Real-Romero, F Arán-Ais, Y Ballesteros-Iglesias, E Paz-Jiménez, M Sánchez-Navarro, M A Pérez-Limiñana, J Vaquero-Martín
Two-stage exchange with antibiotic-loaded bone cement spacers remains the gold standard for chronic periprosthetic joint infection(PJI). Rifampicin is highly efficient on stationary-phase staphylococci in biofilm; however, its addition to PMMA to manufacture spacers prevents polymerization and reduces mechanical properties. Isolation of rifampicin during polymerization by microencapsulation could allow manufacturing rifampicin-loaded bone cement maintaining elution and mechanical properties. Microcapsules of rifampicin with alginate, polyhydroxybutyratehydroxyvalerate (PHBV), ethylcellulose and stearic acid (SA) were synthesized...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541047/multitargeted-flavonoid-inhibition-of-the-pathogenic-bacterium-staphylococcus-aureus-a-proteomic-characterization
#5
Wael A Elmasri, Rui Zhu, Wenjing Peng, Moustafa Al-Hariri, Firas Kobeissy, Phat Tran, Abdul N Hamood, Mohamed F Hegazy, Paul W Paré, Yehia Mechref
Growth inhibition of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus with currently available antibiotics is problematic in part due to bacterial biofilm protection. Although recently characterized natural products, including 3',4',5-trihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-flavone [1], 3',4',5,6,7-pentahydroxy-flavone [2], and 5-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxy-flavone [3], exhibit both antibiotic and biofilm inhibitory activities, the mode of action of such hydroxylated flavonoids with respect to S. aureus inhibition is yet to be characterized...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540567/-the-significance-of-biofilm-for-the-treatment-of-infections-in-orthopedic-surgery-2017-update
#6
REVIEW
C Scheuermann-Poley, C Wagner, J Hoffmann, A Moter, C Willy
BACKGROUND: The increase in endoprosthetic and osteosynthetic surgical treatment is associated with a simultaneous increase in implant-associated infections (surgical site infections, SSI). Biofilms appear to play a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of these infections and heavily contaminated wounds. This article aims to provide a current overview of biofilm and its relevance in orthopedic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer-assisted literature search of MedLine (PubMed) was performed using key word combinations with "biofilm" (as of March 2017)...
May 24, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530888/genomic-relatedness-of-staphylococcus-pettenkoferi-isolates-of-different-origins
#7
Emeli Månsson, Bengt Hellmark, Marc Stegger, Paal Skytt Andersen, Martin Sundqvist, Bo Söderquist
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to characterize clinical and environmental Staphylococcus pettenkoferi isolates with regard to genomic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Repetitive-sequence-based PCR and core genome phylogenetic analysis of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data verified the presence of distinct clades comprising closely related S. pettenkoferi isolates from different geographical locations and origins. METHODOLOGY: Phylogenetic relationships between 25 S...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529865/hyaluronic-acid-and-its-composites-as-a-local-antimicrobial-antiadhesive-barrier
#8
REVIEW
C L Romanò, E De Vecchi, M Bortolin, I Morelli, L Drago
Living in biofilms is probably the most common condition for bacteria and fungi and biofilm-related infections account for the majority of bacterial infectious diseases worldwide. Among others biofilm-related infections, those associated with implanted biomaterials have an enormous and still largely underestimated impact in orthopaedics and trauma, cardio-surgery and several other surgical disciplines. Given the limited efficacy of existing antibiotics in the prevention and treatment of bacterial biofilms, new strategies are needed to protect implants and host tissues, overcoming the striking ability of the microorganisms to adhere on different surfaces and to immediately protect themselves by forming the biofilm matrix...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529864/allograft-bone-as-antibiotic-carrier
#9
REVIEW
Heinz Winkler, Peter Haiden
The treatment of chronic bone and joint infections is characterized by obstinate persistency of the causing microorganisms and resulting long term disability to patients, associated with remarkable costs for the health care system. Difficulties derive from biofilm formed on dead bone and eventual implants, with resistance against immunological defences and antimicrobial substances. Biofilm embedded bacteria require up to 1000 times the antibiotic concentration of planktonic bacteria for elimination. Systemic antibiotic treatment alone cannot provide the concentrations required and surgical intervention is always prerequisite for potentially providing a cure...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526864/a-broad-spectrum-bactericidal-lipopeptide-with-anti-biofilm-properties
#10
Ohad Meir, Fadia Zaknoon, Uri Cogan, Amram Mor
Previous studies of the oligoacyllysyl (OAK) series acyl-lysyl-lysyl-aminoacyl-lysine-amide, suggested their utility towards generating robust linear lipopeptide-like alternatives to antibiotics, although to date, none exhibited potent broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. To follow up on this premise, we produced a new analog (C14KKc12K) and investigated its properties in various media. Mechanistic studies suggest that C14KKc12K uses a non-specific membrane-disruptive mode of action for rapidly reducing viability of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) similarly to polymyxin B (PMB), a cyclic lipopeptide used as last resort antibiotic...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526271/an-in-vitro-urinary-catheterization-model-that-approximates-clinical-conditions-for-evaluation-of-innovations-to-prevent-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections
#11
R Y R Chua, K Lim, S S J Leong, P A Tambyah, B Ho
BACKGROUND: Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) account for about 25% of nosocomial infections globally and often result in increased morbidity and healthcare costs. An added concern is the presence of microbial biofilms which are major reservoirs of bacteria, especially antibiotic resistant bacteria, in catheters. Since the practice of the closed drainage system, innovations to combat CAUTI have not produced significant improvements in clinical outcomes. The lack of a robust laboratory platform to test new CAUTI preventive strategies may impede development of novel technologies...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525841/ll-37-derived-short-antimicrobial-peptide-kr-12-a5-and-its-d-amino-acid-substituted-analogs-with-cell-selectivity-anti-biofilm-activity-synergistic-effect-with-conventional-antibiotics-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#12
Eun Young Kim, Ganesan Rajasekaran, Song Yub Shin
KR-12-a5 is a 12-meric α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with dual antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities designed from human cathelicidin LL-37. We designed and synthesized a series of d-amino acid-substituted analogs of KR-12-a5 with the aim of developing novel α-helical AMPs that possess higher cell selectivity than KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity. d-amino acid incorporation into KR-12-a5 induced a significant improvement in the cell selectivity by 2.6- to 13.6-fold as compared to KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525325/epidemiology-of-intramammary-infections-with-staphylococcus-aureus-and-mastitis-streptococci-in-a-dairy-cattle-herd-with-a-history-of-recurrent-clinical-mastitis
#13
H Vlkova, V Babak, I Vrtkova, D Cervinkova, D Marosevic, M Moravkova, Z Jaglic
The aim of the present work was to examine a dairy herd with an anamnesis of recurrent clinical mastitis and decreased milk production. A total of 239 individual cow milk samples originating from asymptomatic cows were collected at four-month intervals and examined mainly for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and mastitis streptococci using standard cultivation methods. In total, 29.7% and 9.2% samples were positive for S. aureus and mastitis streptococci, respectively. Unlike for mastitis streptococci, the prevalence of animals positive for S...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524019/in-vitro-ability-of-mastitis-causing-pathogens-to-form-biofilms
#14
Sarah Schönborn, Nicole Wente, Jan-Hendrik Paduch, Volker Krömker
This Research Communication describes the study of in vitro biofilm formation of mastitis causing pathogens. Biofilms are communities of bacteria that are attached to a surface and to each other and are embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor that may result in recurrent or persistent udder infections and treatment failure through increased resistance to antibiotics and protection against host defences. In the present study 252 bacterial isolates from milk samples from bovine udder quarters with intramammary infections were examined with Congo Red agar (CRA) method and tube method (TM) for their ability to form biofilms...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521511/effects-of-adaptation-to-carvacrol-on-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-planktonic-and-biofilm-phases
#15
Antonia Nostro, Andreana Marino, Giovanna Ginestra, Luigina Cellini, Mara Di Giulio, Giuseppe Bisignano
The effect of exposure to sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of carvacrol, for either 3-10 days, on direct (carvacrol) or cross-protection (cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, antibiotics) and the influence on planktonic and biofilm growth of four Staphylococcus aureus strains were reported. The sequential exposure to carvacrol resulted in a direct protection that was more evident in two of the four strains after 10 days. No significant cross-protection against cinnamaldehyde, eugenol and antibiotics was detected...
May 18, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520517/nanoantibiotics-a-new-paradigm-for-the-treatment-of-surgical-infection
#16
Joseph S Fernandez-Moure, Michael Evangelopoulos, Kayla Colvill, Jeffrey L Van Eps, Ennio Tasciotti
Infections following orthopedic device implantations often impose a substantial health burden and result in high medical costs. Currently, preventative methods are often employed following an orthopedic implant to reduce risk of infection; however, contamination of the surgical site can still occur. Although antibiotics have demonstrated a substantial reduction in bacterial growth and maintenance, biofilm formation around the implant can often minimize efficacy of the antibiotic. Recently, nanotechnology has garnered significant interest, resulting in the development of several antibiotic delivery strategies that exhibit extended release and increased efficacy...
May 18, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518116/the-wincf-model-an-inexpensive-and-tractable-microcosm-of-a-mucus-plugged-bronchiole-to-study-the-microbiology-of-lung-infections
#17
William J Comstock, Edwin Huh, Reiley Weekes, Connor Watson, Tianyang Xu, Pieter C Dorrestein, Robert A Quinn
Many chronic airway diseases result in mucus plugging of the airways. Lungs of an individual with cystic fibrosis are an exemplary case where their mucus-plugged bronchioles create a favorable habitat for microbial colonization. Various pathogens thrive in this environment interacting with each other and driving many of the symptoms associated with CF disease. Like any microbial community, the chemical conditions of their habitat have a significant impact on the community structure and dynamics. For example, different microorganisms thrive in differing levels of oxygen or other solute concentrations...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514373/-acute-otitis-media-in-the-children-etiology-and-the-problems-of-antibacterial-therapy
#18
I N Protasova, O V Per'yanova, T S Podgrushnaya
The objective of the present review was to summarize the currently available literature data on etiology of acute otitis media in the children, the role of biofilms in the development of this pathology, and sensitivity of its principal causative factors to various antibiotic medications. The secondary objective was to elaborate the practical guidelines for the prevention of acute otitis media in the children.
2017: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514306/unusual-case-of-rapid-growing-intraabdominal-abscess-caused-by-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-after-laparoscopic-appendectomy-due-to-perforated-appendicitis-a-case-report
#19
Dae Ro Lim, Jung Cheol Kuk, Taehyung Kim, Eung Jin Shin
INTRODUCTION: An intraabdominal abscess due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S maltophilia) infection is a very rare clinical manifestation. S maltophilia is a glucose nonfermentative, aerobic, gram-negative, mobile, and biofilm-forming bacterium. It is an opportunistic pathogen and uncommon cause of infection. Respiratory tract infections (pneumonia) and bloodstream infections (bacteremia) are the most common clinical manifestations of S maltophilia infection. CONCLUSIONS: This case report describes an unusual case of a rapidly growing, extremely large intraabdominal abscess (within 1 week during antibiotic therapy), which was detected 2 weeks after a laparoscopic appendectomy was performed for perforated appendicitis and was caused by multidrug-resistant S maltophilia infection...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513576/biofilm-is-a-major-virulence-determinant-in-bacterial-colonization-of-chronic-skin-ulcers-independently-from-the-multidrug-resistant-phenotype
#20
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Farulla, Grazia Prignano, Maria Teresa Gallo, Matteo Vespaziani, Ilaria Cavallo, Isabella Sperduti, Martina Pontone, Valentina Bordignon, Laura Cilli, Alessandra De Santis, Fabiola Di Salvo, Fulvia Pimpinelli, Ilaria Lesnoni La Parola, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Bacterial biofilm is a major factor in delayed wound healing and high levels of biofilm production have been repeatedly described in multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs). Nevertheless, a quantitative correlation between biofilm production and the profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in delayed wound healing remains to be determined. Microbial identification, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production were assessed in 135 clinical isolates from 87 patients. Gram-negative bacteria were the most represented microorganisms (60...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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