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biofilm antibiotic

Olivier Poupel, Caroline Proux, Bernd Jagla, Tarek Msadek, Sarah Dubrac
The success of Staphylococcus aureus, as both a human and animal pathogen, stems from its ability to rapidly adapt to a wide spectrum of environmental conditions. Two-component systems (TCSs) play a crucial role in this process. Here, we describe a novel staphylococcal virulence factor, SpdC, an Abi-domain protein, involved in signal sensing and/or transduction. We have uncovered a functional link between the WalKR essential TCS and the SpdC Abi membrane protein. Expression of spdC is positively regulated by the WalKR system and, in turn, SpdC negatively controls WalKR regulon genes, effectively constituting a negative feedback loop...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Leron Khalifa, Daniel Gelman, Mor Shlezinger, Axel Lionel Dessal, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
The deteriorating effectiveness of antibiotics is propelling researchers worldwide towards alternative techniques such as phage therapy: curing infectious diseases using viruses of bacteria called bacteriophages. In a previous paper, we isolated phage EFDG1, highly effective against both planktonic and biofilm cultures of one of the most challenging pathogenic species, the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Thus, it is a promising phage to be used in phage therapy. Further experimentation revealed the emergence of a mutant resistant to EFDG1 phage: EFDG1r ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Md Asaduzzaman Shishir, Md Al Mamun, Md Mahmuduzzaman Mian, Umme Tamanna Ferdous, Noor Jahan Akter, Rajia Sultana Suravi, Suvamoy Datta, Md Ehsanul Kabir
The scarcity of hygienic drinking water is a normal phenomenon in the coastal areas of Bangladesh due to the high salinity of ground water. The inhabitants of this locality, therefore, live on alternative supplies of water including rain-fed pond water, and rainwater with persistent complex microbial interactions therein, often contaminated with life-threatening pathogens. Hence, this study was aimed at analyzing the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae ( Vc ) in the alternative drinking waters of Mathbaria, a coastal subdistrict neighboring the Bay of Bengal, the efficacy of pond sand filter (PSF) and the co-association among Bacillus -like spore formers (Sf) and Vc ...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Ki Bum Ahn, Jung Eun Baik, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
A biofilm is an aggregate of microorganisms in which cells adhere to biological or non-biological surfaces and is responsible for various infectious diseases. Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus , including pneumonia, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis, are often associated with colonization and biofilm formation. Although lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is involved in biofilm formation, the specific role of LTA is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that LTA released from Lactobacillus plantarum could inhibit S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Morgan Petrovich, Binh Chu, Dorothy Wright, Jim Griffin, Maryam Elfeki, Brian T Murphy, Rachel Poretsky, George Wells
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are known to harbor antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that are disseminated into the environment via effluent. However, few studies have compared abundance, mobilization, and selective pressures for ARGs in WWTPs as a function of variations in secondary treatment bioprocesses. We used shotgun metagenomics to provide a comprehensive analysis of ARG composition, relationship to mobile genetic elements, and co-occurrences with antibiotic production genes (APGs) throughout two full-scale municipal WWTPs, one of which employs biofilm-based secondary treatment and another that uses a suspended growth system...
March 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Anne Diehl, Yvette Roske, Linda Ball, Anup Chowdhury, Matthias Hiller, Noel Molière, Regina Kramer, Daniel Stöppler, Catherine L Worth, Brigitte Schlegel, Martina Leidert, Nils Cremer, Natalja Erdmann, Daniel Lopez, Heike Stephanowitz, Eberhard Krause, Barth-Jan van Rossum, Peter Schmieder, Udo Heinemann, Kürşad Turgay, Ümit Akbey, Hartmut Oschkinat
Microorganisms form surface-attached communities, termed biofilms, which can serve as protection against host immune reactions or antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis biofilms contain TasA as major proteinaceous component in addition to exopolysaccharides. In stark contrast to the initially unfolded biofilm proteins of other bacteria, TasA is a soluble, stably folded monomer, whose structure we have determined by X-ray crystallography. Subsequently, we characterized in vitro different oligomeric forms of TasA by NMR, EM, X-ray diffraction, and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) experiments...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
(no author information available yet)
Chris S Earl, Teh Wooi Keong, Shi-qi An, Sarah Murdoch, Yvonne McCarthy, Junkal Garmendia, Joseph Ward, J Maxwell Dow, Liang Yang, George A O'Toole & Robert P RyanThe above article, published May 20 2015 in EMBO Molecular Medicine , has been retracted by agreement between the authors of the study, CSE, TWK, SQA, SM, YMcC, JG, JW, JMD, LY, RPR, the journal Chief Editor and the EMBO Head of Scientific Publications in accordance with the outcomes of independent investigations conducted by the University of Dundee and University College Cork...
March 12, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Brice Felden, Vincent Cattoir
The extensive use of antibiotics has resulted in a situation where multidrug-resistant pathogens have become a severe menace to human health worldwide. A deeper understanding of the principles used by pathogens to adapt, respond and resist against antibiotics will pave the road to drugs with novel mechanisms. For bacteria, antibiotics are clinically-relevant stresses that induce protective responses. The recent implication of regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) into antibiotic response and resistance in many bacterial pathogens suggests that they should be considered as innovative drug targets...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jin-Wei Zhou, Tong-Tong Chen, Xiao-Juan Tan, Ji-Yang Sheng, Ai-Qun Jia
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a serious disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and is difficult to cure due to biofilm persistence and emerging multidrug resistance. Considering the essential role of quorum sensing (QS) in P. aeruginosa infections, the enhanced effects between quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) resveratrol and several antibiotics against P. aeruginosa PAO1 were investigated. Crystal violet staining assay revealed that the biofilms of P. aeruginosa PAO1 grown in the presence of resveratrol were more susceptible to aminoglycoside antibiotics...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Syed Hidayathulla, Abdelaaty A Shahat, Mansour S Alsaid, Abdullah A Al-Mishari
The present study investigates the optimization of tannase production from A. nidulans for various physicochemical parameters and harvests tannase for its chemical characterization. The maximum tannase activity was observed on the third day of incubation at 35°C and the stability was observed at pH 5.5 to 6.0 by holding its 100% activity. The tannase was partially purified from A. nidulans [FT10] by ammonium sulfate precipitation at different concentrations and it was found that at 80% of ammonium sulfate concentration, the precipitate exhibited the maximum activity for tannase of 96 U/ml...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Jobina Rajkumari, Subhomoi Borkotoky, Ayaluru Murali, Kitlangki Suchiang, Saswat Kumar Mohanty, Siddhardha Busi
The production of virulence determinants and biofilm formation in numerous pathogens is regulated by the cell-density-dependent phenomenon, Quorum sensing (QS). The QS system in multidrug resistant opportunistic pathogen, P. aeruginosa constitutes of three main regulatory circuits namely Las, Rhl, and Pqs which are closely linked to its pathogenicity and establishment of chronic infections. In spite intensive antibiotic therapy, P. aeruginosa continue to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and also the major cause of mortality in Cystic Fibrosis patients with 80% of the adults suffering from chronic P...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Manmohit Kalia, Vivek Kumar Yadav, Pradeep Kumar Singh, Deepmala Sharma, Shahid Suhail Narvi, Vishnu Agarwal
AIMS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known pathogen responsible for various infections due to its capability to develop biofilm and various virulent phenotypes that are regulated by quorum sensing. Pathogenesis of the bacteria may be halted by interfering with the signaling molecules and the quorum sensing receptors. Therefore, the present study explores the potential of parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone of feverfew plant, as a promising candidate against P. aeruginosa PAO1 associated virulence factors and biofilm...
March 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Kathryn A Patras, Victor Nizet
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonizes the gastrointestinal and vaginal epithelium of a significant percentage of healthy women, with potential for ascending intrauterine infection or transmission during parturition, creating a risk of serious disease in the vulnerable newborn. This review highlights new insights on the bacterial virulence determinants, host immune responses, and microbiome interactions that underpin GBS vaginal colonization, the proximal step in newborn infectious disease pathogenesis. From the pathogen perspective, the function GBS adhesins and biofilms, β-hemolysin/cytolysin toxin, immune resistance factors, sialic acid mimicry, and two-component transcriptional regulatory systems are reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Li-Av Segev-Zarko, Gal Kapach, Michaele Josten, Yoel Alexander Klug, Hans-Georg Sahl, Yechiel Shai
Multidrug resistant bacteria possess various mechanisms that can sense environmental stresses such as antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides, and rapidly respond to defend themselves. Two known defense strategies are biofilm formation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) modification. Though LPS modifications are observed in biofilm embedded bacteria, their effect on biofilm formation is unknown. Using biochemical and biophysical methods coupled with confocal, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we show that biofilm formation is promoted in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 strain with a loss of function mutation in the arnB gene...
March 8, 2018: Biochemistry
Sara H Mohamed, Mahmoud S M Mohamed, Mary S Khalil, Magda Azmy, Mona I Mabrouk
AIM: This study aimed to test biofilm inhibition activities of each of essential oils (EOs), main compounds of EOs and enzymes against pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae METHODS AND RESULTS: Effect of seven EOs and three enzymes was tested on formation and eradication of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm. Peppermint oil showed robust biofilm inhibitory effect, causing inhibition ranged from 69.2-98.2% at 5 μl ml-1 . Thyme oil was found to have the best biofilm-eradication ability, causing eradication ranged from 80...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Zita M Jessop, Matthew Welck, Emily Zinser, Nicholas Garlick, Susan Hopkins
Introduction: Dermal fillers are used for multiple cosmetic indications including gluteal and thigh augmentation. Complications, although infrequent, are increasing due to the dramatic growth of dermal filler use. Our aim was to describe how the complication of infected silicone granulomas can present following lower limb augmentation. Methods: Two cases presented with pain, oedema, and erythema at the site of previous silicone filler injection, following a considerable delay after the last injection (range 4-7 years)...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders
Yongjin Liu, Steven Kyle, Paul D Straight
Competitive interactions between bacteria reveal physiological adaptations that benefit fitness. Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive species with several adaptive mechanisms for competition and environmental stress. Biofilm formation, sporulation, and motility are the outcomes of widespread changes in a population of B. subtilis . These changes emerge from complex, regulated pathways for adapting to external stresses, including competition from other species. To identify competition-specific functions, we cultured B...
January 2018: MSphere
Lara Thieme, Mareike Klinger-Strobel, Anita Hartung, Claudia Stein, Oliwia Makarewicz, Mathias W Pletz
Background: Enterococci frequently cause severe biofilm-associated infections such as endocarditis. The combination of ampicillin/ceftriaxone has recently been clinically evaluated as non-inferior compared with the standard therapy of ampicillin/gentamicin for treatment of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis. Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Objectives: To compare the in vitro effectiveness of the ceftaroline/ampicillin combination with those of gentamicin/ampicillin and ceftriaxone/ampicillin in planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical E...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ilyas Alav, J Mark Sutton, Khondaker Miraz Rahman
Efflux pumps are widely implicated in antibiotic resistance because they can extrude the majority of clinically relevant antibiotics from within cells to the extracellular environment. However, there is increasing evidence from many studies to suggest that the pumps also play a role in biofilm formation. These studies have involved investigating the effects of efflux pump gene mutagenesis and efflux pump inhibitors on biofilm formation, and measuring the levels of efflux pump gene expression in biofilms. In particular, several key pathogenic species associated with increasing multidrug resistance, such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, have been investigated, whilst other studies have focused on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as a model organism and problematic pathogen...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
N R Efimochkina, V V Stetsenko, I V Bykova, Yu M Markova, A S Polyanina, A I Aleshkina, S A Sheveleva
Specific features for the development of resistance in Campylobacter jejuni strains were studied after treatment with antibiotics of 6 pharmacological groups. Populations of 18 native strains of C. jejuni (isolated from raw poultry products) and their subcultures (obtained after 2-3-fold stress exposures to antimicrobial agents in subinhibitory doses) were examined to evaluate the expression of phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Genotypic properties of strains were studied by the PCR with primers that detect the presence of genes for resistance to aminoglycosides (aphA-1, aphA-3, and aphA-7), tetracyclines (tetO), and quinolones (GZgyrA)...
March 5, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
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