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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646746/variable-spontaneous-mutation-rate-in-clinical-strains-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-a-hypermutator-strain
#1
Morteza Karami-Zarandi, Masoumeh Douraghi, Behrouz Vaziri, Habibeh Adibhesami, Mohammad Rahbar, Mehdi Yaseri
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii within hospitals poses a significant threat to patients. The inherent rate of mutation of these strains has not been described nor has the mechanism by which drug resistance arises. METHODS: Here, we determined the spontaneous mutation rates in 93 clinical strains of A. baumannii using fluctuation analysis. To rule out the clonal relatedness of hypermutator strains, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted...
June 8, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646205/comparative-nanouplc-ms-e-analysis-between-magainin-i-susceptible-and-resistant-escherichia-coli-strains
#2
Marlon H Cardoso, Keyla C de Almeida, Elizabete de S Cândido, André M Murad, Simoni C Dias, Octávio L Franco
In recent years the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been prospected and designed as new alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Indeed, AMPs have presented great potential toward pathogenic bacterial strains by means of complex mechanisms of action. However, reports have increasingly emerged regarding the mechanisms by which bacteria resist AMP administration. In this context, we performed a comparative proteomic study by using the total bacterial lysate of magainin I-susceptible and -resistant E. coli strains...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644529/reciprocal-cooperation-of-phytochemicals-and-micronutrients-against-typical-and-atypical-forms-of-borrelia-spp
#3
Anna Goc, Alexandra Niedzwiecki, Matthias Rath
AIMS: Borrelia spp., a causative pathogenic factor of Lyme disease, has become a major public health threat. Current treatments based on antibiotics often lead to relapse after their withdrawal. Naturally derived substances that could work synergistically to display higher efficacy compared to the individual components may serve as a resource for the development of novel approaches to combat both active and latent forms of Borrelia spp. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using checkerboard assay, we investigated the anti-borreliae reciprocal cooperation of phytochemicals and micronutrients against two species of Borrelia selected as prevalent causes of Lyme disease in the US and Europe...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643098/-importance-of-wound-irrigation-solutions-and-fluids-with-antiseptic-effects-in-therapy-and-prophylaxis-update-2017
#4
REVIEW
Christian Willy, Catharina Scheuermann-Poley, Marcus Stichling, Thomas von Stein, Axel Kramer
INTRODUCTION: Despite the use of modern antibiotics as well as complex perioperative, intraoperative and postoperative prophylactic measures, the rate of surgical site infections (SSI) could not be significantly reduced. The introduction of biocompatible antiseptic drugs with a high microbiocidal effect provided a successful alternative for infection prevention and therapy, particularly in a time of increasing occurrence of multi-drug resistant pathogens. Hence, questions about the risk-benefit ratio of antiseptic wound irrigation solutions, the prophylactic use of wound irrigation solutions for the reduction of SSI and the effect of negative pressure wound therapy combined with instillation (NPWTi) need to be answered...
June 22, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643095/-local-antibiotic-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Klaus-Dieter Kühn, Nora Renz, Andrej Trampuz
The treatment of superficial wound infections with local antibiotics is considered to be problematic as it is accompanied by an increased risk of resistance development and ineffectiveness in deeper regions. On the contrary, the local application of antibiotics is useful in arthroplasty and necessary if implants are utilized. The reason for this is the prevention of a rapid biofilm formation on foreign implants and a resulting infection may remain undiscovered until it becomes chronic. Apart from exogenous material, necrotic tissue (e...
June 22, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642736/identification-of-an-efflux-transporter-lmrb-regulating-stress-response-and-extracellular-polysaccharide-synthesis-in-streptococcus-mutans
#6
Jia Liu, Lihong Guo, Jianwei Liu, Jianying Zhang, Huihui Zeng, Yang Ning, Xi Wei
Efflux transporters have been implicated in regulating bacterial virulence properties such as resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation and colonization. The pathogenicity of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, relies on the bacterium's ability to form biofilms on tooth surface. However, the studies on efflux transporters in S. mutans are scare and the function of these transporters remained to be clarified. In this study, we identified an efflux transporter (LmrB) in S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638805/increased-zinc-availability-enhances-initial-aggregation-and-biofilm-formation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#7
Lindsey R Brown, Rachel C Caulkins, Tyler E Schartel, Jason W Rosch, Erin S Honsa, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Victoria A Meliopoulos, Sean Cherry, Justin A Thornton
Bacteria growing within biofilms are protected from antibiotics and the immune system. Within these structures, horizontal transfer of genes encoding virulence factors, and promoting antibiotic resistance occurs, making biofilms an extremely important aspect of pneumococcal colonization and persistence. Identifying environmental cues that contribute to the formation of biofilms is critical to understanding pneumococcal colonization and infection. Iron has been shown to be essential for the formation of pneumococcal biofilms; however, the role of other physiologically important metals such as copper, zinc, and manganese has been largely neglected...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638106/protective-efficacy-of-the-trivalent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-vaccine-candidate-pcrv-opri-hcp1-in-murine-pneumonia-and-burn-models
#8
Feng Yang, Jiang Gu, Liuyang Yang, Chen Gao, Haiming Jing, Ying Wang, Hao Zeng, Quanming Zou, Fenglin Lv, Jinyong Zhang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a formidable pathogen that is responsible for a diverse spectrum of human infectious diseases, resulting in considerable annual mortality rates. Because of biofilm formation and its ability of rapidly acquires of resistance to many antibiotics, P. aeruginosa related infections are difficult to treat, and therefore, developing an effective vaccine is the most promising method for combating infection. In the present study, we designed a novel trivalent vaccine, PcrV28-294-OprI25-83-Hcp11-162 (POH), and evaluated its protective efficacy in murine pneumonia and burn models...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634237/the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-psl-polysaccharide-is-a-social-but-noncheatable-trait-in-biofilms
#9
Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E L Roberts, Kasper N Kragh, Vernita D Gordon, Jaime Hutchison, Rosalind J Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A West, Stephen P Diggle
Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides population-level benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic tolerance; (iii) the benefits of PSL production are social and are shared with other cells; (iv) the benefits of PSL production appear to be preferentially directed toward cells which produce PSL; (v) cells which do not produce PSL are unable to successfully exploit cells which produce PSL...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631399/into-the-storm-chasing-the-opportunistic-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus-from-skin-colonisation-to-life-threatening-infections
#10
James P O'Gara
Colonisation of the human skin by Staphylococcus aureus is a precursor for a variety of infections ranging from boils to sepsis and pneumonia. The rapid emergence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) following the clinical introduction of this antimicrobial drug and reports of resistance to all currently used anti-staphylococcal drugs has added to its formidable reputation. S. aureus survival on the skin and in vivo virulence is underpinned by a remarkable environmental adaptability, made possible by highly orchestrated regulation of gene expression and a capacity to undertake genome remodelling...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630748/treatment-of-chronic-orthopaedic-infection
#11
Heinz Winkler
Chronic infections are one of the major challenges in orthopaedic surgery, both for surgeons and patients. They are characterised by obstinate persistency of the causing microorganisms and resulting long-term disablement of the patients, associated with remarkable costs for the health care system.Difficulties derive from the biofilm-mode of living of pathogens with resistances against immunological defence and antimicrobial substances, and osseous defects resulting from the disease itself and surgical interventions...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630204/a-low-molecular-weight-alginate-oligosaccharide-disrupts-pseudomonal-microcolony-formation-and-enhances-antibiotic-effectiveness
#12
Manon F Pritchard, Lydia C Powell, Alison A Jack, Kate Powell, Konrad Beck, Hannah Florance, Julian Forton, Philip D Rye, Arne Dessen, Katja E Hill, David W Thomas
In chronic respiratory disease the formation of dense, 3-dimensional 'micro colonies' by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the airway plays an important role in contributing to resistance to treatment. An in vitro biofilm model of pseudomonal microcolony formation using artificial sputum (AS) medium was established to study the effects of low molecular weight alginate oligomers (OligoG CF-5/20) on pseudomonal growth, microcolony formation and the efficacy of colistin. The studies employed clinical cystic fibrosis (CF) isolates (n=3) and reference non-mucoid and mucoid multi-drug resistant (MDR) CF isolates (n=7)...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629757/bacterial-biofilm-based-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-causative-pathogens-and-antibiotic-resistance
#13
Nargis Sabir, Aamer Ikram, Gohar Zaman, Luqman Satti, Adeel Gardezi, Abeera Ahmed, Parvez Ahmed
BACKGROUND: We sought to determine the incidence of bacterial biofilm-based catheter-associated urinary tract infections, identify variables affecting biofilm formation, and identify etiologic bacterial pathogens and antibiotic-resistance patterns associated with biofilm-based catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in our setup. METHODS: Patients who developed at least 2 symptoms of urinary tract infection after at least 2 days of indwelling urinary catheters were included...
June 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628310/furoxan-nitric-oxide-donors-disperse-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilms-accelerate-growth-and-repress-pyoverdine-production
#14
Wee Han Poh, Nicolas Barraud, Stefano Guglielmo, Loretta Lazzarato, Barbara Rolando, Roberta Fruttero, Scott A Rice
The use of nitric oxide (NO) as a signal for biofilm dispersal has been shown to increase the susceptibility of many biofilms to antibiotics, promoting their eradication. The delivery of NO to biofilms can be achieved by using NO-donors with different kinetics and properties of NO release that can influence their efficacy as biofilm control agents. In this study, the kinetics of three furoxan-derivatives were evaluated. The effects of these NO-donors, which have an advantageous pharmacological profile of slower onset with an extended duration of action, on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, biofilm development and dispersal were also characterized...
June 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624904/the-effect-of-light-on-bacterial-activity-in-a-seaweed-holobiont
#15
Sergio A Coelho-Souza, Stuart R Jenkins, Antonio Casarin, Maria Helena Baeta-Neves, Leonardo T Salgado, Jean R D Guimaraes, Ricardo Coutinho
Holobionts are characterized by the relationship between host and their associated organisms such as the biofilm associated with macroalgae. Considering that light is essential to macroalgae survival, the aim of this study was to verify the effect of light on the heterotrophic activity in biofilms of the brown macroalgae Sargassum furcatum during its growth cycle. Measurements of heterotrophic activity were done under natural light levels at different times during a daily cycle and under an artificial extinction of natural light during the afternoon...
June 17, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622385/effect-of-acute-predation-with-bacteriophage-on-intermicrobial-aggression-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
Patrick R Secor, Gabriele Sass, Hasan Nazik, David A Stevens
In persons with structural lung disease, particularly those with cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic airway infections cause progressive loss of lung function. CF airways can be colonized by a variety of microorganisms; the most frequently encountered bacterial and fungal pathogens are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. Co-infection with P. aeruginosa and A. fumigatus often results in a more rapid loss of lung function, indicating that interactions between these pathogens affect infection pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621579/optimization-of-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-in-biofilms-by-inhibiting-efflux-pump
#17
Tatiana Maria Starck Fogaça de Aguiar Coletti, Laura Marise de Freitas, Ana Marisa Fusco Almeida, Carla Raquel Fontana
BACKGROUND: One of the main mechanisms of microbial resistance is given by efflux pumps, which reduce the effectiveness of antimicrobials by decreasing their intracellular concentration. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Considering that efflux pump inhibitors are promising adjuvant molecules for antibiotics in infections, in this study, using XTT test and colony forming unit (CFU) counting, we evaluated the association between the pump inhibitor verapamil (VP) and the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by methylene blue (MB) in biofilms of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to optimize the bacterial reduction...
June 15, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619145/thymol-kills-bacteria-reduces-biofilm-formation-and-protects-mice-against-a-fatal-infection-of-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-strain-l20
#18
Lei Wang, Xueqin Zhao, Chunling Zhu, Xiaojing Xia, Wanhai Qin, Mei Li, Tongzhao Wang, Shijun Chen, Yanzhao Xu, Bolin Hang, Yawei Sun, Jinqing Jiang, Langford Paul Richard, Liancheng Lei, Gaiping Zhang, Jianhe Hu
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of the highly contagious and deadly respiratory infection porcine pleuropneumonia, resulting in serious losses to the pig industry worldwide. Alternative to antibiotics are urgently needed due to the serious increase in antimicrobial resistance. Thymol is a monoterpene phenol and efficiently kills a variety of bacteria. This study found that thymol has strong bactericidal effects on the A. pleuropneumoniae 5b serotype strain, an epidemic strain in China...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618136/amphiphilic-cargo-loaded-nanocarrier-enhances-antibiotic-uptake-and-perturbs-efflux-effective-synergy-for-mitigation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Durairaj Thiyagarajan, Gopal Das, Ramesh Aiyagari
A pyridinium amphiphile-loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanocarrier (C1-PNC) was developed as an adjuvant in order to break the resistance and restore susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) cells to therapeutic antibiotics. Notably, against a clinical MRSA strain, C1-PNC could render 8 × and 6 × reduction of the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC90) of gentamicin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Mechanistic studies on MRSA planktonic cells revealed that in case of gentamicin, C1-PNC promoted enhanced cellular uptake of the antibiotic, while the propensity of C1-PNC to inhibit efflux pump activity could be leveraged to enhance cellular accumulation of ciprofloxacin leading to effective killing of MRSA cells...
June 15, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616631/the-effect-of-emodin-on-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-in-planktonic-form-and-biofilm-formation-in-vitro
#20
Xin Yan, Shanshan Gu, Yunjia Shi, Xingyang Cui, Shanshan Wen, Junwei Ge
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a Gram-positive pathogen and forms biofilm easily. Bacteria inside biofilms display an increased resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. The objective of the current study was to assess the antimicrobial activities of emodin, 1,2,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, an anthraquinone derivative isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum and Rheum palmatum, against S. aureus CMCC26003 grown in planktonic and biofilm cultures in vitro. In addition, a possible synergistic effect between emodin and berberine chloride was evaluated...
June 14, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
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